1 Chemistry of Life

1 Chemistry of Life - Chemistry of Life Lifes molecular...

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Chemistry of Life
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z Life’s molecular diversity is based on the properties of carbon . z Almost all the molecules of a cell are composed of carbon atoms bond to one to another and to atom to other element. z Carbon-based molecules are called organic compounds . z A carbon atom can form four covalent bonds , allowing it to build large and diverse organic compounds
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Methane one of the simplest organic molecules. Structural formula Ball-and-stick model Space-filling model Methane The 4 single bonds of carbon point to the corners of a tetrahedron.
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Carbon chains vary in many ways. Hydrocarbons are composed of hydrogen and carbon. Isomer: molecules with the same molecular formula but different structures.
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Polar covalent bond: unequal sharing of electrons Water is the solvent of Life! Solute – substance dissolved in a solvent to form a solution Solvent – fluid that dissolves solutes Properties: - High Heat Capacity - High Heat of Vaporization -Adhes ion -Cohes ion
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Acids and Bases Strength compared using pH scale Ranges from 0 – 14 Logarithmic Scale Acid – donates H+ to the solution Ranges from pH 0 - 6.9 Base – removes H+ from the solution by donating OH- Ranges from pH 7.1 – 14 Distilled water is pH 7.0 or neutral. Why?
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Acids and Bases Buffers – compounds used to maintain a constant pH within a system H 2 CO 3 H + + HCO 3 - carbonic acid bicarbonate ion
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Functional groups determine the properties of organic compounds Estradiol Testosterone HO O Hydroxyl group Carbonyl group
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Cells make a huge number of large molecules from a small set of small molecules The four main classes of biological molecules are: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids Many of the molecules are gigantic and are called macromolecules Monomer Amino acids (20) Monosaccharide Nucleotides (ATCG) Proteins (30,000) Polysaccharide DNA (3x10 9 bp) Polymer
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This note was uploaded on 03/12/2012 for the course BIOL 0126 taught by Professor Wux. during the Winter '11 term at HKU.

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1 Chemistry of Life - Chemistry of Life Lifes molecular...

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