good - Liberalism The Latin liber, which means...

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Liberalism The Latin liber , which means “free,” is the basis for the words liberty and liberalism. Liberals are avid supporters of individual liberty and an open and tolerant society. Liberalism came into being when major changes were going on in European society. The first major change occurred as a consequence of the Protestant Reformation in the sixteenth century. Martin Luther (1483-1546) reacted against the orthodoxy and rigid dogma of the Roman Catholic Church. Luther emphasized that salvation could come by faith alone. Luther emphasized individual conscience. This is one of the first steps to individual liberty. In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, there were two other major transformations that occurred: the scientific and capitalist revolutions. These revolutions were a major challenge to two pillars of medieval society: religious conformity and ascribed status. The Church used the state to enforce religious orthodoxy. The Church was highly intolerant to different beliefs. Liberalism was a reaction to religious conformity. Liberalism also reacted against ascribed status, i.e., the belief that a person’s social standing depended not on personal achievement but by the status or his or her parents. In liberalism, the individual is at the center of society. Thomas Hobbes (1588- 1679) and John Locke (1632-1704) support the idea of individualism. In the doctrine of individualism, the individual is the sovereign ruler of his own person – not the Church or the state or anybody else. I intentionally left out women because Hobbes and Locke limited their doctrine of individualism to property owning males. Nevertheless, considering the time period, the ideas of Hobbes and Locke were quite radical and risky. Hobbes lived during the English Revolution and the Scientific Revolution. He
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This note was uploaded on 03/11/2012 for the course MBA 103 taught by Professor Wise during the Spring '12 term at Salem Intl..

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good - Liberalism The Latin liber, which means...

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