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Unformatted text preview: HP-UX Reference Release 11i System Administration Commands Section 1M Part 2 of 2 (N-Z) Volume 4 of 9 Edition 1 Customer Order Number: B2355-90688 Manufacturing Part Number: B2355-90692 E1200 Printed in: United States © Copyright 1983-2000 Hewlett-Packard Company. All rights reserved. Legal Notices The information in this document is subject to change without notice. Hewlett-Packard makes no warranty of any kind with regard to this manual, including, but not limited to, the implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose. Hewlett-Packard shall not be held liable for errors contained herein or direct, indirect, special, incidental or consequential damages in connection with the furnishing, performance, or use of this material. Warranty A copy of the specific warranty terms applicable to your Hewlett-Packard product and replacement parts can be obtained from your local Sales and Service Office. Restricted Rights Legend Use, duplication or disclosure by the U.S. Government is subject to restrictions as set forth in subparagraph (c) (1) (ii) of the Rights in Technical Data and Computer Software clause at DFARS 252.227-7013 for DOD agencies, and subparagraphs (c) (1) and (c) (2) of the Commercial Computer Software Restricted Rights clause at FAR 52.227-19 for other agencies. HEWLETT-PACKARD COMPANY 3000 Hanover Street Palo Alto, California 94304 U.S.A. Use of this document and any supporting software media (CD-ROMs, flexible disks, and tape cartridges) supplied for this pack is restricted to this product only. Additional copies of the programs may be made for security and backup purposes only. Resale of the programs in their present form or with alterations is expressly prohibited. Copyright Notices Copyright © 1983-2000 Hewlett-Packard Company. All rights reserved. Reproduction, adaptation, or translation of this document without prior written permission is prohibited, except as allowed under the copyright laws. ii Copyright © 1979, 1980, 1983, 1985-93 Regents of the University of California. This software is based in part on the Fourth Berkeley Software Distribution under license from the Regents of the University of California. Copyright © 1988 Carnegie Mellon University. Copyright © 1990-1995 Cornell University. Copyright © 1986 Digital Equipment Corporation. Copyright © 1997 Isogon Corporation. Copyright © 1985, 1986, 1988 Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Copyright © 1991-1997 Mentat, Inc. Copyright © 1996 Morning Star Technologies, Inc. Copyright © 1990 Motorola, Inc. Copyright © 1980, 1984, 1986 Novell, Inc. Copyright © 1989-1993 The Open Software Foundation, Inc. Copyright © 1996 Progressive Systems, Inc. Copyright © 1989-1991 The University of Maryland Copyright © 1986-1992 Sun Microsystems, Inc. Trademark Notices Apple® and Macintosh® are trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc., registered in the United States and other countries. AppleShare® is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc. CHAMELEON™ is a trademark of NetManage, Inc. DIGITAL™ and PATHWORKS™ are trademarks of Digital Equipment Corporation. DiskAccess® is a registered trademark of Intergraph. EXCURSION™ is a trademark of Digital Equipment Corporation. Exeed® is a registered trademark of Hummingbird Communications Ltd. eXodus™ is a trademark of White Pine Software, Inc. iii MS-DOS® and Microsoft® are U.S. registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. NTRIGUE™ is a trademark of Insignia Solutions, Inc. OSF/Motif™ is a trademark of the Open Software Foundation, Inc. in the U.S. and other countries. PC_Xware™ is a trademark, and WinCenter® is a registered trademark of Network Computing Devices, Inc. REFLECTION® and WRQ® are registered trademarks of WRQ, Inc. UNIX® is a registered trademark in the United States and other countries, licensed exclusively through The Open Group. VERITAS® is a registered trademark of VERITAS Software Corporation. VERITAS File System™ is a trademark of VERITAS Software Corporation. WinDD™ is a trademark of Tektronix, Inc. X Window System™ is a trademark of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. iv Publication History The manual publication date and part number indicate its current edition. The printing date will change when a new edition is printed. Minor changes may be made at reprint without changing the printing date. The manual part number will change when extensive changes are made. Manual updates may be issued between editions to correct errors or document product changes. To ensure that you receive the updated or new editions, you should subscribe to the appropriate product support service. See your HP sales representative for details. First Edition: December 2000 (HP-UX Release 11i) v vi __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ STANDARD Printed by: Nora Chuang [nchuang] STANDARD __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _ /build/ROSE/BRICK/Checkout/FATBRAIN/TABS/tab4a.in _________________________________ __ __ Volume Four Table of Contents Section 1M Part 2 __ __ __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ STANDARD Printed by: Nora Chuang [nchuang] STANDARD __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _ /build/ROSE/BRICK/Checkout/FATBRAIN/TABS/tab4a.in _________________________________ __ __ Volume Four Table of Contents Section 1M Part 2 __ __ __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ STANDARD Printed by: Nora Chuang [nchuang] STANDARD __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ /build/1111/BRICK/FLIT/FOUT.man1m.tocprint _ _________________________________ __ __ Table of Contents Volumes Three and Four Section 1M: System Administration Commands Entry Name(Section): name Description intro(1M) ........................................... introduction to system maintenance commands and application programs accept(1M): accept, reject ..................................................... allow or prevent LP printer queuing requests acct(1M): acctdisk, acctdusg, accton, acctwtmp ............................................. overview of accounting and miscellaneous accounting commands acctcms(1M): acctcms ............................................. command summary from per-process accounting records acctcom(1M): acctcom ...................................................................... search and print process accounting files acctcon(1M): acctcon1, acctcon2 ............................................................................ connect-time accounting acctcon1: connect-time accounting ........................................................................................ see acctcon(1M) acctcon2: connect-time accounting ........................................................................................ see acctcon(1M) acctdisk: miscellaneous accounting command ............................................................................ see acct(1M) acctdusg: miscellaneous accounting command ............................................................................ see acct(1M) acctmerg(1M): acctmerg ........................................................................... merge or add total accounting files accton: miscellaneous accounting command ................................................................................ see acct(1M) acctprc(1M): acctprc1, acctprc2 .................................................................................... process accounting acctprc1: convert process accounting .................................................................................... see acctprc(1M) acctprc2: summarize process accounting .............................................................................. see acctprc(1M) acctsh(1M): chargefee, ckpacct, dodisk, lastlogin, monacct, nulladm, prctmp, prdaily, prtacct, shutacct, startup, turnacct .............................................. shell procedures for accounting acctwtmp: miscellaneous accounting command ............................................................................ see acct(1M) AM60Srvr(1M) : AM60Srvr ....................................................................................... disk array server daemon amcfg(1M): amcfg ............................................................................ manage LUN configuration on disk array amdload(1M): amdload ......................................................... download new firmware to disks and controllers amdsp(1M): amdsp ..................................................................... display status and configuration of disk array amfmt(1M): amfmt ......................................................................................................................... disk format amlog(1M): amlog ............................................................................... display controller entries for disk array ammgr(1M): ammgr .................................................................. manage operating characteristics of disk array amutil(1M): amutil ..................................................................................... disk array management functions ARMServer(1M) : ARMServer .................................................................................. disk array server daemon arp(1M): arp .......................................................................................... address resolution display and control arraycfg(1M): arraycfg ............................................................................ configure LUNs and physical disks arraydsp(1M): arraydsp ............................... display the status and operating configuration of the disk array arrayfmt(1M): arrayfmt ..................................................................... formats a LUN or an entire disk array arrayinfo(1M): arrayinfo ......................................................................... describe disk array characteristics arraylog(1M): arraylog ............................................................................ accesses and clears disk array logs arraymgr(1M): arraymgr ............................................. manages the operating environment of the disk array arrayrbld(1M) : arrayrbld ............................................................................ controls rebuilding of disk array arrayrecover(1M): arrayrecover ................................... reconstructs data mapping and array configuration arrayscan(1M): arrayscan ............................................................................... search system for disk arrays asecure(1M): asecure ..................................................................................... control access to HP-UX Audio aserver(1M): aserver ............................................................................................................................ Audio audevent(1M): audevent .................................................. change or display event or system call audit status audisp(1M): audisp ...................................................... display audit information as requested by parameters audomon(1M): audomon .................................................................................. audit overflow monitor daemon audsys(1M): audsys ........................ start or halt the auditing system and set or display audit file information audusr(1M): audusr ......................................................................................................... select users to audit authck(1M): authck ..................................................... check internal consistency of Authentication database automount(1M): automount ................................................................ automatically mount NFS file systems automountd(1M): automountd ....................................................................... autofs mount/unmount daemon autopush(1M): autopush .................... manage system database of automatically pushed STREAMS modules auto_parms(1M): auto_parms ........................................... Initial system configuration/DHCP support script backup(1M): backup .......................................................................................... backup or archive file system bdf(1M): bdf .................................................................... report number of free disk blocks (Berkeley version) biod: NFS block I/0 daemons ....................................................................................................... see nfsd(1M) boot(1M): boot ...................................................................................................................... bootstrap process bootpd(1M): bootpd ........................................................................................... Internet Boot Protocol server HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ Hewlett-Packard Company vii __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/FLIT/FOUT.man1m.tocprint _ __________________________ __ __ Table of Contents Volumes Three and Four Entry Name(Section): name Description bootpquery(1M): bootpquery .......................................................... send BOOTREQUEST to BOOTP server cachefsstat(1M): cachefsstat .............................................................................. cache file system statistics captoinfo(1M): captoinfo ...................................... convert a termcap description into a terminfo description catman(1M): catman ................................................................................... create the cat files for the manual cfl(1M): cfl .................................................................................................... configure a SCSI disk array LUN cfsadmin(1M): cfsadmin ............. administer disk space used for caching file systems with CacheFS statistics chargefee: shell procedures for accounting, charge fee to user ................................................ see acctsh(1M) chroot(1M): chroot ................................................................................ change root directory for a command ch_rc(1M): ch_rc ........................................................................................... change system configuration file ckpacct: shell procedures for accounting, check size of accounting file ..................................... see acctsh(1M) clri(1M): clri ................................................................................................................................. clear inode clrsvc(1M): clrsvc ....................................................................................... clear x25 switched virtual circuit config(1M): config ............................................................................... configure and build an HP-UX system convertfs(1M): convertfs ......................................................... convert a file system to allow long file names convert_awk(1M): convert_awk ............................................ converts old sendmail.cf files to new format cpset(1M): cpset .................................................................................. install object files in binary directories crashconf(1M): crashconf .............................................................................. configure system crash dumps crashutil(1M): crashutil .................................................................................. manipulate crash dump data create_sysfile(1M): create_sysfile .................................................................... create a kernel system file cron(1M): cron ..................................................................................................... timed-job execution daemon cuegetty(1M): cuegetty ........................................................................... set terminal characteristics for cue dcc(1M): dcc ................................................................................... controlling caching on HP SCSI disk arrays dcopy(1M): dcopy ................................................................................. copy HFS file system with compaction devnm(1M): devnm ....................................................................................................................... device name df(1M): df .................................................................................... report number of free file system disk blocks df_hfs(1M): df ............................................ report number of free CDFS, HFS, or NFS file system disk blocks df_vxfs(1M): df ............................................................. report number of free disk blocks on VxFS file system dhcpclient(1M): dhcpclient ..................................... Client for Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol Server dhcpdb2conf(1M): dhcpdb2conf .................................................................. DHCP client database converter dhcptools(1M): dhcptools .................................................... comand line tools for DHCP elements of bootpd diskinfo(1M): diskinfo ..................................................................... describe characteristics of a disk device disksecn(1M): disksecn ............................................................................ calculate default disk section sizes diskusg(1M): diskusg ..................................................................... generate disk accounting data by user ID dlf(1M): dlf ................................................................................. download firmware to an HP SCSI disk array dmesg(1M): dmesg ........................................................... collect system diagnostic messages to form error log dodisk: shell procedures for accounting, perform disk accounting ............................................ see acctsh(1M) download(1M): download ............................................................... download new controller or disk firmware dpp(1M): dpp ........................................................................... dedicated ports parser used by DDFA software drivetest(1M): drivetest ........................................................................................... test a disk in the array dsp(1M): dsp ........................................................................................ display status of an HP SCSI disk array dteststat(1M): dteststat ................................................ display the results of disk testing, or cancel testing dump(1M): dump, rdump .................................................................................... incremental file system dump dumpfs(1M): dumpfs .......................................................................................... dump file system information edquota(1M): edquota ........................................................................................................... edit user quotas eisa_config(1M): eisa_config .................................................................................... EISA configuration tool envd(1M): envd ...................................................................................... system physical environment daemon exportfs(1M): exportfs ......................................................... export and unexport directories to NFS clients extendfs(1M): extendfs ............................................................................................... extend file system size extendfs_hfs(1M): extendfs ................................................................................ extend HFS file system size extendfs_vxfs(1M): extendfs ............................................................................. extend VxFS file system size fbackup(1M): fbackup ................................................................................................ selectively back up files fcmsutil(1M): fcmsutil ................................................................................... fibre channel diagnostic utility fdetach(1M): fdetach ............................................. detach a STREAMS-based file descriptor from a filename ff(1M): ff ........................................................................................ list file names and statistics for file system ff_hfs(1M) : ff ......................................................................... list file names and statistics for HFS file system ff_vxfs(1M): ff ....................................................... fast find: list file names and statistics for VxFS file system fingerd(1M): fingerd ..................................................................................... remote user information server fixman(1M): fixman ............................................................. fix manual pages for faster viewing with man(1) format(1M): format ................................................................................... format an HP SCSI disk array LUN frecover(1M): frecover .............................................................................................. selectively recover files freedisk(1M): freedisk ...................................................................................................... recover disk space viii __ Hewlett-Packard Company HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/FLIT/FOUT.man1m.tocprint _ __________________________ __ Table of Contents __ Volumes Three and Four Entry Name(Section): name Description frupower(1M) : frupower ..................................... turn on/off power or display status for cells and I/O chassis fsadm(1M): fsadm ................................................................................... file system administration command fsadm_hfs(1M): fsadm_hfs ............................................................ HFS file system administration command fsadm_vxfs(1M): fsadm ....................................................................... resize or reorganize a VxFS file system fscat_vxfs(1M): fscat ................................................................................................... cat a VxFS file system fsck(1M): fsck .................................................................. file system consistency check and interactive repair fsck_cachefs(1M): fsck_cachefs .............................................. check integrity of data cached with CacheFS fsck_vxfs(1M): fsck .................................................................................. check and repair VxFS file systems fsclean(1M): fsclean ........................................................ determine shutdown status of specified file system fsdb(1M): fsdb ................................................................................................... file system debugger (generic) fsdb_hfs(1M) : fsdb .................................................................................................. HFS file system debugger fsdb_vxfs(1M): fsdb ............................................................................................... VxFS file system debugger fsirand(1M): fsirand ........................................................................ install random inode generation numbers fstyp(1M): fstyp .................................................................................................... determine file system type ftpd(1M): ftpd ....................................................................................................... file transfer protocol server fuser(1M) : fuser .............................................................................. list processes using a file or file structure fwtmp(1M): fwtmp, wtmpfix ............................................................... manipulate connect accounting records gated(1M): gated ...................................................................................................... gateway routing daemon gdc(1M): gdc ............................................................................................... operations user interface for gated geocustoms(1M): geocustoms ..................................... configure system language on multi-language systems getext(1M): getext .............................................................................................. get extent attributes (VxFS) getmemwindow(1M): getmemwindow ........................................................ extract window ids from processes getprpw(1M): getprpw ........................................................................... display protected password database getty(1M): getty ............................................................ set terminal type, modes, speed, and line discipline getx25(1M): getx25 ....................................................................................................................... get x25 line groupadd(1M): groupadd ................................................................................ add a new group to the system groupdel(1M): groupdel ................................................................................ delete a group from the system groupmod(1M): groupmod ................................................................................. modify a group on the system grpck: group file checker ........................................................................................................... see pwck(1M) hosts_to_named(1M): hosts_to_named ................................. translate host table to name server file format hpux(1M): hpux ................................................................................. HP-UX bootstrap and installation utility i4admin(1M): i4admin ..................................................................... administer LicensePower/iFOR licensing i4lmd(1M): i4lmd ............................................................................................................... start license server i4start(1M): i4start .............................................................................. LicensePower/iFOR server start tool i4stop(1M): i4stop .................................................................................. LicensePower/iFOR server stop tool i4target(1M): i4target ........................................ print information about local LicensePower/iFOR target id i4tv(1M): i4tv ............................................................................. verify Network License Servers are working identd(1M): identd ......................................................................................... TCP/IP IDENT protocol server ifconfig(1M): ifconfig ...................................................................... configure network interface parameters inetd(1M): inetd ...................................................................................................... Internet services daemon inetsvcs_sec(1M): inetsvcs_sec ................................................... enable or disable secure internet services infocmp(1M): infocmp .................................................................. compare or print out terminfo descriptions init(1M): init ...................................................................................................... process control initialization insf(1M): insf ......................................................................................................... install special (device) files install(1M): install ............................................................................................................ install commands install-sd(1M): install-sd .......................................................................... install Software Distributor (SD) ioinit(1M): ioinit ............................................................................................................ initialize I/O system ioscan(1M): ioscan ........................................................................................................... scan the I/O system isl(1M): isl ...................................................................................................................... initial system loader itemap(1M): itemap ............................................... load a keymap into the Internal Terminal Emulator (ITE) keyenvoy(1M): keyenvoy ...................................................................................... talk to the keyserv process keyserv(1): keyserv ........................................................................ server for storing private encryption keys killall(1M): killall .................................................................................................... kill all active processes killsm(1M): killsm ................................................................................................. kills the sendmail daemon kl(1M): kl ....................................................................................................................... control kernel logging kmadmin(1M): kmadmin .................................................................................... kernel module administration kminstall(1M): kminstall ...................................................................... add, delete, update a kernel module kmmodreg(1M): kmmodreg ................ register or unregister loadable kernel modules with the running kernel kmsystem(1M): kmsystem ......................................... set, query configuration and loadable flags for a module kmtune(1M): kmtune ............................................................................. query, set, or reset system parameter kmupdate(1M): kmupdate ........................................... update default kernel files or specified kernel modules HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ Hewlett-Packard Company ix __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/FLIT/FOUT.man1m.tocprint _ __________________________ __ __ Table of Contents Volumes Three and Four Entry Name(Section): name Description krsd(1M) ........................................................................................................... kernel registry services daemon krs_flush(1M) .................................................................................. flushes kernel registry services data to disk labelit: label for VxFS file system ............................................................................... see volcopy_vxfs(1M) labelit - copy file systems with label checking ........................................................................ see volcopy(1M) labelit - copy file systems with label checking ................................................................. see volcopy_hfs(1M) lanadmin(1M): lanadmin ........................................................................... local area network administration lanscan(1M): lanscan ................................................................. display LAN device configuration and status lastlogin: shell procedures for accounting, show last login date ............................................. see acctsh(1M) libcadmin(1M): libcadmin ................................................................................ libc administration command link(1M): link, unlink ........................... execute link() and unlink() system calls without error checking linkloop(1M): linkloop ....................................................... verify LAN connectivity with link-level loopback localedef(1M): localedef .......................................................................... generate a locale environment file lockd(1M): lockd ............................................................................................................ network lock daemon logins(1M): logins .................................................................................... display system and user login data logprint(1M): logprint ................................................... formats and prints contents of ARMServer log files lpadmin(1M): lpadmin ................................................................................. configure the LP spooling system lpana(1M): lpana .............................................................. print LP spooler performance analysis information lpfence: set LP scheduler priority fence ................................................................................ see lpsched(1M) lpmove: move LP scheduler requests ...................................................................................... see lpsched(1M) lpsched(1M): lpshut, lpfence, lpmovelpsched ...... start/stop the LP request scheduler and move requests lpshut: stop LP scheduler requests ........................................................................................ see lpsched(1M) lsdev(1M): lsdev ............................................................................................ list device drivers in the system lssf(1M) : lssf ......................................................................................................................... list a special file lvchange(1M): lvchange ............................................................... change LVM logical volume characteristics lvcreate(1M): lvcreate ............................................................... create logical volume in LVM volume group lvdisplay(1M): lvdisplay ...................................................... display information about LVM logical volumes lvextend(1M): lvextend ................................ stripe, increase space, increase mirrors for LVM logical volume lvlnboot(1M): lvlnboot .................................. prepare LVM logical volume to be root, swap, or dump volume lvmerge(1M): lvmerge .............................................. merge two LVM logical volumes into one logical volume lvmmigrate(1M): lvmmigrate . prepare root file system for migration from partitions to LVM logical volumes lvreduce(1M): lvreduce ........................................ decrease physical extents allocated to LVM logical volume lvremove(1M): lvremove ..................................................... remove logical volumes from LVM volume group lvrmboot(1M): lvrmboot ................. remove LVM logical volume link to root, primary swap, or dump volume lvsplit(1M): lvsplit ............................................ split mirrored LVM logical volume into two logical volumes lvsync(1M) : lvsync ............................................................ synchronize stale mirrors in LVM logical volumes makedbm(1M): makedbm ......................................................... make a Network Information System database makemap(1M): makemap .......................................................................... creates database maps for sendmail map-mbone(1M): map-mbone, .................................................................. multicast router connection mapper mc(1M): mc ................................................................................................ media changer manipulation utility mkboot(1M): mkboot, rmboot ............................. install, update, or remove boot programs from a disk device mkfs(1M): mkfs ............................................................................................... construct a file system (generic) mkfs_hfs(1M) : mkfs ............................................................................................ construct an HFS file system mkfs_vxfs(1M): mkfs .............................................................................................. construct VxFS file system mklost+found(1M): mklost+found ................................................ make a lost+found directory for fsck(1M) mknod(1M): mknod .............................................................................................. create special and FIFO files mkpdf(1M): mkpdf ..................................................................... create Product Description File from an input mksf(1M): mksf ...................................................................................................... make a special (device) file mk_kernel(1M): mk_kernel ................................................. build a bootable HP-UX kernel or kernel module modprpw(1M): modprpw ......................................................................... modify protected password database monacct: shell procedures for accounting, create accounting summary .................................... see acctsh(1M) mount(1M): mount, umount ......................................................................... mount and unmount a file system mountall(1M): mountall, umountall ............................................ mount and unmount multiple file systems mountd(1M): mountd ................................................................................................ NFS mount request server mount_cachefs(1M): mount_cachefs ................................................................. mount CacheFS file systems mount_cdfs(1M): mount, umount ....................................................... mount and unmount CDFS file systems mount_hfs(1M): mount, umount ........................................................... mount and unmount HFS file systems mount_lofs(1M): mount ......................................................................................... mount an LOFS file system mount_nfs(1M): mount, umount ........................................................... mount and unmount NFS file systems mount_vxfs(1M): mount, unmount ........................................................ mount and unmount VxFS file system mrinfo(1M): mrinfo, ............................................................. multicast routing configuration information tool mrouted(1M): mrouted ....................................................................................... IP multicast routing daemon x __ Hewlett-Packard Company HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/FLIT/FOUT.man1m.tocprint _ __________________________ __ Table of Contents __ Volumes Three and Four Entry Name(Section): name Description mtail(1M): mtail ..................................................................................... displays the last part of the mail log mvdir(1M): mvdir .................................................................................................................. move a directory naaagt(1M): naaagt ......................................................................................... Native Agent Adapter for SNMP named(1M): named ............................................................................................. Internet domain name server named-xfer(1M): named-xfer ........................................................ ancillary agent for inbound zone transfers ncheck(1M): ncheck ....................................................................... generate path names from inode numbers ncheck_vxfs(1M): ncheck ............................... generate pathnames from inode numbers for VxFS file system ndd(1M): ndd ........................................................................................................................... network tuning netfmt(1M): netfmt ............................................................................. format tracing and logging binary files nettl(1M): nettl ....................................................................................... control network tracing and logging nettlconf(1M): nettlconf ................................................................ configure tracing and logging commands newaliases(1M): newaliases .................................................... rebuilds the database for the mail aliases file newarray(1M): newarray ................................................................................................... make a special file newfs(1M) : newfs .................................................................................................. construct a new file system newfs_hfs(1M) : newfs ................................................................................... construct a new HFS file system newfs_vxfs(1M): newfs_vxfs ......................................................................... construct new VxFS file system newkey(1M): newkey ................................................................. create a new key in publickey database file nfsd(1M): biod, nfsd ................................................................................................................. NFS daemons nfsstat(1M): nfsstat ....................................................................................... Network File System statistics nisaddcred(1M): nisaddcred .................................................................................... create NIS+ credentials nisaddent(1M): nisaddent ............................ create NIS+ tables from corresponding /etc files or NIS maps nisclient(1M): nisclient ........................................................ initialize NIS+ credentials for NIS+ principals nisd: NIS+ service daemon ................................................................................................... see rpc.nisd(1M) nisd_resolv: NIS+ service daemon ..................................................................................... see rpc.nisd(1M) nisinit(1M): nisinit ..................................................................... NIS+ client and server initialization utility nislog(1M): nislog ................................................................ display the contents of the NIS+ transaction log nispasswdd(): NIS+ password update daemon ....................................................... see rpc.nispasswdd(1M) nisping(1M): nisping ............................................................................................. send ping to NIS+ servers nispopulate(1M): nispopulate ................................................... populate the NIS+ tables in a NIS+ domain nisserver(1M) : nisserver ............................................................................................... set up NIS+ servers nissetup(1M): nissetup ............................................................................................ initialize a NIS+ domain nisshowcache(1M): nisshowcache .................. NIS+ utility to print out the contents of the shared cache file nisstat(1M): nisstat .......................................................................................... report NIS+ server statistics nisupdkeys(1M): nisupdkeys ............................................. update the public keys in a NIS+ directory object nis_cachemgr(1M): nis_cachemgr .... maintains a cache containing location information about NIS+ servers ntpdate(1M): ntpdate ............................................................................................ set time and date via NTP ntpq(1M): ntpq .................................................................................... Network Time Protocol query program nulladm: shell procedures for accounting, create null file ......................................................... see acctsh(1M) ocd(1M): ocd .................................................................. outbound connection daemon used by DDFA software ocdebug(1M): ocdebug ............................. outbound connection daemon debug utility used by DDFA software opx25(1M): opx25 ................................................................................................. execute HALGOL programs ospf_monitor(1M): ospf_monitor ............................................................................ monitor OSPF gateways owners(1M) : owners .................................................................. lists owners of outgoing network connections parcreate(1M): parcreate ........................................................................................... create a new partition parmgr(1M): parmgr ........................................................................................................... partition manager parmodify(1M): parmodify ................................................................................. modify an existing partition parremove(1M): parremove ............................................................................... remove an existing partition parunlock(1M): parunlock ....................................... unlock Stable Complex or Partition Configuration Data pcnfsd(1M): rpc.pcnfsd ...................................................... PC-NFS authentication and print request server pcserver(1M): pcserver .................................................................. Basic Serial and HP AdvanceLink server pdc(1M): pdc ........................................................................................... processor-dependent code (firmware) pddcesetup(1M) ................................................................. configure DCE for the HP Distributed Print Service pdfck(1M): pdfck ................................................................ compare Product Description File and file system pdfdiff(1M): pdfdiff ........................................................................... compare two Product Description Files pdgwcfg(1): pdgwcfg .................. displays the text and description of a HPDPS message at the command line pdstartclient(1M) ............................................................................................. start the HPDPS client daemon pdstartspl(1M) ............................................................................................ create or restart an HPDPS spooler pdstartsuv(1M) ...................................................................................... create or restart an HPDPS supervisor pdstopd(1M) ....................................................................................................... stop the HPDPS client daemon pfsd(1M): pfs ............................................................................................................................... PFS daemon pfsd.rpc: PFS daemon ............................................................................................................... see pfsd(1M) HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ Hewlett-Packard Company xi __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/FLIT/FOUT.man1m.tocprint _ __________________________ __ __ Table of Contents Volumes Three and Four Entry Name(Section): name Description pfs_exportfs(1M): pfs_exportfs ............................................ export and unexport directories to PFS clients pfs_mount(1M): pfs_mount .......................................................... mount and unmount CD-ROM file systems pfs_mountd(1M): pfs_mountd ............................................................................... PFS mount request server pfs_mountd.rpc: PFS mount request server ................................................................. see pfs_mountd(1M) pfs_umount: unmount CD-ROM file systems .................................................................... see pfs_mount(1M) ping(1M): ping ........................................... send echo request packets to a network host; test host availability power_onoff(1M): power_onoff ........................................................................... timed, system power on/off prctmp: shell procedures for accounting, print session record file ............................................. see acctsh(1M) prdaily: shell procedures for accounting, print daily report .................................................... see acctsh(1M) prtacct: shell procedures for accounting, print accounting file ................................................ see acctsh(1M) pscan(1M): pscan ............................................................ scan HP SCSI disk array LUN s for parity consistency pvchange(1M): pvchange .... change characteristics and access path of physical volume in LVM volume group pvck(1M): pvck ......................................................... check or repair a physical volume in LVM volume group pvcreate(1M): pvcreate ................................................ create physical volume for use in LVM volume group pvdisplay(1M): pvdisplay ........................ display information about physical volumes in LVM volume group pvmove(1M): pvmove ........... move physical extents from one LVM physical volume to other physical volumes pvremove(1M): pvremove ............................................................................. remove an LVM physical volume pwck(1M): pwck, grpck ....................................................................................... password/group file checkers pwconv(1M): pwconv ...................................................................................... update secure password facility pwgrd(1M): pwgrd .............................................................. password and group hashing and caching daemon pwgr_stat(1M): pwgr_stat ............................................... password and group hashing and caching statistics quot(1M): quot ............................................................................................. summarize file system ownership quotacheck(1M): quotacheck ............................................................... file system quota consistency checker quotacheck_hfs(1M): quotacheck_hfs .......................................... hfs file system quota consistency checker quotacheck_vxfs(1M): quotacheck_vxfs ................................... VxFS file system quota consistency checker quotaoff: turn file system quotas off .................................................................................... see quotaon(1M) quotaon(1M): quotaoff, quotaon .............................................................. turn file system quotas on and off quot_hfs(1M) : quot .............................................................................. summarize HFS file system ownership quot_vxfs(1M): quot .................................................................................... summarize file system ownership rad(1M): rad ..................................................... perform OLA/R functions without any comprehensive checks rarpc(1M): rarpc .......................................................................... Reverse Address Resolution Protocol client rarpd(1M): rarpd ...................................................................... Reverse Address Resolution Protocol daemon rbootd(1M): rbootd ........................................................................................................... remote boot server rc(1M): rc ...................................................... general purpose sequencer invoked upon entering new run level rcancel(1M): rcancel .......................................... remove requests from a remote line printer spooling queue rdpd(1M): rdpd ............................................................................................ router discovery protocol daemon rdump: incremental file system dump across network ................................................................ see dump(1M) reboot(1M): reboot ............................................................................................................. reboot the system reject: prevent LP printer queuing requests ........................................................................... see accept(1M) remshd(1M): remshd ......................................................................................................... remote shell server renice(1): renice ........................................................................................ alter priority of running processes repquota(1M): repquota ................................................................................... summarize file system quotas restore(1M) : restore, rrestore ........................... restore file system incrementally, local or over a network revck(1M): revck .................................................................... check internal revision numbers of HP-UX files rexd(1M): rexd ......................................................................................... RPC-based remote execution server rexecd(1M): rexecd ................................................................................................... remote execution server ripquery(1M) : ripquery .................................................................................................. query RIP gateways rlogind(1M): rlogind ....................................................................................................... remote login server rlp(1M): rlp ........................................................................... send LP line printer request to a remote system rlpdaemon(1M): rlpdaemon .................................. line printer daemon for LP requests from remote systems rlpstat(1M): rlpstat .................................................. print status of LP spooler requests on a remote system rmboot - install, update, or remove boot programs from a disk device ....................................... see mkboot(1M) rmsf(1M) : rmsf .................................................................................................... remove a special (device) file rmt(1M): rmt ........................................................................................ remote magnetic-tape protocol module route(1M): route ..................................................................................... manually manipulate routing tables rpc.nisd(1M): rpc.nisd_resolv, nisd, nisd_resolv ................................................. NIS+ service daemon rpc.nisd_resolv: NIS+ service daemon ............................................................................. see rpc.nisd(1M) rpc.nispasswdd(1M): rpc.nispasswdd(), nispasswdd() ........................... NIS+ password update daemon rpc.pcnfsd: PC-NFS authentication and print request server ................................................ see pcnfsd(1M) rpc.ypupdated: hex encryption and utility routines ........................................................ see ypupdated(1M) rpcbind(1M): rpcbind .................................................. universal addresses to RPC program number mapper xii __ Hewlett-Packard Company HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/FLIT/FOUT.man1m.tocprint _ __________________________ __ Table of Contents __ Volumes Three and Four Entry Name(Section): name Description rpcinfo(1M): rpcinfo ................................................................................................. report RPC information rpr(1M) : rpr .............................................................. repair parity information on an HP SCSI disk array LUN rquotad(1M): rquotad ..................................................................................................... remote quota server rrestore: restore file system incrementally over a network ..................................................... see restore(1M) rstatd(1M): rstatd ......................................................................................................... kernel statistics server runacct(1M): runacct ..................................................................................................... run daily accounting rusersd(1M) : rusersd ................................................................................................ network username server rvxdump: incremental file system dump across network ........................................................ see vxdump(1M) rvxrestore: restore file system incrementally across network .......................................... see vxrestore(1M) rwall(1M) : rwall ......................................................................................... write to all users over a network rwalld(1M) : rwalld ........................................................................................................... network rwall server rwhod(1M): rwhod ........................................................................................................... system status server sa1(1M): sa1, sa2, sadc ................................................................................... system activity report package sa2: system activity report package ............................................................................................... see sa1(1M) sadc: system activity report package ............................................................................................. see sa1(1M) sam(1M): sam .................................................................................................. system administration manager sar(1M): sar ............................................................................................................... system activity reporter savecrash(1M): savecrash ........................................................... save a crash dump of the operating system scn(1M): scn .................................................................... scan HP SCSI disk array LUN s for parity consistency scsictl(1M): scsictl ...................................................................................................... control a SCSI device sd: create and monitor jobs ........................................................................................................ see swjob(1M) see(1M): see ......................................................... access EEPROM bytes in an HP SCSI disk array controller sendmail(1M): sendmail ...................................................................................... send mail over the Internet service.switch(1M): service.switch ................................. indicate lookup sources and fallback mechanism setboot(1M): setboot ........................................................ display and modify boot variables in stable storage setext(1M): setext ............................................................................................... set extent attributes (VxFS) setmemwindow(1M): setmemwindow ............................ set window id of a running process or start a program in a particular memory window setmnt(1M): setmnt ............................................................. establish file-system mount table, /etc/mnttab setprivgrp(1M): setprivgrp ........................................................................... set special privileges for group setuname(1M): setuname ................................................................................... change machine information set_parms(1M): set_parms ............................................................................... Initial system set up program showmount(1M): showmount ..................................................................................... show all remote mounts shutacct: shell procedures for accounting, turn off accounting ................................................ see acctsh(1M) shutdown(1M): shutdown .......................................................................................... terminate all processing sig_named(1M): sig_named ............................................................... send signals to the domain name server smrsh(1M) : smrsh ................................................................................................ restricted shell for sendmail snmpd(1M): snmpd ........................................................................... daemon that responds to SNMP requests softpower(1M): softpower ........................................................ determine if softpower hardware is installed spd(1M): spd .............................................................. set physical drive parameters for an HP SCSI disk array spray(1M): spray ....................................................................................................................... spray packets sprayd(1M): sprayd ..................................................................................................................... spray server sss(1M) : sss ............................................. set spindle synchronization state of drives in an HP SCSI disk array st(1M): st ............................................................................................................... shared tape administration startup: shell procedures for accounting, start up accounting ................................................. see acctsh(1M) statd(1M): statd ......................................................................................................... network status monitor strace(1M): strace ................................................ write STREAMS event trace messages to standard output strchg(1M): strchg, strconf ............................................................... change or query stream configuration strclean(1M): strclean ................................................................. remove outdated STREAMS error log files strconf: query stream configuration ....................................................................................... see strchg(1M) strdb(1M) : strdb ..................................................................................................... STREAMS debugging tool strerr(1M) : strerr ...................................................... receive error messages from the STREAMS log driver strvf(1M): strvf .................................................................................................... STREAMS verification tool swacl(1M): swacl ..................................................................................... view or modify Access Control Lists swagent: perform software management tasks as the agent of an SD command ................. see swagentd(1M) swagentd(1M): swagentd, swagent ....................... serve local or remote SD-UX software management tasks swapinfo(1M): swapinfo .............................................................................. system paging space information swapon(1M): swapon ............................................................................ enable device or file system for paging swask(1M): swask .......................................................................................... ask for user response for SD-UX swconfig(1M): swconfig ........................................... configure, unconfigure, or reconfigure installed software swcopy: copy software products for subsequent installation or distribution .......................... see swinstall(1M) HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ Hewlett-Packard Company xiii __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/FLIT/FOUT.man1m.tocprint _ __________________________ __ __ Table of Contents Volumes Three and Four Entry Name(Section): name Description swinstall(1M) : swcopy, swinstall ............... install and configure software products, copy software products swjob(1M) : swjob, sd ........................................ display job information, remove jobs, create and monitor jobs swlist(1M) : swlist ...................................................................... display information about software products swmodify(1M): swmodify .................................................. modify software products in a target root or depot swpackage(1M): swpackage ......................................... package software products into a target depot or tape swreg(1M) : swreg ................................................................................ register or unregister depots and roots swremove(1M): swremove ............................................................. unconfigure and remove software products swverify(1M): swverify ............................................................................................ verify software products sync(1M): sync ........................................................................................................... synchronize file systems syncer(1M): syncer .......................................................................... periodically sync for file system integrity sysdef(1M): sysdef ................................................................................................... display system definition syslogd(1M): syslogd .................................................................................................... log systems messages talkd(1M): talkd ....................................................................................... remote user communication server telnetd(1M): telnetd ................................................................................................ TELNET protocol server tftpd(1M): tftpd ......................................................................................... trivial file transfer protocol server tic(1M): tic .......................................................................................................................... terminfo compiler tsm.lpadmin(1M): tsm.lpadmin ..................................................... add or remove a printer for use with tsm ttsyncd(1M): ttsyncd .......... Daemon to maintain the nis+ password table in sync with the nis+ trusted table tunefs(1M): tunefs .................................................................................. tune up an existing HFS file system turnacct: shell procedures for accounting, turn on or off process accounting ........................... see acctsh(1M) udpublickey(1M): udpublickey ................................ updates the publickey database file and the NIS map umount: mount and unmount CDFS file systems ............................................................. see mount_cdfs(1M) umount: mount and unmount HFS file systems ................................................................. see mount_hfs(1M) umount: mount and unmount NFS file systems ................................................................. see mount_nfs(1M) umount: unmount a file system ................................................................................................. see mount(1M) unlink: execute unlink() system call without error checking .................................................... see link(1M) unmount: unmount VxFS file system ................................................................................ see mount_vxfs(1M) untic(1M): untic ............................................................................................................. terminfo de-compiler update-ux(1M): update-ux ................................................................... updates the HP-UX operating system updaters(1M): updaters ........................................................................... configuration file for NIS updating ups_mond(1M): ups_mond ..................................................... Uninterruptible Power System monitor daemon useradd(1M): useradd ..................................................................................... add a user login on the system userdel(1M) : userdel ............................................................................... delete a user login from the system usermod(1M): usermod ............................................................................... modify a user login on the system uucheck(1M): uucheck ........................................................... check the uucp directories and permissions file uucico(1M): uucico ...................................................................................... transfer files for the uucp system uuclean(1M): uuclean ....................................................................................... uucp spool directory clean-up uucleanup(1M):/0/0 uucleanup ............................................................................ uucp spool directory clean-up uucpd(): server for supporting UUCP over TCP/IP networks ..................................................... see uucpd(1M) uucpd(1M): uucpd() ........................................................ server for supporting UUCP over TCP/IP networks uugetty(1M): uugetty ....................................................... set terminal type, modes, speed and line discipline uuls(1M) : uuls ............................................................... list spooled uucp transactions grouped by transaction uusched(1M): uusched ....................................................................................... schedule uucp transport files uusnap(1M): uusnap ................................................................................ show snapshot of the UUCP system uusnaps(1M): uusnaps ................................................................................ sort and embellish uusnap output uusub(1M) : uusub ......................................................................................................... monitor uucp network uuxqt(1M): uuxqt ................................................................... execute remote uucp or uux command requests vgcfgbackup(1M): vgcfgbackup ..................... create or update LVM volume group configuration backup file vgcfgrestore(1M): vgcfgrestore ............................................................ restore volume group configuration vgchange(1M): vgchange ........................................................................... set LVM volume group availability vgchgid(1M): vgchgid ........................ modify the Volume Group ID (VGID) on a given set of physical devices vgcreate(1M): vgcreate ......................................................................................... create LVM volume group vgdisplay(1M): vgdisplay ...................................................... display information about LVM volume groups vgexport(1M): vgexport ............................... export an LVM volume group and its associated logical volumes vgextend(1M): vgextend ....................................... extend an LVM volume group by adding physical volumes vgimport(1M): vgimport ......................................................... import an LVM volume group onto the system vgreduce(1M): vgreduce .............................................. remove physical volumes from an LVM volume group vgremove(1M): vgremove ............................................ remove LVM volume group definition from the system vgscan(1M): vgscan ................................................................. scan physical volumes for LVM volume groups vgsync(1M): vgsync ...................................... synchronize stale logical volume mirrors in LVM volume groups vipw(1M): vipw ............................................................................................................... edit the password file xiv __ Hewlett-Packard Company HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/FLIT/FOUT.man1m.tocprint _ __________________________ __ Table of Contents __ Volumes Three and Four Entry Name(Section): name Description volcopy(1M): volcopy, labelit ............................................................ copy file systems with label checking volcopy_hfs(1M): volcopy, labelit ..................................................... copy file systems with label checking volcopy_vxfs(1M): volcopy, labelit ............................................ copy VxFS file system with label checking vtdaemon(1M): vtdaemon ............................................................................................ respond to vt requests vxdiskusg(1M): vxdiskusg ............................... generate disk accounting data of VxFS file system by user ID vxdump(1M): rvxdump, vxdump ................................... incremental file system dump, local or across network vxenablef(1M): vxenablef ............................. enable VxFS DMAPI or OnLineJFS functionality in the kernel vxfsconvert(1M): vxfsconvert ............................................................ convert file system to vxfs file system vxlicense(1M): vxlicense ...................................................................................... VxFS licensing key utility vxrestore(1M): vxrestore, rvxrestore ............... restore file system incrementally, local or across network vxtunefs(1M): vxtunefs ............................................................................................. tune a VxFS file system vxupgrade(1M): vxupgrade ...................................................... upgrade the disk layout of a VxFS file system wall(1M): wall ......................................................................................................... write message to all users whodo(1M): whodo ................................................................................................ which users are doing what wtmpfix: manipulate connect accounting records ..................................................................... see fwtmp(1M) xntpd(1M): xntpd ........................................................................................... Network Time Protocol daemon xntpdc(1M): xntpdc .............................................................................................. special NTP query program ypbind: Network Information Service (NIS) binder processes ................................................. see ypserv(1M) ypinit(1M): ypinit .................................................. build and install Network Information Service databases ypmake(1M): ypmake ............................................... create or rebuild Network Information Service databases yppasswdd(1M): yppasswdd ................... daemon for modifying Network Information Service passwd database yppoll(1M): yppoll ......................................................... query NIS server for information about an NIS map yppush(1M): yppush ......................................... force propagation of a Network Information Service database ypserv(1M): ypserv, ypbind, ypxfrd ............. Network Information Service (NIS) server and binder processes ypset(1M): ypset ........................................................... bind to particular Network Information Service server ypupdated(1M): ypupdated, rpc.ypupdated ....................................... server for changing NIS information ypxfr(1M): ypxfr, ypxfr_1perday, ypxfr_1perhour, ypxfr_2perday ........................ transfer NIS database from NIS server to local node ypxfrd: Network Information Service (NIS) transfer processes ............................................... see ypserv(1M) HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ Hewlett-Packard Company xv __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/FLIT/FOUT.man1m.tocprint _ __________________________ __ __ Notes xvi __ Hewlett-Packard Company HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ STANDARD Printed by: Nora Chuang [nchuang] STANDARD __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ /build/1111/BRICK/TABS/tab4b.in _ _________________________________ __ __ Section 1M Part 2 System Administration Commands (N-Z) __ __ __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ STANDARD Printed by: Nora Chuang [nchuang] STANDARD __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ /build/1111/BRICK/TABS/tab4b.in _ _________________________________ __ __ Section 1M Part 2 System Administration Commands (N-Z) __ __ __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ STANDARD Printed by: Nora Chuang [nchuang] STANDARD __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ /build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _________________________________ __ __ naaagt(1M) naaagt(1M) NAME naaagt - Native Agent Adapter (NAA) SYNOPSIS export HP_NAA_CNF= naaCnf export HP_NAA_PORT= snmpPort export HP_NAA_GET_COMMUNITY=community /usr/sbin/naaagt [-K] [-n] [-E priority ] [-m logMask ] ... /usr/sbin/naaagt { -h | -help } DESCRIPTION The Native Agent Adapter (naaagt ) allows third-party SNMP agents to work with the HP SNMP Master Agent (snmpdm ). The Native Agent Adapter runs as a subagent to the HP SNMP Master Agent. naaagt reads the naaCnf file (see the HP_NAA_CNF environment variable, described below), and it registers each object identifier (OID) with snmpdm . See the naaCnf File Format section. After registration is complete, naaagt receives SNMP requests from snmpdm and forwards them to a non-standard UDP port on the same system (see the HP_NAA_PORT environment variable, described below). naaagt also receives SNMP responses from the third-party SNMP agent, which is listening to the non-standard UDP port, and naaagt forwards the responses to snmpdm . The third-party SNMP agent must listen to the same non-standard UDP port that naaagt sends to (HP_NAA_PORT ), not the standard SNMP port number (161). Refer to third-party documentation for instructions on how to accomplish this. The third-party SNMP agent can be started before or after starting naaagt . Parameters -E priority -K Sets the registration priority. If two subagents register the same OIDs, requests are sent to the subagent with the highest priority or to the subagent with the same priority that was the last to register. The priority range is zero (high) to 255 (low). Default: zero. n Causes the Native Agent Adapter (naaagt ) to continue to run, even if the HP SNMP Master Agent (snmpdm ) terminates. When snmpdm subsequently restarts, naaagt will reestablish communication with snmpdm and re-register its OIDs. This option is recommended if the Independent Start-up procedure is used, described below. By default, naaagt terminates automatically when snmpdm terminates. Troubleshooting Parameters -h -help -m logMask Displays usage information. -n Causes naaagt to run in foreground. By default, naaagt runs in the background. Sets the logging mask. logMask may be one of the following names: APWARN , APERROR , APTRACE , APALL , or APNONE . Multiple logging options can be specified by repeatLogging data is written to the SNMP log file, ing the -m option. /var/adm/snmpd.log. Default: APNONE . Native Agent Adapter Start-up The Native Agent Adapter start-up procedure may be provided by the vendor of the third-party SNMP agent. Refer to third-party documentation for instructions. Automatic Start-up The third-party SNMP agent and its Native Agent Adapter can be started and stopped automatically during system start-up and shutdown. This is accomplished by providing a start-up/shutdown script under the /sbin/init.d directory, with symbolic links to it under an appropriate /sbin/rc N .d directory. See the rc (1M) man page for details. See the Independent Start-up section for procedures for starting naaagt . Manual Start-up The third-party SNMP agent and its Native Agent Adapter can be started using the /usr/sbin/snmpd command by providing start-up and shutdown scripts under /sbin/SnmpAgtStart.d. Normally, HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −1− Section 1M− 521 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ naaagt(1M) naaagt(1M) those scripts are merely symbolic links to the automatic start-up/shutdown script under /sbin/init.d , following the same naming conventions documented in the rc (1M) manual page. These scripts are executed by the /usr/sbin/snmpd command. See the Independent Start-up section for procedures for starting naaagt . Independent Start-up The third-party SNMP agent and its Native Agent Adapter can be started by entering commands directly or by executing an arbitrary script. When this approach is used, the naaagt -K option should probably be used because the third-party agent and adapter will not be restarted by the /usr/sbin/snmpd command. The following procedure should be used to start naaagt for each third-party agent. • Export HP_NAA_CNF , which must be set to an absolute path name for a third-party-specific naaCnf file. Create the naaCnf file; refer to third-party documentation for a list of the OIDs that are instrumented by the third-party SNMP agent. • Export HP_NAA_GET_COMMUNITY, which must be set to the community name to be used in SNMP requests forwarded from naaagt to the third-party SNMP agent. This environment variable is required only if the third-party agent is configured to use a community name other than the default ("public"). • Create a unique symbolic link to /usr/sbin/naaagt. This makes it convenient to distinguish each Native Agent Adapter in output from the ps -ef command. Execute the symbolic link to start naaagt . • n Export HP_NAA_PORT , which must be set to a unique port number. • Start the third-party SNMP agent, following procedures in the third-party documentation. This can be done before or after starting naaagt . naaCnf File Format The naaCnf file consists of a list of numeric object identifiers (OIDs), one OID per line. Each OID is a subtree of MIB variables that are instrumented by the third-party SNMP agent. Refer to third-party documentation for the list of OIDs. Blank lines and lines beginning with "#" are treated as comments. Leading and trailing spaces on a line are ignored. The OID can start with an optional period. Example # RDBMS MIB (with leading period) .1.3.6.1.2.1.39 # Third-party Private MIB (without leading period) 1.3.6.1.4.1.111 # application/applTable MIB 1.3.6.1.2.1.27.1.1 EXTERNAL INFLUENCES Environment Variables HP_NAA_CNF The absolute path name for the naaCnf file from which the Native Agent Adapter reads the OIDs to be registered for its third-party SNMP agent. Default (not recommended): /etc/SnmpAgent.d/naa.cnf. HP_NAA_GET_COMMUNITY The community name that the Native Agent Adapter uses in SNMP requests forwarded to the third-party SNMP agent. Note that this does not have to match any community names accepted by the SNMP Master Agent, which are defined in /etc/SnmpAgent.d/snmpd.conf. This environment variable is required only if the standard community name ("public") is not accepted by the third-party SNMP agent. Refer to third-party documentation for instructions regarding SNMP community names. Default: public. HP_NAA_PORT Section 1M− 522 __ The non-standard UDP port number to which the Native Agent Adapter forwards SNMP requests to the third-party SNMP agent. This must match the port number that the third-party agent listens to instead of the standard SNMP port (161). Each third-party SNMP agent must listen to a different non-standard UDP port number. Default: 8161. −2− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ naaagt(1M) naaagt(1M) International Code Set Support Supports single-byte character code sets except where the SNMP protocol supports only 7-bit characters encoded in ASCII. WARNINGS The Native Agent Adapter only supports SNMP read requests (for example, SNMP Get). SNMP Set requests must be sent directly to the third-party SNMP agent’s non-standard UDP port (HP_NAA_PORT ). If the HP_NAA_PORT value is not a valid port number, naaagt terminates without writing any error message either to the display or to /var/adm/snmpd.log. If there are no valid OIDs in the naaCnf file, naaagt terminates. It does not register a default OID. There may be unexpected results if the -E priority is outside the valid range. AUTHOR naaagt was developed by SNMP Research and Hewlett-Packard Company. FILES /etc/SnmpAgent.d/naa.cnf Default naaCnf file. Not recommended. /sbin/SnmpAgtStart.d Directory for SNMP start-up and shutdown scripts. /usr/sbin/naaagt /usr/sbin/snmpdm /var/adm/snmpd.log Native Agent Adapter command. HP SNMP Master Agent command. HP SNMP log file. SEE ALSO rc(1M), snmpd(1M), snmpd.conf(4). n HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −3− Section 1M− 523 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ named-xfer(1M) named-xfer(1M) NAME named-xfer - ancillary agent for inbound zone transfers SYNOPSIS named-xfer -z zone_to_transfer -f db_file -s serial_no [ -d debuglevel ] [ -l debug_log_file ] [ -t trace_file ] [ -p port# ] [ -S ] nameserver ... DESCRIPTION named-xfer is an ancillary program executed by named (1M) to perform an inbound zone transfer. It is rarely executed directly, and then generally by system administrators trying to debug a zone transfer problem. See RFC’s 1033, 1034, and 1035 for more information on the Internet name-domain system. Options are: -z specifies the name of the zone to be transferred. -f specifies the name of the le into which the zone should be dumped when it is received from the primary server. -s specifies the serial number of the current copy of the zone selected for transfer. If the SOA resource record received from the specified remote nameserver(s) does not have a serial number higher than one specified with this option, the transfer will be aborted. -d Print debugging information. A number after the d determines the level of messages printed. -l Specifies a log file for debugging messages. The default file uses the prefix xfer.ddt. and is located in the /var/tmp directory. Note this option only applies if -d is also specified. -t Specifies a trace file which will contain a protocol trace of the zone transfer. This is probably only of interest when debugging the name server itself. -p Use a different port number. The default is the standard port number as returned by getservbyname (3) for service ‘‘domain’’. n -S Perform a restricted transfer of only the SOA, NS and glue A records for the zone. The SOA will not be loaded by named , but will be used to determine when to verify the NS records. See the stubs directive in named (1M) for more information. Additional arguments are taken as name server addresses in so-called ‘‘dotted-quad’’ syntax only; no host name are allowed here. At least one address must be specified. Any additional addresses will be tried in order if the first one fails to transfer to us successfully. RETURN VALUE 0 Indicates that the zone was up-to-date and no transfer was needed. 1 2 Indicates a successful transfer. 