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chapter 13 - Learning Objectives Define interpersonal...

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Learning Objectives Define interpersonal conflict and review its causes in organizations. Explain the types of conflict and the process by which conflict occurs. Discuss the various modes of managing conflict . Review a range of negotiation techniques . Discuss the merits of stimulating conflict . Distinguish among stressors , stress , and stress reactions . Discuss the role that personality plays in stress. Review the sources of stress encountered by various organizational role occupants. Describe behavioural , psychological , and physiological reactions to stress and discuss techniques for managing stress. What is Conflict? Interpersonal conflict is a process that occurs when one person, group, or organizational subunit frustrates the goal attainment of another. Conflict often involves antagonistic attitudes and behaviours. Causes of Organizational Conflict Group Identification and Intergroup Bias The identification with a particular group or class of people. People develop a more positive view of their own “in-group.” 
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Self-esteem is a critical factor. Independence When individuals or subunits are mutually dependent on each other to  accomplish  their own  goals. It necessitates interaction and implies that each party has some  power  over the other. Interdependence does not  always  lead to conflict. Differences in Power, Status, and Culture Power     : If dependence is not mutual, but one way. Status     : Status differences provide little impetus for conflict when  people of lower status are dependent on those of higher status. Culture     : When two or more very different cultures develop in an  organization, the clash in beliefs and values can result in overt  conflict. Ambiguity Ambiguous goals, jurisdictions, or performance criteria can lead to  conflict. Scarce resources Conflict often surfaces in the process of power jockeying. Limited budget money, secretarial support, or lab space can  contribute to conflict.
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Types of Conflict Is all conflict the same? It is useful to distinguish among three types of conflict: Relationship conflict Task conflict Process conflict Relationship Conflict Relationship conflict concerns interpersonal tensions among individuals that have to do with their relationship per se, not the task at hand. Personality clashes are examples of relationship conflicts. Task Conflict Task conflict concerns disagreements about the nature of work to be done. Differences of opinion about goals or technical matters are examples of task conflict.
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