4 CANCER

4 CANCER - CANCER BIOLOGY What is cancer? Cancer involves...

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CANCER BIOLOGY
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What is cancer?
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Cancer involves out-of-control growth and spread of abnormal cells.
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Benign: non-cancerous, confined, not life-threatening Malignant: invasive, can be life-threatening
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Classification SITE OF ORIGIN (lung, breast, colon etc.) CELL TYPE “-oma” Carcin oma : epithelial cell derived (90%) Sarc oma : connective tissues (rare) Leukemia / Lymph oma : blood and lymph (8%)
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Cancer Invasion and Metastasis
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Metastatic pattern varies with tumor type. Most common metastatic sites: liver, lung, bone, lymph nodes.
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Staging Stage I: in situ Stage II: local Stage III: regional Stage IV: distant
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Risk Factors Carcinogens e.g. asbestos, Smoking, alcohol Ionizing Radiation and UV light e.g. X-rays, sunlight Virus hepatitis B virus hepatitis B virus - liver, liver, human human papilloma papilloma virus virus - cervical, cervical, Epstein Epstein -Barr virus Barr virus - Nasopharyngeal Nasopharyngeal Family History
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Diagnosis Physical changes (e.g. breast, skin, uterine cervical) Cancer markers (e.g. ovarian - CA125) Genetics (e.g. breast - BRCA1)
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Lung Cancer Ovarian Cancer Pap Smear
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4 CANCER - CANCER BIOLOGY What is cancer? Cancer involves...

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