3 Indicates that an error occurred and named-xfer logged an error message. Indicates that the host(s) named-xfer queried cannot be reached or that an error occurred and named-xfer did not log a corresponding error message. AUTHOR named-xfer was developed by the University of California, Berkeley. SEE ALSO named(1M), resolver(3N), resolver(4), hostname(5). RFC 882, RFC 883, RFC 973, RFC 974, RFC 1033, RFC 1034, RFC 1035, RFC 1123. Section 1M− 524 __ −1− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ named(1M) named(1M) NAME named - Internet domain name server SYNOPSIS named [ -d debuglevel ] [ -p port_number ] [ [ -(b|c ) ] config_file ] [ -f ] [ -q ] [ -r ] [ -u user_name ] [ -g group_name ] [ -t directory ] [ -w directory ] [config_file ] DESCRIPTION named is the Internet domain name server. See RFC1033, RFC1034 and RFC1035 for more information on the Domain Name System. Without any arguments, named reads the default configuration file /etc/named.conf, reads any initial data, and listens for queries. Options are: -d debuglevel Print debugging information. A number after the d determines the level of messages printed. If negative, debuglevel is set to ‘‘1’’. NOTE: The new debugging framework is considerably more sophisticated than it was in older versions of NAMED . The configuration file’s logging statement allows for multiple, distinct levels of debugging for each of a large set of categories of events (such as queries, transfers in or out, etc.). -p port_number Use a different port number. NOTE: Previously, the syntax: " -p port#[/localport#] " was supported; the first port was that used when contacting remote servers, and the second one was the service port bound by the local instance of NAMED . The current usage is equivalent to the old usage without the localport# specified; this functionality can be specified with the listen-on clause of the configuration file’s options statement. -(b|c) config_file Use a config_file other than /etc/named.conf. -f Run this process in the foreground; dont fork (2) and daemonize. (The default is to daemonize.) -q n Trace all incoming queries, if NAMED has been compiled with QRYLOG defined. NOTE: This option is deprecated in favor of the queries logging category of the configuration file’s logging statement. -r Turns recursion off in the server. Answers can only come from local (primary or secondary) zones. This can be used on root servers. The default is to use recursion. NOTE: This option can be overridden by and is deprecated in favor of the recursion clause of the configuration file’s options statement. -u user_name Specifies the user the server should run as after it initializes. The value specified may be either a username or a numeric user id. If the -g flag is not specified, then the group id used will be the primary group of the user specified (initgroups() is called, so all of the user’s groups will be available to the server). -g group_name Specifies the group the server should run as after it initializes. The value specified may be either a groupname or a numeric group id. -t directory Specifies the directory the server should chroot() into as soon as it is finished processing command line arguments. -w directory Sets the working directory of the server. The directory clause of the configuration file’s options statement overrides any value specified on the command line. The default working directory is the current directory (.). Any additional argument is taken as the name of the configuration file. The configuration file contains information about where the name server gets its initial data. If multiple configuration files are specified, HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −1− Section 1M− 525 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ named(1M) named(1M) only the last is used. Lines in the configuration file cannot be continued on subsequent lines. The following is a small example: // /* configuration file for name server # options { directory "/usr/local/domain"; forwarders { 10.0.0.78; 10.2.0.78; }; noforward { test.com; c.b.a.in-addr.arpa; }; sortlist { 10.0.0.0; 26.0.0.0; }; }; */ zone "." { type hint; file "db.cache"; }; zone "berkeley.edu" { type master; file "db.berkeley"; }; n zone "32.128.in-addr.arpa" { type master; file "db.128.32"; }; zone "cc.berkeley.edu" { type slave; file "db.cc"; masters { 128.32.137.8; }; }; }; The directory statement causes the server to change its working directory to the directory specified. This can be important for the correct processing of $INCLUDE files (described later) in primary server’s master files. Files referenced in the configuration file contain data in the master file format described in RFC1035. The forwarders line specifies the addresses of sitewide servers that will accept recursive queries from other servers. If the configuration file specifies one or more forwarders, then the server will send all queries for data not in the cache or in its authoritative data to the forwarders first. Each forwarder will be asked in turn until an answer is returned or the list is exhausted. If no answer is forthcoming from a forwarder, the server will continue as it would have without the forwarders line unless it is in forward-only mode. The forwarding facility is useful to cause a large sitewide cache to be generated on a master, and to reduce traffic over links to outside servers. The noforward line specifies that the DNS server will not forward any request for something in or below the listed domains, even if the forwarders directive exists. Section 1M− 526 __ −2− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ named(1M) named(1M) The sortlist line can be used to indicate networks that are preferred over other, unlisted networks. Address sorting only happens when the query is from a host on the same network as the server. The best address is placed first in the response. The address preference is local network addresses, then addresses on the sort list, then other addresses. A server can access information from servers in other domains given a list of root name servers and their addresses. The zone "." line specifies that data in db.cache is to be placed in the backup cache. Its use is to prime the server with the locations of root domain servers. This information is used to find the current root servers and their addresses. The current root server information is placed in the operating cache. Data for the root nameservers in the backup cache are never discarded. The zone "berkeley.edu" line states that the master file db.berkeley contains authoritative data for the berkeley.edu zone. A server authoritative for a zone has the most accurate information for the zone. All domain names are relative to the origin, in this case, berkeley.edu (see below for a more detailed description). The zone "32.128.in-addr.arpa" line states that the file db.128.32 contains authoritative data for the domain 32.128.in -addr.arpa . This domain is used to translate addresses in network 128.32 to hostnames. The zone "cc.berkeley.edu" line specifies that all authoritative data in the cc.berkeley.edu zone is to be transferred from the name server at Internet address 128.32.137.8 and will be saved in the backup file db.cc . Up to 10 addresses can be listed on this line. If a transfer fails, it will try the next address in the list. The secondary copy is also authoritative for the specified domain. The first nonInternet address on this line will be taken as a filename in which to backup the transferred zone. The name server will load the zone from this backup file (if it exists) when it boots, providing a complete copy, even if the master servers are unreachable. Whenever a new copy of the domain is received from one of the master servers, this file is updated. If no file name is given, a temporary file will be used and will be deleted after each successful zone transfer. This is not recommended because it causes a needless waste of bandwidth. Master File Format The master file consists of control information and a list of resource records for objects in the zone of the forms: $INCLUDE filename opt_domain $ORIGIN domain n domain opt_ttl opt_class type resource_record_data where: domain is . for root, @ for the current origin, or a standard domain name. If domain is a standard domain name that does not end with ‘‘.’’, the current origin is appended to the domain. Domain names ending with ‘‘.’’ are unmodified. opt_domain This field is used to define an origin for the data in an included file. It is equivalent to placing an $ORIGIN statement before the first line of the included file. The field is optional. Neither the opt_domain field nor $ORIGIN statements in the included file modify the current origin for this file. opt_ttl An optional integer number for the time-to-live field. It defaults to zero, meaning the minimum value specified in the SOA record for the zone. opt_class The object address type; currently only one type is supported, IN, for objects connected to the DARPA Internet. type This field contains one of the following tokens; the data expected in the resource_record_data field is in parentheses: A NS MX a host address (dotted-quad IP address) an authoritative name server (domain) a mail exchanger (domain), preceded by a preference value (0..32767), with lower numeric values representing higher logical preferences. CNAME the canonical name for an alias (domain) SOA marks the start of a zone of authority (domain of originating host, domain address of maintainer, a serial number and the following parameters in seconds: refresh, retry, expire and minimum TTL (see RFC 883)). HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −3− Section 1M− 527 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ named(1M) named(1M) NULL RP PTR HINFO TXT WKS a null resource record (no format or data) a Responsible Person for some domain name (mailbox, TXT-referral) a domain name pointer (domain) host information (cpu_type OS_type) text data (string) a well known service description (IP address followed by a list of services) Resource records normally end at the end of a line, but may be continued across lines between opening and closing parentheses. Comments are introduced by semicolons and continue to the end of the line. NOTE: There are other resource record types not shown here. You should consult the BIND Operations Guide (‘‘BOG’’) for the complete list. Some resource record types may have been standardized in newer RFC’s but not yet implemented in this version of BIND. SOA Record Format Each master zone file should begin with an SOA record for the zone. An example SOA record is as follows: @ IN SOA ucbvax.Berkeley.EDU. rwh.ucbvax.Berkeley.EDU. ( 1989020501 ; serial 10800 ; refresh 3600 ; retry 3600000 ; expire 86400 ) ; minimum The SOA specifies a serial number, which should be changed each time the master file is changed. Note that the serial number can be given as a dotted number, but this is a very unwise thing to do since the translation to normal integers is via concatenation rather than multiplication and addition. You can spell out the year, month, day of month, and 0..99 version number and still fit inside the unsigned 32-bit size of this field. (It’s true that we will have to rethink this strategy in the year 4294.) n Secondary servers check the serial number at intervals specified by the refresh time in seconds; if the serial number changes, a zone transfer will be done to load the new data. If a master server cannot be contacted when a refresh is due, the retry time specifies the interval at which refreshes should be attempted. If a master server cannot be contacted within the interval given by the expire time, all data from the zone is discarded by secondary servers. The minimum value is the time-to-live (‘‘TTL’’) used by records in the file with no explicit time-to-live value. NOTE: The boot file directives domain and suffixes have been obsoleted by a more useful, resolverbased implementation of suffixing for partially-qualified domain names. The prior mechanisms could fail under a number of situations, especially when then local nameserver did not have complete information. The following signals have the specified effect when sent to the server process using the kill (1) command: SIGHUP Causes server to read named.conf and reload database. If the server is built with the FORCED_RELOAD compile-time option, then SIGHUP will also cause the server to check the serial number on all secondary zones; normally, the serial numbers are only checked at the SOA-specified intervals. SIGINT SIGILL Dumps current data base and cache to /var/tmp/named_dump.db. Dumps statistics data into named.stats if the server is compiled with -DSTATS . Statistics data is appended to the file. SIGSYS Dumps the profiling data in /var/tmp if the server is compiled with profiling (server forks, chdirs and exits). SIGTERM Dumps the primary and secondary database files. Used to save modified data on shutdown if the server is compiled with dynamic updating enabled. SIGUSR1 SIGUSR2 SIGWINCH Turns on debugging; each SIGUSR1 increments debug level. Turns off debugging completely. Toggles the logging of all incoming queries via syslog() (requires server to have been built with the QRYLOG option). sig_named (1M) can also be used for sending signals to the server process. Section 1M− 528 __ −4− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ named(1M) named(1M) NOTE named checks for symbolic or hard links while writing to the following files: /var/run/named.pid /var/tmp/named_dump.db /var/tmp/named.run /var/tmp/named.stats If any of these files is linked to a different file before named writes into them, named will delete that file and create it afresh. DIAGNOSTICS Any errors encountered by named in the configuration file, master files, or in normal operation are logged with syslog and in the debug file, /var/tmp/named.run, if debugging is on. AUTHOR named was developed by the University of California, Berkeley. FILES /etc/named.conf /var/run/named.pid /var/tmp/named.run /var/tmp/named_dump.db /var/tmp/named.stats name server configuration file process ID debug output dump of the name server database nameserver statistics data SEE ALSO kill(1), hosts_to_named(1M), named-xfer(1M), sig_named(1M), signal(2), gethostent(3N), resolver(3N), resolver(4), hostname(5), RFC 882, RFC 883, RFC 973, RFC 974, RFC 1032, RFC 1033, RFC 1034, RFC 1035, RFC 1123. n HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −5− Section 1M− 529 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ ncheck(1M) ncheck(1M) NAME ncheck - generate a list of path names from inode numbers SYNOPSIS /usr/sbin/ncheck [-F FStype ] [-V] [-o specific_options ] [ special ... ] DESCRIPTION ncheck , when invoked without arguments, generates a list of path names corresponding to the inode numbers of all files contained on the file systems listed in /etc/fstab. If special is specified, ncheck reports on the special only. Path names generated by ncheck are relative to the given special . Options -F FStype Specify the file system type on which to operate (see fstyp (1M) and fs_wrapper (5)). If this option is not included on the command line, then the file system type is determined from the file /etc/fstab by matching each special with an entry in that file. If there is no entry in /etc/fstab , then the file system type is determined from the file /etc/default/fs. -o specific_options Specify options specific to each file system type. specific_options is a list of suboptions and/or keyword/attribute pairs intended for a specific FStype -specific module of the command. See the file-system-specific manual pages for a description of the specific_options supported, if any. -V Echo the completed command line, but perform no other action. The command line is generated by incorporating the user-specified options and other information derived from /etc/fstab . This option allows the user to verify the command line. EXAMPLES Execute the ncheck command on all special in /etc/fstab: ncheck n Execute the ncheck command on HFS file system /dev/dsk/c1d2s0: ncheck -F hfs /dev/dsk/c1d2s0 Display a completed command line without executing the command: ncheck -V /dev/dsk/c1d2s0 FILES /etc/default/fs /etc/fstab Specifies the default system type. Static information about the file systems. AUTHOR ncheck was developed by AT&T and HP. SEE ALSO fstab(4), fstyp(1M), fs_wrapper(5), ncheck_hfs(1M), ncheck_vxfs(1M). STANDARDS CONFORMANCE ncheck : SVID2, SVID3 Section 1M− 530 __ −1− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ ncheck_hfs(1M) ncheck_hfs(1M) NAME ncheck - generate a list of path names from inode numbers for a HFS file system SYNOPSIS /usr/sbin/ncheck [-F hfs ] [-V] [-S sector_ranges] [-i inode-numbers ] [-a] [-s] [ special ... ] DESCRIPTION ncheck , when invoked without arguments, generates a list of path names corresponding to the inode numbers of all files contained on the HFS file systems listed in /etc/fstab . If special is specified, ncheck reports on the special only. Path names generated by ncheck are relative to the given special . Names of directory files are followed by /. Options -a Allow printing of the names . and .. , which are ordinarily suppressed. -F hfs Specify the HFS file system type. -i inode-numbers Report only on files whose inode numbers are specified on the command line, in inode-numbers . inode-numbers is a comma separated list of inode numbers. -s Report only on special files and regular files with set-user-ID mode. The -s option is intended to discover concealed violations of security policy. -V Echo the completed command line, but performs no other action. The command line is generated by incorporating the user-specified options and other information derived from /etc/fstab . This option allows the user to verify the command line. -S sector_ranges Report only on files using sector numbers specified on the command line in sector_ranges . sector_ranges is a comma separated list of sector ranges. A sector range is a starting sector number and an ending sector number separated by a dash, or just a sector number. The sector numbers should be in DEV_BSIZE units. If no pathname contains the sector number it will be reported as free or containing file system structure. Sectors beyond the end of the file system will be reported as illegal. n Access Control Lists Continuation inodes (that is, inodes containing additional access control list information) are quietly skipped since they do not correspond to any path name. EXAMPLES Execute the ncheck command on all special in /etc/fstab: ncheck Execute the ncheck command on HFS file system /dev/dsk/c1d2s0: ncheck -F hfs /dev/dsk/c1d2s0 EXTERNAL INFLUENCES International Code Set Support Single- and multi-byte character code sets are supported. DIAGNOSTICS When the file system structure is improper, ?? denotes the ‘‘parent’’ of a parentless file and a path-name beginning with ... denotes a loop. AUTHOR ncheck was developed by AT&T and HP. FILES /etc/default/fs /etc/fstab Specifies the default file system type. Static information about the file systems. HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −1− Section 1M− 531 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ ncheck_hfs(1M) ncheck_hfs(1M) SEE ALSO acl(5), fsck(1M), fstab(4), fs_wrapper(5), ncheck(1M), sort(1). STANDARDS CONFORMANCE ncheck : SVID2, SVID3 n Section 1M− 532 __ −2− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ ncheck_vxfs(1M) ncheck_vxfs(1M) NAME ncheck - generate pathnames from inode numbers for a VxFS file system SYNOPSIS /usr/sbin/ncheck [-a] [-F vxfs ] [-i ilist ] [-o specific_options ] [-s] [-S sector_list ] [-V ] special ... DESCRIPTION ncheck generates a list of pathnames corresponding to inode numbers for files in a specified VxFS file system. You can specify a range for some options. A range can be a single number, or two numbers separated by a hyphen (-). The range is inclusive. If the range is a single number, the output will refer to the single sector, block, or surface specified by that number. If you enter a hyphen and omit the first number (-number ), the range begins at zero. If you omit the second number, the range ends at the end of the file system. Names of directory files are followed by slash dot (/. ). Options -a Allow printing of the names dot (.) suppressed. -F vxfs -i ilist and dot dot (.. ), which are ordinarily Specify the file-system type (vxfs ). Limit the report to the files on the inode list, ilist , that follows. The ilist must be separated by commas without spaces. -o specific_options Specify options specific to the VxFS file-system type. specific_options is a list of suboptions and/or keyword/attribute pairs intended for the VxFS-specific module of the command. The available options are n m Print mode information (used in conjunction with -i option). b=block Print the pathname containing file system block number block . block= block_range Print information on all inodes containing or referencing block numbers in the specified range. The output format is the same as that for -o sector= , but the units used are file-system blocks instead of sectors. sector= sector_range Report on all inodes containing or referencing the sector(s) in sector_range . The output includes the inode number, fileset index of the inode, sector(s) contained and the pathname or inode type. Inodes searched include structural inodes and attribute inodes, so a pathname is only generated when the sector is contained by a file. If the sector is not contained in any file, the inode type is printed as <free> . Multiple -o sector= options accumulate. surface[= sector_range ] Perform a surface analysis. If a sector_range is specified, perform a surface analysis only for that range. All the sectors are read and if the read of a sector fails, its sector number is printed. If any bad sectors are found, ncheck treats the list of bad sectors as input to the -o sector= sector_range option and produces a list of inodes containing or referencing the bad sectors. -s Report only on special files and regular files with set-user-ID mode. This option may be used to detect violations of security policy. -S sector_list Report on files containing or referencing the specified sector(s). Output consists of the fileset name, fileset index, inode number, and pathname of file or file type if a structural inode or attribute inode. Sectors not allocated to any file or file system structure are reported as <free> . Sectors not part of the file system are reported as <unused> . Unused or irrelevant fields are printed as -. HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −1− Section 1M− 533 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ ncheck_vxfs(1M) ncheck_vxfs(1M) sector_list consists of one or more ranges of sector numbers, separated by commas without intervening spaces. Multiple -S options accumulate. -V Echo the completed command line, but do not execute the command. The command line is generated by incorporating the user-specified options and other information derived from /etc/fstab . This option allows the user to verify the command line. EXAMPLES Report on all inodes or file system structures containing or referencing sector 20 through 35 (inclusive) in the file system /dev/vg01/rlvol1: ncheck -F vxfs -osector=20-35 /dev/vg01/rlvol1 Same as above but report on all inodes or file system structures referencing any sector in the file system /dev/vg01/rlvol1: ncheck -F vxfs -osector= /dev/vg01/rlvol1 Report on a specified range of block numbers (partial output shown): n ncheck -F vxfs -oblock=- /dev/vg00/lvol6 /dev/vg00/lvol6: sectors(348160) blocks(348160) --------------------------------0-348159 0-348159 fileset fset mtch match name indx inode indx inode blocks ---------- ---- ------ ---- ------ ------------STRUCTURAL 1 3 35 9-10 STRUCTURAL 1 4 1 - 11-14 STRUCTURAL 1 5 1 37 1296-1303 STRUCTURAL 1 5 1 37 24-31 STRUCTURAL 1 5 1 37 1288-1295 STRUCTURAL 1 5 1 37 16-23 STRUCTURAL 1 6 - 15 STRUCTURAL 1 7 39 33 STRUCTURAL 1 8 40 34 STRUCTURAL 1 9 41 40-1063 STRUCTURAL 1 10 42 1144-1151 STRUCTURAL 1 10 42 1072-1143 STRUCTURAL 1 10 42 1064-1071 STRUCTURAL 1 32 - 32 STRUCTURAL 1 33 - 1284 STRUCTURAL 1 33 - 0-8 STRUCTURAL 1 34 - 35 STRUCTURAL 1 35 3 1280-1281 STRUCTURAL 1 37 1 5 1296-1303 STRUCTURAL 1 37 1 5 24-31 STRUCTURAL 1 37 1 5 1288-1295 STRUCTURAL 1 37 1 5 16-23 STRUCTURAL 1 39 7 1282 STRUCTURAL 1 40 8 1283 STRUCTURAL 1 41 9 40-1063 STRUCTURAL 1 42 10 1144-1151 STRUCTURAL 1 42 10 1072-1143 STRUCTURAL 1 42 10 1064-1071 STRUCTURAL 1 64 999 - 36-39 STRUCTURAL 1 65 999 97 59072-59135 STRUCTURAL 1 65 999 97 1152-1159 STRUCTURAL 1 69 999 - 1160-1167 STRUCTURAL 1 97 999 65 59072-59135 STRUCTURAL 1 97 999 65 1152-1159 UNNAMED 999 96 - 4861 UNNAMED 999 1807 - 344387 Section 1M− 534 __ −2− name -----------------<fileset_header> <inode_alloc_unit> <inode_list> <inode_list> <inode_list> <inode_list> <current_usage_tbl> <object_loc_tbl> <device_config> <intent_log> <extent_map> <extent_map> <extent_map> <state_alloc_bitmap> <device_label> <device_label> <extent_au_summary> <fileset_header> <inode_list> <inode_list> <inode_list> <inode_list> <object_loc_tbl> <device_config> <intent_log> <extent_map> <extent_map> <extent_map> <inode_alloc_unit> <inode_list> <inode_list> <bsd_quota> <inode_list> <inode_list> /file1 /file1000 HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ ncheck_vxfs(1M) UNNAMED - ncheck_vxfs(1M) 999 - 1822 - - - 328082 /file2 - 19766-19769 <free> - 347192-347194 <free> DIAGNOSTICS When the file system structure is not correct, ncheck prints ??? to denote the ‘‘parent’’ of a parentless file. A pathname beginning with ... denotes a loop. A pathname beginning with *** denotes a directory entry whose .. (dotdot) entry does not correspond with the directory in which it was found. FILES /etc/fstab Static information about the file systems. SEE ALSO sort(1), fsck(1M), fsck_vxfs(1M), ncheck(1M). n HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −3− Section 1M− 535 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ ndd(1M) ndd(1M) NAME ndd - network tuning SYNOPSIS ndd ndd ndd ndd ndd ndd -get network_device parameter -set network_device parameter value -h sup [ported ] -h unsup [ported ] -h [parameter ] -c DESCRIPTION The ndd command allows the examination and modification of several tunable parameters that affect networking operation and behavior. It accepts arguments on the command line or may be run interactively. The -h option displays all the supported and unsupported tunable parameters that ndd provides. Valid network_device names are: /dev/arp , /dev/ip , /dev/rawip , /dev/tcp , and /dev/udp . Set parameter to ? to get a list of parameters for a particular network_device . ndd -get Get the value of the parameter for network_device and print the value to standard output. Returned numbers are always displayed as decimal strings. ndd -set Set parameter for network_device to value . All times are specified in milliseconds, e.g. 240000 for 4 minutes. Unless stated otherwise, numbers are assumed to be in decimal. Use "0x" prefix to specify hexadecimal values. In general, all tunable parameters are global, i.e., they affect all instances of the network module. Some settings take effect immediately, while others are used to initialize data for an instance and will only affect newly opened streams. n ndd -h supported Display all the supported tunable parameters. This set of parameters are supported by HP and detailed descriptions of these tunable parameters are available through the -h parameter command. ndd -h unsupported Display all the unsupported tunable parameters. This set of parameters are not supported by HP and modification of these tunable parameters are not suggested nor recommended. Setting any unsupported tunable parameters on your system may result in adverse effects to your networking operations. ndd -h When parameter is specified, a detail description of the parameter, along with its minimum, maximum, and default value are displayed. If no parameter is specified, it displays all supported and unsupported tunable parameters. ndd -c Read input from the configuration file /etc/rc.config.d/nddconf and set the tunable parameters. A user may specify tunable parameters in the nddconf configuration file, and these parameters will be set automatically each time the system boots. DIAGNOSTICS When the command fails, an error message is printed to the standard error and the command terminates with an exit value of one. WARNINGS Care must be used when setting parameters for a network_device. Setting a tunable parameter to an inappropriate value can result in adverse affects to your networking operations. EXAMPLES To get help information on all supported tunable parameters: ndd -h supported To get a detail description of the tunable parameter, ip_forwarding: ndd -h ip_forwarding Section 1M− 536 __ −1− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ ndd(1M) ndd(1M) To get a list of all TCP related parameters: ndd -get /dev/tcp ? To get the current value of the tunable parameter, ip_forwarding: ndd -get /dev/ip ip_forwarding To set the value of the default TTL parameter for UDP to 128: ndd -set /dev/udp udp_def_ttl 128 FILES /etc/rc.config.d/nddconf Contains tunable parameters that will be set automatically each time the system boots. AUTHOR ndd was developed by HP. n HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −2− Section 1M− 537 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ netfmt(1M) netfmt(1M) NAME netfmt - format tracing and logging binary files SYNOPSIS /usr/sbin/netfmt /usr/sbin/netfmt /usr/sbin/netfmt [ -N [ -1 [ -L ] /usr/sbin/netfmt [ -k ] -s [ -t records ] [[ -f ] file_name ] [ -k] -p [ -c config_file ] [ -c config_file ] [ -F ] [ -t records ] [ -v ] [ -l ] [ -n ] [ -T ]]] [[ -f ] file_name ] -k [ -c config_file ] [ -F ] [ -t records ] [ -v ] [[ -f ] file_name ] DESCRIPTION netfmt is used to format binary trace and log data gathered from the network tracing and logging facility (see nettl (1M)) and the kernel logging facility (see kl (1M)). The binary trace and log information can be read from a file or from standard input (if standard input is a tty device, an informative message is given and netfmt quits). Formatted data is written to standard output. Formatting options are specified in an optional filter configuration file. Message inclusion and format can be controlled by the filter configuration file. If no configuration commands are specified, all messages are fully formatted. There are two types of global formatting done by netfmt . The first one is global filtering for NetTL’s trace/log packets and the other is for KL’s log packets. A description of the filter configuration file follows the option descriptions. Options netfmt recognizes the following command-line options and arguments: -k This option tells netfmt that the input file is a KL log file. This option should be specified if the user needs to log messages got from KL subsystems. This option cannot be specified anywhere except as the first option in the command line. -s Display a summary of the input file. The summary includes the total number of messages, the starting and ending timestamps, the types of messages, and information about the system that the data was collected on. The contents of the input file are not formatted; only a summary is reported. -t records n Specifies the number of records from the tail end of the input file to format. This allows the user to bypass extraneous information at the beginning of the file, and get to the most recent information quickly. The maximum number of records that can be specified is 1000. If omitted, all records are formatted. The -t option is not allowed when the input file is a FIFO (pipe). -f file_name Specifies the input file containing the binary log or trace data. file_name may not be the name of a tty device. Other options may impose additional restrictions on the type of the input file allowed. If omitted, data is read from standard input. -p Parse input: this switch allows the user to perform a syntax check on the config_file specified by the -c parameter. All other parameters are ignored. If the syntax is correct, netfmt terminates with no output or warnings. -c config_file Specifies the file containing formatter filter configuration commands. Syntax for the commands is given below. When -c is omitted the file $HOME/.netfmtrc is read for both logging and tracing filter configuration commands if it exists. -F Follow the input file. Instead of closing the input file when end of file is encountered, netfmt keeps it open and continues to read from it as new data arrives. This is especially useful for watching events occur in real time while troubleshooting a problem. Another use would be for recording events to a console or hard-copy device for auditing. (Note that console logging is controlled by the configuration files /etc/nettlgen.conf and /var/adm/conslog.opts; see nettlgen.conf (4).) The -F option is not allowed when the input file is redirected. The following options are not supported by all subsystems. If a subsystem does not support an option, that option is ignored during formatting of data from that subsystem. Consult the product documentation of the subsystem for information regarding the support of these options. Section 1M− 538 __ −1− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ netfmt(1M) -v netfmt(1M) Enables output of verbose information. This includes additional cause and action text with formatted output. This information describes the possible cause of the message and any actions that may be required by the subsystem. After the contents of the input file have been formatted a summary of the file is displayed. When this option is used with the -t option, only a summary of the last records is reported. No summary is produced when this option is used in conjunction with the -F option or if formatting is interrupted. -l (ell ) Turn off inverse video highlighting of certain traced fields. Use this flag when sending formatted trace data to a line printer. By default, certain fields in the trace file are highlighted in inverse video when viewing the formatted trace format at a terminal that supports highlighting. -n Shows port numbers and network addresses(such as IP and x121) as numbers (normally, netfmt interprets numbers and attempts to display them symbolically). -N Enables ‘‘nice’’ formatting where Ethernet/IEEE802.3, SLIP, IP, ICMP, IGMP, TCP, UDP, and RPC packets are displayed symbolically. All remaining user data is formatted in hexadecimal and ASCII. -1 (one) Attempts to tersely format each traced packet on a single line. If -L and/or -T options are used, the output lines will be more than 80 characters long. -T -L Places a time stamp on terse tracing output. Used with the -1 (minus one ) option. Prefixes local link address information to terse tracing output. Used with the -1 (minus one ) option. Filter Configuration File Note : Filter configuration file syntax converges the syntax used with the obsolete nettrfmt network trace formatter and netlogfmt network log formatter commands with new netfmt syntax for controlling formatter options. The first section below describes the general use and syntax of the filter configuration file. Specific options for subsystem Naming and Filtering are listed in the Subsystem Filtering section below. The filter configuration file allows specification of two types of information: • Specify options in order to control how the input data is to be formatted. These options determine what the output looks like and allow a user to select the best format to suit their needs. • n Specify filters in order to precisely tailor what input data is to be discarded and what is to be formatted. Global filters control all subsystems; subsystem filters pertain only to specific subsystems. There are two types of Global filters that netfmt supports. The global filtering can start with either the word formatter , which means it is global to all the NetTL’s subsystems and the second type starts with the word kl_formatter , which is used to filter KL’s subsystems. A filter is compared against values in the input data. If the data matches a filter, the data is formatted; otherwise, the input data is discarded. A filter can also specify NOT by using ! before the filter value in the configuration file. If the input data matches a NOT filter, it is discarded. A filter can also be a ‘‘wildcard’’ (matching any value) by specifying an asterisk * before the filter value in the configuration file. ‘‘Wild card’’ filters pass all values of the input data. Specifying !* as the filter means NOT ALL . Filter Configuration File Syntax • The formatter ignores white space, such as spaces or tabs. However, newlines (end of line characters) are important, as they terminate comments and filter specifications. • The formatter is not case sensitive. For example error and ERROR are treated as equivalent. • To place comments in the file, begin each comment line with a # character. The formatter ignores all remaining characters on that line. There are no inline comments allowed. • An exclamation point (!) in front of an argument indicates NOT . This operator is not supported for timestamp, log instance, and ID filtering. • The asterisk (*), when used as an argument, indicates ALL . Since the default for all formatting options is ALL , it is unnecessary to use the asterisk alone. It can be used along with the exclamation point, (!* ) to indicate NOT ALL . This operator is not available for timestamp, log instance, and ID filtering. HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −2− Section 1M− 539 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ netfmt(1M) netfmt(1M) Global Filtering: For NetTL’s Subsystems The below explained global filtering options apply only to NetTL’s subystems. NetTL’s global filtering commands start with the word formatter , followed by the keywords verbosity , mode , option , or filter . formatter verbosity value, value should be either of Enables output of netfmt internal debugging information to standard error. Same as the -v option. high low formatter mode value, No internal debugging information is to be displayed. value should be one of Dumps out the messages in hex format. raw nice terse Enables "nice" formatting. Same as -N option. Attempts to tersely format each traced packet on a single line. Same as -1 (minus one ) option. normal Normal formatting. formatter option [ ! ] value, value should be suppress highlight n Normally repeated lines in hex output are condensed into a single line and a message stating that redundant lines have been skipped is displayed. Specifying !suppress will print all redundant data. This is useful when the formatted output is used as input into other commands. Normally the formatter will highlight certain fields in its trace output in inverse video. Specifying !highlight will turn this feature off. Same as the -l (minus ell ) option. formatter filter type [ ! ] value * Six types of filtering are provided: class kind id log instance subsystem time log classes trace kinds connection, process, path, and user specific thread of events subsystem names specify ranges of time(s) The following combinations are recognized: formatter filter class value [subsystem] value indicates the log class. This option allows the user to select one or more classes to be formatted. Initially all log classes are formatted. Only one class is allowed per line. Classes in multiple lines are logically ‘‘OR’’ed. The optional subsystem name sets the class filter only for the specified subsystem. The log classes are: INFORMATIVE WARNING ERROR DISASTER formatter formatter formatter formatter Section 1M− 540 __ filter filter filter filter Describes routine operations and current system values. Indicates abnormal events possibly caused by subsystem problems. Signals an event or condition which was not affecting the overall subsystem or network operation, but may have caused an application program to fail. Signals an event or condition which did affect the overall subsystem or network operation, caused several programs to fail or the entire node to shut down. Connection_ID value Device_ID value Path_ID value Process_ID value −3− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ netfmt(1M) netfmt(1M) formatter filter User_ID value value specifies the ID number of the messages to format. Last-entered value has precedence over any previous ones. See the record header in the formatted output to determine which ID numbers to filter on. The ! operator is not allowed in value . formatter filter kind value [subsystem] value can either be an established trace kind or a mask. A mask is a hexadecimal representation of a (set of) trace kind(s). Masks in multiple lines are logically ‘‘OR’’ed. The optional subsystem name sets the kind filter only for the specified subsystem. Trace kinds and their corresponding masks are: Name Mask Name Mask hdrin 0x80000000 state 0x04000000 hdrout 0x40000000 error 0x02000000 pduin 0x20000000 logging 0x01000000 pduout 0x10000000 loopback 0x00800000 proc 0x08000000 hdrin Inbound Protocol Header. hdrout Outbound Protocol Header. pduin Inbound Protocol Data Unit (including header and data). pduout Outbound Protocol Data Unit (including header and data). proc Procedure entry and exit. state Protocol or connection states. error Invalid events or condition. logging Special kind of trace that contains a log message. loopback Packets whose source and destination system is the same. formatter filter log_instance value value specifies the log instance number of the messages to filter. Selecting a log instance allows the user to see the messages from a single thread of network events. Only one log instance is allowed per filter configuration file. The log instance can not be negated with the ! operator. formatter filter subsystem value n value specifies the subsystem name. Available subsystem names can be listed by using the command: nettlconf -status Only one subsystem name is allowed per line; multiple lines ‘‘OR’’ the request. To eliminate a given subsystem name, use the ! operator, which formats all subsystems except those excluded by the list of negated subsystems. To include all subsystems (the default), use the * operator. To eliminate all subsystems, use the !* operator. formatter filter time_from value formatter filter time_through value time_from indicates the inclusive starting time. time_through indicates the inclusive ending time. value consists of time_of_day and optionally day_of_year , (usually separated by one or more blanks for readability). time_of_day specifies the time on the 24-hour clock in hours, minutes, seconds and decimal parts of a second (resolution is to the nearest microsecond). Hours, minutes and seconds are required; fractional seconds are optional. time_of_day format is hh :mm :ss .dddddd . day_of_year specifies the day of the year in the form month/day/year in the format: mm/dd/[ yy]yy. Specify month and day numerically, using one or two digits. For example, January can be specified as 1 or 01 ; the third day of the month as 3 or 03 . Specify the year in four digits or by its last two digits. Only years in the ranges 1970-2037 are accepted. Two digit years in the range 70-99 are interpreted as being in the 20th century (19xx ) and those in the range 00-37 are interpreted as being in the 21st century (20xx ) (all ranges inclusive). day_of_year is an optional field; the current date is used as a default. HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −4− Section 1M− 541 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ netfmt(1M) netfmt(1M) The time_from specification includes only those records starting from the resolution of time given. For example, if the time_of_day for time_from is specified as 10:08:00, all times before that, from 10:07:59.999999 and earlier, are excluded from the formatted output. Records with times of 10:08:00.000000 and later are included in the formatted output. Similarly, the time_through specification includes only up to the resolution of time given. For example, if the time_of_day for time_through is specified as 10:08:00, all records with times after that, from 10:08:00.000001 onward, are excluded from the formatted output. Global Filtering: For KL’s Subsystems The below explained global filtering options apply only to KL’s subystems. KL’s global filtering commands start with the word kl_formatter , followed by either verbosity , or filter . kl_formatter verbosity value, value should be either of high This will format the packets with the UDD, displayed along with the header of the KL packet low This will format only the header part of the KL packet. No UDD will be formatted. verbosity of This will format only the header part of the KL packet. No UDD will be formatted. verbosity of low is default. kl_formatter filter type [ ! ] value * types of filtering are provided: class processor_id process_id thread_id subsystem time n log classes specific CPU’s specific process id’s specific thread id’s subsystem names specify ranges of time(s) The following combinations are recognized: kl_formatter filter class value [subsystem] value indicates the log class. This option allows the user to select one or more classes to be formatted. Initially all log classes are formatted. Only one class is allowed per line. Classes in multiple lines are logically ‘‘OR’’ed. The optional subsystem name sets the class filter only for the specified subsystem. The log classes are: INFORMATIVE WARNING ERROR DISASTER Describes routine operations and current system values. Indicates abnormal events possibly caused by subsystem problems. Signals an event or condition which was not affecting the overall subsystem or network operation, but may have caused an application program to fail. Signals an event or condition which did affect the overall subsystem or network operation, caused several programs to fail or the entire node to shut down. kl_formatter filter Processor_ID value kl_formatter filter Process_ID value kl_formatter filter Thread_ID value value specifies the ID number of the messages to format. Last-entered value has precedence over any previous ones. See the record header in the formatted output to determine which ID numbers to filter on. The ! operator is not allowed in value . kl_formatter filter subsystem value value specifies the subsystem name. Available subsystem names can be listed by using the command: nettlconf -status Only one subsystem name is allowed per line; multiple lines ‘‘OR’’ the request. To eliminate a given subsystem name, use the ! operator, which formats all subsystems except those excluded by the list of negated subsystems. To include all subsystems Section 1M− 542 __ −5− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ netfmt(1M) netfmt(1M) (the default), use the * operator. To eliminate all subsystems, use the !