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PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLE This article was downloaded by: [CanadianResearchKnowledgeNetwork] On: 3March2011 Access details: AccessDetails:[subscriptionnumber932223628] Publisher Taylor&Francis Informa Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registered office: Mortimer House, 37- 41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition Publication details, including instructions for authors and subscription information: http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/title~content=t713606380 Chemistry and Biotechnology of Carotenoids K. K. Namitha a ; P. S. Negi a a Human Resource Development, Central Food Technological Research Institute (CSIR), Mysore, India Online publication date: 08 September 2010 To cite this Article Namitha, K. K. and Negi, P. S.(2010) 'Chemistry and Biotechnology of Carotenoids', Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 50: 8, 728 — 760 To link to this Article: DOI: 10.1080/10408398.2010.499811 URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2010.499811 Full terms and conditions of use: http://www.informaworld.com/terms-and-conditions-of-access.pdf This article may be used for research, teaching and private study purposes. Any substantial or systematic reproduction, re-distribution, re-selling, loan or sub-licensing, systematic supply or distribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden. The publisher does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents will be complete or accurate or up to date. The accuracy of any instructions, formulae and drug doses should be independently verified with primary sources. The publisher shall not be liable for any loss, actions, claims, proceedings, demand or costs or damages whatsoever or howsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connection with or arising out of the use of this material.
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Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition , 50:728–760 (2010) Copyright C ° Taylor and Francis Group, LLC ISSN: 1040-8398 DOI: 10.1080/10408398.2010.499811 Chemistry and Biotechnology of Carotenoids K. K. NAMITHA and P. S. NEGI Human Resource Development, Central Food Technological Research Institute (CSIR), Mysore, India Carotenoids are one of the most widespread groups of pigments in nature and more than 600 of these have been identiFed. Beside provitamin A activity, carotenoids are important as antioxidants and protective agents against various diseases. They are isoprenoids with a long polyene chain containing 3 to 15 conjugated double bonds, which determines their absorption spectrum. Cyclization at one or both ends occurs in hydrocarbon carotene, while xanthophylls are formed by the introduction of oxygen. In addition, modiFcations involving chain elongation, isomerization, or degradation are also found. The composition of carotenoids in food may vary depending upon production practices, post-harvest handling, processing, and storage. In higher plants they are synthesized in the plastid. Both mevalonate dependent and independent pathway for the formation of isopentenyl diphosphate are known. Isopentenyl diphosphate undergoes a series of addition and condensation reactions to form phytoene, which gets converted to lycopene. Cyclization of lycopene either leads to the
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