Exam Review II - Serial DTE(Data Terminal Equipment End of...

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------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Serial DTE (Data Terminal Equipment) End of user’s device on the WAN link Serial DCE (Data Communications Equipment) End of WAN provider’s side; responsible for providing clock rate Full Duplex: Both devices can transmit at the same time
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Half Duplex: Data can only travel one way at a time TCP/IP Model: Protocol Model OSI Model: Reference Model Application layer: provides the means of generating and receiving data that will later be transported to the network. Transport Layer: Encapsulates data from application layer, splits into segments, and then ads header. Use for flow control (TCP and UDP). Used for end to end transfer. It performs segmentation and re-assembly. It also controls the communication session. Network Layer: Encapsulates a segment from transport layer into a packet and including address. Directing the packed across one or more networks to the destination host. (IP) Data Link Layer: Frames are PDU used. It controls how data is placed onto the media and is received from the media using techniques like media access control and error detection. Physical Layer: Encapsulates frame from data link layer and converts into bits. It then encodes bits into signals via: copper cable, light pulse fibre signals, microwave (wireless) ... Hub Switch Forwards frames to all ports except incoming port Forwards frames to only the destination, once it’s known Replaced by switches Smaller and smarter than hubs Half duplex, collisions can occur Store and forward Ethernet frames No frame buffering Examine in-coming MAC address Bits coming in and out got at the same rate Full duplex, no collisions Not self learning Don’t need to be configured, self learning MAC Address IP Address Layer 2 Address (frame header) Layer 3 address (packet header) Identify devices within a network Identify devices and networks Used to identify devices Used to pass data within a network Frame header is stripped off and replaced by each router, so MAC address are different every step of the journey Source and Destination host stays the same in the journey
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Dynamic Routing Static Routing Configuration complexity not depending on network size Configuration complexity increases with network size Advance knowledge required Basic knowledge required Automatically updates to topology changes Manual updates required Suitable for simple and complex topologies Suitable for simple topologies Less Secure More Secure Uses CPU, memory, link bandwidth No extra resources required Route depends on current topology (routes can change if topology changes) Route to destination always stays the same Start the protocol, then it runs by itself Time consuming, different from each router Gives away information to other devices Gives away no routing information RIPv1 RIPv2
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