* operator. kl_formatter filter time_from value kl_formatter filter time_through value The functionality is same as in the case of NetTL. Subsystem Filtering Note : Global filtering described above takes precedence over individual subsystem tracing and logging filtering described below. Subsystem filters are provided to allow filtering of data for individual subsystems or groups of subsystems. Their behavior varies among individual subsystems. Subsystem filters are valid only when the corresponding subsystems have been installed and configured on the system. See the subsystem documentation for a description of supported subsystem filters and their behavior. Subsystem filtering commands start with the name of the subsystem followed by the subsystem filter keywords. However, to provide convenience and backwards compatibility, several other filter keywords are provided for the group of LAN subsystems: NAME and FILTER . Currently, four types of subsystem filters are provided: LAN, X25, STREAMS, and OTS. The collection of LAN subsystems use the subsystem filters identified by the FILTER and NAME keywords and the collection of OTS subsystems use the subsystem filters with the OTS keyword. The collection of X25 subsystems start their filter commands with the X25 subsystem names. LAN Naming and Filtering LAN naming can be used to symbolically represent numbers with more recognizable labels. name nodename value nodename is a character string to be displayed in place of all occurrences of value . value is a (IEEE802.3/Ethernet) hardware address consisting of 6 bytes specified in hexadecimal (without leading "0x"), optionally separated by -. netfmt substitutes all occurrences of value with nodename in the formatted output. The mapping is disabled when the -n option is used. This option applies to tracing output only. LAN filtering is used to selectively format packets from the input file. There are numerous filter types, each associated with a particular protocol layer: Filter Layer Layer 1 Layer 2 Layer 3 Layer 4 Layer 5 Filter Type dest source interface ssap dsap type ip_saddr ip_daddr ip_proto tcp_sport tcp_dport udp_sport udp_dport connection rpcprogram rpcprocedure rpcdirection n Description hardware destination address hardware source address software network interface IEEE802.2 source sap IEEE802.2 destination sap Ethernet type IP source address IP destination address IP protocol number TCP source port TCP destination port UDP source port UDP destination port a level 4 (TCP, UDP) connection RPC program RPC procedure RPC call or reply Filtering occurs at each of the five layers. If a packet matches any filter within a layer, it is passed up to the next layer. The packet must pass every layer to pass through the entire filter. Filtering starts with Layer 1 and ends with Layer 5. If no filter is specified for a particular layer, that layer is ‘‘open’’ and all packets pass through. For a packet to make it through a filter layer which has a filter specified, it must match the filter. Filters at each layer are logically ‘‘OR’’ed. Filters between layers are logically ‘‘AND’’ed. LAN trace and log filters use the following format: filter type [!] value * filter is the keyword identifying the filter as a LAN subsystem filter. HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −6− Section 1M− 543 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ netfmt(1M) netfmt(1M) The following filters are available for LAN tracing. filter connection value value takes the form: local_addr :port remote_addr :port where local_addr and remote_addr can be a hostname or a 4-byte Internet address specified in decimal dot notation (see inet (3N) for more information on Internet addresses and decimal dot notations). port can be a service name or an integer . integer represents a port and can be designated by a hexadecimal integer (0x digits), an octal integer (0digits), or base-10 integers (0 through 65 535). filter dest value filter source value value is a hardware address consisting of 6 bytes specified in hexadecimal (without leading 0x ), optionally separated by -. filter dsap value filter ssap value value is a hexadecimal integer of the form: 0x digit; an octal integer of the form: 0digits; or a base-ten integer, 0 through 255. filter interface value value identifies a network interface and takes the form: lan n for LAN interface, or lo n for loopback interface, where n is the logical unit number, as in lan0 . filter ip_daddr value filter ip_saddr value value is a hostname or a 4-byte Internet address specified in decimal dot notation (see inet (3N) for more information on Internet addresses and decimal dot notations). filter ip_proto value value is a hexadecimal integer of the form: 0x digit; an octal integer of the form: 0digits; or a base-ten integer, 0 through 255 (see protocols (4) for more information on protocol numbers). n value value value value value is a port number designated as a 2-byte integer value or a service name. The integer value can be designated by a hexadecimal integer (0x digits), an octal integer (0digits), or a base-10 integer (0 through 65 535). filter filter filter filter tcp_dport tcp_sport udp_dport udp_sport filter rpcprogram value value is a RPC program name or an integer RPC program number (see rpc (4) for more information on RPC program names). The integer value can be designated by a hexadecimal integer (0x digits), an octal integer (0digits), or a base-10 integer (0 through 65 535). filter rpcprocedure value value is an integer RPC procedure number. The integer value can be designated by a hexadecimal integer (0xdigits), an octal integer (0digits), or a base-10 integer (0 through 65 535). filter rpcdirection value value can be either call or reply . filter type value value is a hexadecimal integer of the form: 0x digits; an octal integer of the form: 0digits; or a base-ten integer (0 through 65 535). LAN log filtering command has the following form: filter subsystem value value takes the form: subsys_name event event_list where subsys_name is a subsystem name obtained using the nettlconf -status command or one of the following abbreviations: Section 1M− 544 __ −7− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ netfmt(1M) netfmt(1M) axin ip netisr nsdiag rlbdaemon timod bufs ipc nfs nse sockregd tirdwr caselib lan nft probe strlog udp caserouter loopback ni pxp tcp event_list takes the form: event_spec [ ,event_spec . . . ] where event_spec takes one of the three forms: [!] integer [!] range [!] * integer is an integer in hexadecimal (leading 0x ), octal (leading 0), or decimal, which specifies a log event for the subsystem indicated. range takes the form integer -integer, and indicates an inclusive set of events. X25 Naming and Filtering The X25 product provides capabilities to assign symbolic names to important numbers and to filter log events and trace messages. See x25log (1M) and x25trace (1M) for more information about X25 naming and filtering. OTS Filtering The OTS subsystem filter allows filtering of the message ID numbers that are typically found in the data portion of an OTS subsystem’s log or trace record. The OTS subsystem filter is effective for any subsystem that is a member of the OTS subsystem group. OTS trace filtering configuration commands have the following form in config_file : OTS [ subsystem ] msgid [ ! ] message_ID * Keywords and arguments are interpreted as follows: OTS Identifies the filter as an OTS subsystem filter. subsystem One of the following group of OTS subsystems: OTS TRANSPORT ACSE_PRES SESSION n NETWORK Note : The absence of subsystem implies that the filter applies to all OTS subsystems. message_ID is the value of the message ID to filter. A message ID is used by OTS subsystems to identify similar types of information. It can be recognized as a 4 digit number contained in brackets ([ ]) at the beginning of an OTS subsystem’s trace or log record. Initially all message_ID s are enabled for formatting. To format records with specific message_ID s, turn off all message IDs using the !* operator, then selectively enable the desired message IDs. Only one message_ID is allowed on each line. Multiple lines are ‘‘OR’’ed together. STREAMS Filtering The STREAMS subsystem filter allows filtering on some fields of the messages logged by STREAMS modules and drivers. See strlog (7) for more information. EXTERNAL INFLUENCES International Code Set Support Single- and multi-byte character code sets are supported in data. Single-byte character codesets are supported in filenames. DEPENDENCIES netfmt only recognizes subsystems and filters from products which have been installed and configured. WARNINGS The syntax that was used for the obsolete LAN trace and log options has been mixed with the syntax for the netfmt command such that any old options files can be used without any changes. The combination of syntax introduces some redundancy and possible confusion. The global filtering options have the string HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −8− Section 1M− 545 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ netfmt(1M) netfmt(1M) formatter filter as the first two fields, while the LAN filtering options merely have the string filter as the first field. It is expected that the older LAN filtering options may change to become more congruent with the global filtering syntax in future releases. The nettl and netfmt commands read the /etc/nettlgen.conf file each time they are executed. These commands will not operate if the file becomes corrupted (see nettl (1M) and netfmt (1M)). DIAGNOSTICS Messages describe illegal use of netfmt command and unexpected EOF encountered. EXAMPLES The first group of examples show how to use command line options. 1. Format the last 50 records in file /var/adm/nettl.LOG00 (the default log file): 2. Use the follow option to send all log messages to the console (normally, only DISASTER -class log messages are sent to the console in console form): 3. Monitor all log messages in a hpterm window: 4. Read file /var/adm/trace.TRC1 for binary data and use conf.file as the filter configuration file: netfmt -t 50 -f /var/adm/nettl.LOG00 netfmt -f /var/adm/nettl.LOG00 -F > /dev/console hpterm -e /usr/sbin/netfmt -F -f /var/adm/nettl.LOG00 netfmt -c conf.file -f /var/adm/trace.TRC1 The remaining examples show how to specify entries in the filter configuration file used with the -c option. 1. Tell netfmt to format only INFORMATIVE -class log messages coming from the NS_LS_IP subsystem between 10:31:53 and 10:41:00 on 23 November 1993. formatter formatter formatter formatter formatter formatter n 2. 5. 6. 7. 10:31:53 11/23/93 10:41:00 11/23/93 !* INFORMATIVE !* NS_LS_IP node1 node3 08-00-09-00-0e-ca 02-60-8c-01-33-58 Format only packets from either of the above hardware addresses: filter filter 4. time_from time_through class class subsystem subsystem Map hardware address to name(LAN): name name 3. filter filter filter filter filter filter source source 08-00-09-00-0e-ca 02-60-8c-01-33-58 Format all packets transmitted from the local node, local , to the remote node, 192.6.1.3 , which reference local TCP service ports login or shell , or remote UDP port 777 : filter ip_saddr local filter ip_daddr 192.6.1.3 filter tcp_sport login filter tcp_sport shell filter udp_dport 777 Format a TCP connection from local node node2 to 192.6.1.3 which uses node2 service port ftp and remote port 1198 . filter connection node2:ftp 192.6.1.3:1198 Format all packets except those that use interface lan0 : filter interface ! lan0 Format all logged events for subsystem ip . No other events are formatted. (By default, all events are formatted): Section 1M− 546 __ −9− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ netfmt(1M) netfmt(1M) filter 8. subsystem ip event * Format only event 5003 for subsystem ip . Format all events except 3000 for subsystem tcp . No other events are formatted. filter filter subsystem ip event 5003 subsystem tcp event *,!3000 9. Format only events 5003 , 5004 , 5005 , and 5006 for subsystem ip . Format all events except events 3000 , 3002 , and 3003 for subsystem tcp . No other events are formatted: filter subsystem ip event 5003-5006 filter subsystem tcp event *,!3000,!3002-3003 10. Format only those records containing message IDs 9973 and 9974 for subsystem session and those not containing message ID 9974 for subsystem transport . All records from other subsystems are formatted: ots ots ots ots session session session transport msgid msgid msgid msgid !* 9973 9974 !9974 11. Combine LAN and general filtering options into one configuration file. Format 15 minutes of pduin and pduout data starting at 3:00 PM on 2 April 1990 for data from lan0 interface. formatter formatter formatter filter filter filter filter filter interface interface kind time_from time_through !* lan0 0x30000000 15:00:00 04/02/90 15:15:00 04/02/90 AUTHOR netfmt was developed by HP. FILES /etc/nettlgen.conf /var/adm/conslog.opts $HOME/.netfmtrc n default subsystem configuration file default console logging options filter file default filter configuration file if the -c config_file option is not used on the command line. SEE ALSO nettl(1M), kl(1M), nettlconf(1M), nettlgen.conf(4), strlog(7). HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ − 10 − Section 1M− 547 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ nettl(1M) nettl(1M) NAME nettl - control network tracing and logging SYNOPSIS /usr/sbin/nettl -start /usr/sbin/nettl -stop /usr/sbin/nettl -firmlog 012 -card dev_name ... /usr/sbin/nettl -log class ... -entity subsystem ... /usr/sbin/nettl -status [log trace all ] /usr/sbin/nettl -traceon kind ... -entity subsystem ... [-card dev_name ...] [-file tracename ] [-m bytes ] [-size portsize ] [-tracemax maxsize ] [-n num_files ] /usr/sbin/nettl -traceoff -entity subsystem ... DESCRIPTION The nettl command is a tool used to capture network events or packets. Logging is a means of capturing network activities such as state changes, errors, and connection establishment. Tracing is used to capture or take a snapshot of inbound and outbound packets going through the network, as well as loopback or header information. A subsystem is a particular network module that can be acted upon, such as ns_ls_driver , or X25L2 . nettl is used to control the network tracing and logging facility. Except for the -status option, nettl can be used only by users who have an effective user ID of 0. Options nettl recognizes the following options, which can be used only in the combinations indicated in SYNOPSIS. Some option and argument keywords can be abbreviated as described below. All keywords are case-insensitive. -start n (Abbr.: -st ) Used alone without other options. Initialize the tracing and logging facility, start up default logging, and optionally start up console logging. Logging is enabled for all subsystems as determined by the /etc/nettlgen.conf file. Log messages are sent to a log file whose name is determined by adding the suffix .LOG00 to the log file name specified in the /etc/nettlgen.conf configuration file. Console logging is started if console logging has been configured in the /etc/nettlgen.conf file. See nettlconf (1M) and nettlgen.conf (4) for an explanation of the configuration file. If the log file (with suffix) already exists, it is opened in append mode; that is, new data is added to the file. The default name is /var/adm/nettl (thus logging starts to file /var/adm/nettl.LOG00). See "Data File Management" below for more information on how the log file is handled. A nettl -start command is performed during system startup if the NETTL variable in the /etc/rc.config.d/nettl file has a value of 1. Note : It is strongly recommended that the tracing and logging facility be turned on before any networking is started and remain on as long as networking is being used. Otherwise, information about disasters will be lost. To minimize the impact on the system, all subsystems can be set with the -log option to capture only disaster -class log messages. -stop (Abbr.: -sp ) Used alone without other options. Terminate the trace/log facility. Once this command is issued, the trace/log facility is no longer able to accept the corresponding trace/log calls from the network subsystems. Note : See note for the -start option. -card dev_name ... (Abbr.: -c) This option is required by the X.25 subsystems; it is optional for other subsystems. Some subsystems do not support this option. Section 1M− 548 __ −1− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ nettl(1M) nettl(1M) Limit the trace information gathered to only the data that comes from the specified network interface card. More than one dev_name can be specified at a time in order to trace multiple network interfaces. dev_name specifies a device which corresponds to a network interface card that has been installed and configured. It can be either an integer representing the network interface, or the device file name of the network interface. Some subsystems do not support both types of dev_name . For example, the X25 subsystems require that dev_name be a device file name. The product documentation for the subsystems should explain if the -card option is applicable and how to choose an appropriate dev_name . If dev_name is not an integer it is assumed to be a device file name. The path prefix /dev/ will be attached in front of dev_name if it is not an absolute path name to form the device file name, /dev/ dev_name. dev_name must refer to a valid network device file. -entity all -entity subsystem ... (Abbr.: -e) Limit the action of -log , -traceoff , or -traceon to the specified protocol layers or software modules specified by subsystem . The number and names of subsystem s on each system are dependent on the products that have been installed. Use the command nettlconf -status to obtain a full listing of supported subsystems and the products that own them. Examples of OSI subsystems: acse_pres asn1 cm em ftam_ftp_gw ftam_init ftam_resp ftam_vfs ftp_ftam_gw hps mms network ots transport ula_utils ns_ls_loopback ns_ls_netisr ns_ls_nfs ns_ls_nft ns_ls_ni ns_ls_tcp ns_ls_udp ns_ls_x25 Examples of LAN subsystems: ns_ls_driver ns_ls_icmp ns_ls_igmp ns_ls_ip n Two X.25-specific subsystems are used for tracing only: X25L2 X25L3 -file tracename (Abbr.: -f) Used with the first -traceon option only. The first time the -traceon keyword is used, it initializes tracing, creating a file tracename .TRC0 which receives the binary tracing data. If a trace file of the name tracename .TRC0 already exists the binary trace data is appended to the end of the file. To start a fresh trace file, first turn off tracing then turn it back on again using a different tracename . See "Data File Management" below for more information on file naming. If -file is omitted, binary trace output goes to standard output. If standard output is a terminal device, an error message is issued and no tracing is generated. -firmlog 012 (Abbr.: -fm ) Requires the -card option. Series 800 and X.25 only. Set the X.25/800 interface card logging mask to level 0, 1, or 2. The default level is 0. The X.25/800 interface logs a standard set of messages. A level of 1 specifies cautionary messages as well as the default messages. A level of 2 specifies information messages in addition to the cautionary and default messages. This option is recognized only by the ns_ls_x25 subsystem. HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −2− Section 1M− 549 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ nettl(1M) nettl(1M) -log class ... (Abbr.: -l) Requires the -entity option. Control the class of log messages that are enabled for the subsystems specified by the -entity option. class specifies the logging class. Available classes are: Full Abbr. informative warning error disaster informative warning i w e d Mask 1 2 4 8 Describes routine operations and current system values. Indicates abnormal events possibly caused by subsystem problems. error Signals an event or condition which was not affecting the overall subsystem or network operation, but may have caused an application program to fail. disaster Signals an event or condition which did affect the overall subsystem or network operation, caused several programs to fail or the entire node to shut down. Classes can be specified as keywords or as a single numeric mask depicting which classes to log. The mask is formed by adding the individual masks of the log classes. If you choose to indicate several classes at once, be sure to separate each log class with a space. disaster logging is always on. The default logging classes for each subsystem is configured into the configuration file, /etc/nettlgen.conf. When the tracing/logging facility is started, the information in the configuration file is read and subsystems are enabled for logging with the specified classes. To change the log class, use the "nettl -log class -entity subsystem" command with a new log class value. If desired, the command can be run for different log classes and different entities. n -m bytes Specify the number of bytes (bytes ) of each trace record to trace. This option allows the user to specify the number of bytes to be captured in the trace packet. The user may prefer not to capture an entire PDU trace, such as when the user is only interested in the header. The maximum value for bytes is 2000. By default, the entire packet is traced. A value of 0 will also cause the entire packet to be traced. This option currently applies only to kernel subsystems. -size portsize (Abbr.: -s) Used with first -traceon option only. Set the size in kilobytes (KB) of the trace buffer used to hold trace messages until they are written to the file. The default size for this buffer is 68 KB. The possible range for portsize is 1 to 1024. Setting this value too low increases the possibility of dropped trace messages from fast subsystems. -status log -status trace -status [all ] (Abbr.: -ss ) Used alone without other options. Report the tracing and logging facility status. The facility must be operational, that is, nettl -start has been completed. The additional options define the type of trace or log information that is to be displayed. The default value is all . log trace all Section 1M− 550 __ Log status information Trace status information Trace and log status information −3− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ nettl(1M) nettl(1M) -tracemax maxsize (Abbr.: -tm ) Used with first -traceon option only. Tracing uses a circular file method such that when one file fills up, another file is used. The number of trace files that can exist on a system at any given time can be specified using the -n option. See "Data File Management" below for more information on file behavior. maxsize specifies the maximum size in kilobytes (KB) of any two trace files combined. Therefore, the maximum size of each trace file will be approximately half of maxsize kilobytes (KB). The default value for the combined file sizes is 1000 KB. The possible