chapter 16 - Learning Objectives Explain the environmental...

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Learning Objectives Explain the environmental forces that motivate organizational change and describe the factors that organizations can change. Explain how organizations learn and what makes an organization a learning organization . Describe the basic change process and the issues that require attention at various stages of change. Explain how organizations can deal with resistance to change . Define organizational development and discuss its general philosophy. Discuss team building , survey feedback , total quality management , and reengineering as organizational development efforts. Discuss the problems involved in evaluating organizational development efforts. Define innovation and discuss the factors that contribute to successful organizational innovation. Understand the factors that help and hurt the diffusion of innovations. The Concept of Organizational Change Organizational changes can have a profound impact on organizational members and customers. The way that changes are implemented and managed is crucial to both organizational members and customers. Why must organizations change? Why Organizations Must Change
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All organizations face two basic sources of pressure to change: External sources and internal sources Changes in the external and internal environment stimulate organizational change. Change entails some investment of resources and almost always requires some modification of routines and processes. The internal and external environments of various organizations will be more or less dynamic. As a result, organizations will differ in the amount of change they display. Change and Organizational Effectiveness Organizations in a dynamic environment must generally show more change to be effective than those operating in a more stable environment. Change in and of itself is not a good thing, and organizations can exhibit too much change as well as too little. What Organizations Can Change Goals and strategies Technology Job design Structure Processes Culture
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People Two important points about the areas that organizations can change: Change in one area very often calls for changes in other areas. Change in most areas require serious attention be given to people  changes. Necessary skills and favourable attitudes should be fostered before other changes are introduced. The Change Process Change involves a sequence of organizational events or a psychological process that occurs over time. This sequence or process involves three basic stages: Unfreezing Changing Refreezing Unfreezing The recognition that some current state of affairs is unsatisfactory. Crises are especially likely to stimulate unfreezing.
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chapter 16 - Learning Objectives Explain the environmental...

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