BIOL0126 Summary

BIOL0126 Summary - 2 Central Dogma(DNA → RNA → protein...

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1 BIOL0126 Fundamentals of Biology Alice S. Wong Lecture 1: Chemical basis of life: 1) Carbon is common building block of organic molecules 2) Organic compounds and polymers 3) Properties of carbon function groups and properties of organic compounds 4) Carbohydrates (monosaccharides are simple sugars; polysaccharides store energy), lipids (triglycerides are energy storage molecules; phospholipids are the primary components of cell membrane; steroids are composed of four rings), and proteins (complex structures constructed of amino acids; enzymes facilitate biochemical reactions) 5) Water is the biological solvent 6) The importance of hydrogen ions Lecture 2: Genetics and Inheritance 1) Mendelian genetics 2) Alleles are different forms of homologous genes (genotype vs. phenotype, dominant vs. recessive, homozygous vs. heterozygous) 3) Mode of inheritance: a) autosomal dominant b) autosomal recessive c) X-linked dominant d) X-linked recessive e) Y-linked Lecture 3: 1) Genomes and DNA (base, sugar, phosphate)
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Unformatted text preview: 2) Central Dogma (DNA → RNA → protein; replication; transcription; translation) 3) Gene regulation (prokaryotes vs. eukaryotes) 4) DNA sequencing reveals structure of DNA 5) DNA can be modified in the laboratory (recombinant DNA technology; restriction enzymes; plasmids; ligases) 6) Genetic engineering creates transgenic organisms 7) Polymerase chain reaction (denaturation, annealing, extension; Taq DNA polymerase, primers; DNA fingerprinting) 8) Blotting (Northern – RNA; Southern – DNA; Western – protein) 2 Lecture 4: 1) Tumors can be benign or cancerous 2) Cancerous cells lose control over cell functions 3) Advances in diagnosis enable early detection 4) A variety of factors can lead to cancer 5) Basic concepts of carcinogenesis (multistep process, tumor growth kinetics, clonal expansion) 6) How cancer develops (mutant forms of proto-oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, repair enzymes, and mutator genes contribute to cancer)...
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This note was uploaded on 03/12/2012 for the course BIOL 0126 taught by Professor Wux. during the Winter '11 term at HKU.

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BIOL0126 Summary - 2 Central Dogma(DNA → RNA → protein...

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