06 - Tissue engineering Tissue and organ failure result...

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Unformatted text preview: Tissue engineering Tissue and organ failure result from injury or other type of damage Treatment options: Transplantation Surgical repair Mechanical devices - Account for about half of the total annual expenditure in health care in US - However, some major tissue/organ damage cannot be repaired and recovered Tissue engineering – potential alternative solution Definition: The application of scientific principles to the design, construction, modification, growth, and maintenance of living tissue Two categories: (i) In vivo alteration of cell growth and function e.g. Use of implanted polymeric tube to promote the growth and reconnection of damaged nerve (ii) In vitro construction of bio-artificial tissues using cells isolated from donor tissue or stem cells e.g. artificial skin In vitro construction of bio-artificial tissues Several products reach the market (i) Artificial skin (e.g. Skin2) (ii) Bone graft materials (iii) Human dermal tissue with an epidermal layer (clinical trial) 1. Identify the ideal micro-environments for proper growth and differentiation - Micro-environment varies among tissues - Identify the medium and growth factors required for cell differentiation 2. Design the scaffold for particular tissue - Consist of natural or synthetic polymer - Biodegradable or non-biodegradable - Either alone or in combination with soluble factors to induce tissue formation Scaffold for artificial skin Biodegradable scaffold for bone 3. Isolate ES cells from embryo or active proliferating cells from organ and incubate cells with scaffold at a given condition (e.g. temperature, pH, mechanical training) e.g. Incubate cells in bioreactor ... ..... .. ............ ........ . ...... ....... .... . .. ..... . .. ... ....... . .. . ... .. . . 4. Check whether the artificial tissue retains the property and structural conformation ........ ......... .. ... ........ ....... ...... . ... . .. ....... . . .. ......... .......... ....... ...... . ........ . .. .. ........... ......... .......... . .. . .......... ......... .. ......... .. .. ... .. ......... .. . . artificial skin Preparation of the scaffold of heart from cadaveric rat MHC: cardiac α-myosin heavy chain S-α-actin: sarcomeric α-actin Properties of the decellularized scaffold Collagens I and III, laminin and fibronectin remained within the thinned, decellularized heart matrix The fiber composition and orientation of the myocardial ECM were preserved when cardiac cells were removed Isolate cardiac cells and incubate cells with scaffold at bioreactor bioreactor Schematic of working heart bioreactor Application of tissue engineered products 1. Toxicity test e.g. Skin2 2. Source for tissue/organ transplantation 3. Speed up the healing process e.g. Dermagraft - Applied to foot ulcer, significant healing occurred in clinical trials ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/12/2012 for the course BIOL 0126 taught by Professor Wux. during the Winter '11 term at HKU.

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