range for maxsize is 100 to 99999. -n num_files Used with first -traceon option only. Specifies the number of trace files that can exist on a system at any given time. However, nettl can reduce the number of trace files depending on the available disk space. If the option is not specified, the default value is two trace files. -traceoff (Abbr.: -tf ) Requires the -entity option. Disable tracing of subsystem s specified by the -entity option. If all is specified as an argument to the -entity option, all tracing is disabled. The trace file remains, and can be formatted by using the netfmt command to view the trace messages it contains (see netfmt (1M)). -traceon all -traceon kind ... (Abbr.: -tn ) Requires the -entity option. The -card option is required for X.25 subsystems. Other options are not required. Start tracing on the specified subsystems. The tracing and logging facility must have been initialized by nettl -start for this command to have any effect. The default trace file is standard output; it can be overridden by the -file option. If standard output is a terminal device, then an informative message is displayed and no trace data is produced. n When tracing is enabled, every operation through the subsystems is recorded if the kind mask is matched. kind defines the trace masks used by the tracing facility before recording a message. If -traceon all is specified, all trace masks are enabled. kind can be entered as one or several of the following keywords or masks: keyword hdrin hdrout pduin pduout proc hdrin hdrout pduin pduout proc state error logging loopback mask keyword mask 0x80000000 0x40000000 0x20000000 0x10000000 0x08000000 state error logging loopback 0x04000000 0x02000000 0x01000000 0x00800000 Inbound Protocol Header. Outbound Protocol Header. Inbound Protocol Data Unit (including header and data). Outbound Protocol Data Unit (including header and data). Procedure entry and exit. Protocol or connection states. Invalid events or condition. Special kind of trace that contains a log message. Packets whose source and destination system is the same. For multiple kinds, the masks can be specified separately or combined into a single number. For example, to enable both pduin and pduout (to trace all packets coming HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −4− Section 1M− 551 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ nettl(1M) nettl(1M) into and out of the node) use either pduin pduout or 0x10000000 0x20000000 or the combination 0x30000000 . Not all subsystems support all trace kinds. No error is returned if a given subsystem does not support a particular trace kind. If a -traceon is issued on a subsystem that is already being traced, the tracing mask and optional values are changed to those specified by the new command, but the new -file , -size , and -tracemax options are ignored and a message is issued. If -entity all is specified, all recognized subsystems are traced except X.25-specific subsystems. To turn on tracing for X.25, use the command nettl -traceon kind -e x.25_subsys -card dev_name where the value of x.25_subsys is X25L2 or X25L3 . Data File Management Data files created by the tracing and logging facility require special handling by the facility that the user must be aware of. When files are created, they have the suffix .LOG00 or .TRC00 appended to them, depending on whether they are log or trace files, respectively. This scheme is used to keep the files distinct for cases where the user specifies the same name in both places. Also, the files implement a type of circular buffer, with new data always going into the file appended with .LOG00 or .TRC00 . When a logname.LOG00 or tracename.TRC00 file is full, each log or trace is renamed to the next higher number in its sequence; that is, a file with sequence number N is renamed as a file with sequence number N+1 and a new file named logname .LOG00 or tracename .TRC00 is created. The number of files that can exist simultaneously on the system can be specified by the -n option. Note : The file name prefix (logname or tracename ) specified by the user must not exceed eight characters so that the file name plus suffix does not exceed fourteen characters. Longer names are truncated. To see the actual name of the trace or log file, use the nettl -status all command. n Console Logging Console logging is used to display significant log events on the system console. The values in the /etc/nettlgen.conf file determine if console logging is to be started and the entries in the /var/adm/conslog.opts file determine what log messages will be reported to the console. The nettlconf command can be used to configure and maintain the information in the /etc/nettlgen.conf file (see nettlconf (1M)). If changes are made to these files, nettl must be stopped and restarted for the new information to take effect. All log messages written to the console as a result of this configuration information are in a special short form. If more information is desired on the console, the netfmt formatter can be used to direct output to the console device. This may be most useful in an X windows environment. Console logging may be disabled if conservation of system resources is valued more than notification of log events. EXTERNAL INFLUENCES International Code Set Support Single- and multibyte character code sets are supported in data; single-byte character code sets are supported in file names. EXAMPLES 1. Initialize the tracing/logging facility: nettl -start (See note for the -start option.) 2. Display the status of the tracing/logging facility. 3. Change log class to error and warning for all the subsystems. disaster logging is always on for all subsystems. nettl -status all nettl -log e w -e all 4. Turn on inbound and outbound PDU tracing for the transport and session (OTS/9000) subsystems and send binary trace messages to file /var/adm/trace.TRC0. Section 1M− 552 __ −5− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ nettl(1M) 5. nettl(1M) nettl -traceon pduin pduout -entity transport session \ -file /var/adm/trace Turn on outbound PDU tracing for X.25 level two, and subsystem ns_ls_ip . Trace messages go to the trace file set up in the previous example. This example also uses the abbreviated options. Tracing for X.25 requires a -card option to indicate which X.25 card to trace. nettl -tn pduout -e X25L2 ns_ls_ip -c x25_0 6. Determine status of tracing from the previous two examples. nettl -status trace The output should resemble the following: Tracing Information: Trace Filename: /var/adm/trace.TRC* Trace file size(Kbytes): 1000 User’s ID: 0 Buffer Size: 32768 Messages Dropped: 0 Messages Queued: 0 Subsystem Name: Trace Mask: Card: TRANSPORT 0x30000000 SESSION 0x30000000 NS_LS_IP 0x10000000 X25L2 0x10000000 x25_0 7. Stop tracing for all subsystems. 8. Enable pduin and pduout tracing for ns_ls_driver (LAN driver) subsystem. Binary trace data goes to file /var/adm/LAN.TRC0. nettl -traceoff -e all The -file option of this command is only valid the first time tracing is called. The trace file is not automatically reset with the -file option. To change the trace output file, stop tracing and start up again. This example assumes that the -traceon option is being used for the first time. nettl -tn pduin pduout -e ns_ls_driver -file /var/adm/LAN 9. n Terminate the tracing and logging facility. nettl -stop (See note for the -start option.) WARNINGS Although the nettl command allows the specification of all log classes and all trace kinds for all subsystems, many subsystems do not support all log classes and all trace kinds. No error or warning will be issued if a subsystem does not support a log class or trace kind. Refer to the product documentation of the subsystem for information on supported log classes and trace kinds. Tracing to a file that resides on a NFS file system can impact system performance and result in loss of trace data. It is recommended that NFS file systems not be used to contain tracing output files. Tracing to a file may not be able to keep up with a busy system, especially when extensive tracing information is being gathered. If some data loss is encountered, the trace buffer size can be increased. Be selective about the number of subsystems being traced, as well as the kinds of trace data being captured. The nettl and netfmt commands read the /etc/nettlgen.conf file each time they are run (see nettl (1M) and netfmt (1M)). If the file becomes corrupted, these commands will no longer be operational. FILES /dev/netlog /dev/nettrace /etc/nettlgen.conf /etc/rc.config.d/nettl HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ Kernel log pseudo-device file. Kernel trace pseudo-device file. Tracing and logging subsystem configuration file. Contains variables which control the behavior of nettl during system startup. −6− Section 1M− 553 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ nettl(1M) /var/adm/conslog.opts nettl(1M) Default console logging options filter file as specified in /etc/nettlgen.conf. /var/adm/nettl.LOG00 Default log file as specified in /etc/nettlgen.conf. AUTHOR nettl was developed by HP. SEE ALSO netfmt(1M), nettlconf(1M), nettlgen.conf(4). n Section 1M− 554 __ −7− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ nettladm(1M) nettladm(1M) NAME nettladm - network tracing and logging administration manager SYNOPSIS /opt/nettladm/bin/nettladm [-t-l] [-c filter_file ] DESCRIPTION The nettladm command is a tool used to administer network tracing and logging. It provides an interactive user interface to the nettl, netfmt, and nettlconf commands. The interface runs in either text terminal mode or in a Motif graphical environment. To run nettladm using Motif windows set the DISPLAY environment variable to match the system name (e.g., DISPLAY= system :0.0 ) prior to using the command. The nettladm command starts a menu-driven program that makes it easy to perform network tracing and logging tasks with only limited specialized knowledge of HP-UX. nettladm is a self-guided tool, and context-sensitive help is available at any point by pressing the f1 function key. Options nettladm recognizes the following options: -l Shortcut to enter the ‘‘Logging Subsystems’’ (logging) area. This is the default. -t Shortcut to enter the ‘‘Tracing Subsystems’’ (tracing) area. -c filter_file Use the contents of filter_file as the default set of subsystem formatting criteria when creating reports within the ‘‘Create Report’’ area. The defaults can be overridden through the interface screens. Global filters (those beginning with the word FORMATTER ) and comments are ignored. See netfmt (1M) for the description and syntax of filter_file . EXTERNAL INFLUENCES International Code Set Support Single- and multibyte character code sets are supported in data; single-byte character code sets are supported in file names. WARNINGS Changes to logging and tracing levels and states are not preserved across system reboots or stops and restarts from outside of the nettladm command. Permanent changes must be made to the /etc/nettlgen.conf file using the nettlconf command. Note that changes to console logging and all logging startup parameters are preserved. n Although the nettladm command allows the specification of all log classes and all trace kinds for all subsystems, many subsystems do not support all log classes and all trace kinds. No error or warning will be issued if a subsystem does not support a log class or trace kind. Refer to the product documentation of the subsystem for information on supported log classes and trace kinds. The nettladm command reads the /etc/nettlgen.conf and /var/adm/conslog.opts files each time it is run (see nettlgen.conf (4)). If the files become corrupted, this command will no longer be operational. DEPENDENCIES nettladm runs in an X Windows environment as well as on the following kinds of terminals or terminal emulators: • HP-compatible terminal with programmable function keys and on-screen display of function key labels. • VT-100 FILES /etc/nettlgen.conf /var/adm/conslog.opts Tracing and logging subsystem configuration file. /var/adm/nettl.LOG00 /var/adm/nettl.TRC0 Default log file as specified in /etc/nettlgen.conf. HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ Default console logging options filter file as specified in /etc/nettlgen.conf. Default trace file. −1− Section 1M− 555 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ nettladm(1M) nettladm(1M) /opt/nettladm/lib/X11/app-defaults/Nettladm X11 application defaults file. AUTHOR nettladm was developed by HP. SEE ALSO nettl(1M), netfmt(1M), nettlconf(1M), nettlgen.conf(4). n Section 1M− 556 __ −2− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ nettlconf(1M) nettlconf(1M) NAME nettlconf - configure network tracing and logging command subsystem database SYNOPSIS /usr/sbin/nettlconf [ -KL ] -status /usr/sbin/nettlconf -L [ -console conlog ] [ -portsize logportsize ] [ -space maxlogspace ] [ -filename logfilename ] [ -option logoptfile ] /usr/sbin/nettlconf [ -KL ] [ -qmin minimumklqueuesize ] [ -qmax maximumklqueuesize ] [ -space maxlogspace ] [ -filename logfilename ] [ -write writelog ] /usr/sbin/nettlconf [ -S ] -id ssid -name ssname [ -class logclass ] [ -kernel|-st[reams] ] -lib sslib -msg ssmsgcat [ -fmtfn fmtfunc ] [ -optfn optfunc ] -group ssgrpname /usr/sbin/nettlconf -delete ssid DESCRIPTION nettlconf maintains the database file /etc/nettlgen.conf which contains information required by the nettl , kl , and netfmt commands (see nettl (1M), kl (1M), and netfmt (1M)). This database contains system logging information along with a description of each subsystem that uses either NetTL or KL facility to log messages. nettlconf can be used to update the network or kernel logging parameters or to add, update and delete subsystem descriptions. If a subsystem already exists with the same ssid , the values given are substituted for those in the database; otherwise a new entry is created. System administrators may use the nettlconf command to customize the network or kernel logging parameters stored in the database such as console logging behavior, the system log file name, the maximum system log file size, and the amount of memory required by NetTL and KL facilities. nettlconf is also called during system startup to change the database to reflect the values of any relevant environment variables in the /etc/rc.config.d/nettl file. Products use the nettlconf command during product installation to configure subsystems into the NetTL and KL facilities. The installation will execute the nettlconf command for each subsystem it n installs in order to provide the information necessary for the subsystem to use the NetTL and KL facilities. Only users with appropriate privileges can invoke nettlconf to modify the configuration file. Options The following options can be used to view the network or kernel logging parameters and all subsystem descriptions from the nettlgen.conf database. -status (abbrev: -s) display the contents of the database relevant to the network logging facility only. -KL -status display the contents of the database relevant to the kernel logging facility only. The following options can be used to update configuration information about network logging. -L This indicates that subsequent options apply to updating network logging information. Changes to logging information will not take effect until nettl has been stopped and restarted. This is a required field. -console conlog (abbrev: -c) conlog is set to 1 if console logging is to be enabled when nettl is started, 0 if not. (Console logging is used to report interesting events on the system console.) This is an optional field. NOTE: during system startup conlog will be changed to match the value of the NETTL_CONSOLE variable in the /etc/rc.config.d/nettl file. -portsize logportsize (abbrev: -p) logportsize determines the number of outstanding messages possible in the log queue. The value is in multiples of 1024 bytes. Valid range is 1 through 64. The default is 8. This is an optional field. -space maxlogspace (abbrev: -s) maxlogspace is the maximum logging file space to be allowed. This is HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −1− Section 1M− 557 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ nettlconf(1M) nettlconf(1M) the combined size of the 2 ping-ponged log files. Specify the size in multiples of 1024 bytes. Valid range is 1 through 10240. Default is 1000. This is an optional field. -filename logfilename (abbrev: -f) logfilename is the path and file name to be used as the system log file, without the ping-pong extension (.LOGx). The default system log file is /var/adm/nettl. This is an optional field. -option logoptfile (abbrev: -o) logoptfile is the path and file name to be used as the console log options file. The information in this file will be used to select logged events that will be reported to the system console. The default console logging options file is /var/adm/conslog.opts. This is an optional field. The following options can be used to update configuration information about kernel logging. -KL This indicates that subsequent options apply to updating kernel logging information. Changes pertinent to the writing modules of the kernel loggin facility, such as kernel logging file name and maximum space for kernel log file (see below) will take effect whenever writing facility gets turned on. Changes to the kernel logging facility as a whole will not take effect until kl has been stopped and started. -qmin minimumklqueuesize minimumklqueuesize determines the minimum number of outstanding messages possible in the log queue of KL. Valid range is 100 through 10000. The default is 1000. This is an optional field. -qmax maximumklqueuesize maximumklqueuesize determines the maximum number of outstanding messages possible in the log queue of KL. Valid range is 100 through 10000. The default is 1000. This is an optional field. -space maxlogspace (abbrev: -s) maxlogspace is the maximum logging file space to be allowed. This is the size of one ping-ponged log files. Valid range is 8192 (8K) through 1024M. Default if 1M. This is an optional field. n Note: One can use suffixes K and M to specify whether size is meant to be in Kilo or Mega bytes. -filename logfilename (abbrev: -f) logfilename is the path and file name to be used as the kernel log file, without the ping-pong extension (.KLOGx ). The default system kernel log file is /var/adm/kl . This is an optional field. -write writelog (abbrev: -w) writelog is set to 1 if writing kernel log to disk is to be enabled when kl is started, 0 if not. Default is 0. This is an optional field. The following options are used to add or update a subsystem description to the database. -S Indicates that subsequent options apply to adding or updating a subsystem entry. This is an optional field. -id ssid (abbrev: -i) ssid (subsystem ID number) is used as the key field in the nettlgen.conf database. It uniquely identifies a subsystem to the NetTL and KL facilities. This is a required field. Note: Subsystems are mutually exclusively supported by NetTL and KL facilities. This means that a given subsystem logs its messages either through NetTL or KL , but not both. The following rule applies: if the subsystem ID number is within 0 through 511 (including end numbers) range, then NetTL facility takes care of those messages; if the subsystem ID number is within 512 through 1023 (including end numbers) range then KL facility takes care of those messages. Subsystem ID numbers greater than 1023 are not allowed. -name ssname Section 1M− 558 __ (abbrev: -n) ssname is the subsystem-name mnemonic. This string is used to identify the subsystem on the nettl and kl command lines and also in the subsystem header displayed by the formatter (see nettl (1M), kl (1M) and netfmt (1M)). This is a required field. −2− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ nettlconf(1M) -class logclass nettlconf(1M) (abbrev: -c) logclass is the default log class mask assigned to the subsystem at start-up of NetTL or KL facility. This is an optional field. There is an important difference between the interpretation of the logclass by NetTL and KL facilities. Interpretation By NetTL For multiple classes, the masks must be combined into a single decimal number. For example, to initially log DISASTER and ERROR events use 12 as the logclass . Default is an empty field in nettlgen.conf. nettl substitutes 12 (disaster and error) for an empty class field. Interpretation By KL For KL , the following rule applies for all messages whose severity is greater For example, if the logclass is 2, all logged by KL . Default is an empty (disaster) for an empty class field. Class the messages to log: if level x is specified then or equal to the severity of class x will be logged. warning, error and disaster messages will be field in nettlgen.conf. kl substitutes 8 Abbreviation -kernel informative 1 warning 2 error 4 disaster 8 (abbrev: -k) flags the given subsystem as a kernel subsystem. -streams (abbrev: nettl uses this information to control certain tracing and logging properties of the subsystem. If a subsystem is serviced by NetTL facility, then it is defaulted to non-kernel unless this option is specified, whereas any subsystem serviced by KL facility is defaulted as a kernel unless otherwise specified. This is an optional field. -st) flags the given subsystem as a streams based kernel subsystem. nettl uses this information to control certain tracing and logging properties of the subsystem. A subsystem is defaulted to non-kernel unless this option is used. This is an optional field. -lib sslib (abbrev: -l) sslib is the name of the shared library where the subsystem formatter resides. This should be an absolute path name unless the library resides in /usr/lib . Multiple subsystems can reference the same library. This is a required field. -msg ssmsgcat (abbrev: -m) ssmsgcat is the name of the subsystem formatter message catalog. If the pathname and .cat filename extension are excluded, /usr/lib/nls/%L/%N.cat is used to locate ssmsgcat . Otherwise, ssmsgcat must be formatted similarly to the NLSPATH environment variable (see environ (5)). Multiple subsystems can refer to the same message catalog. This is a required field. -fmtfn fmtfunc n (abbrev: -f) fmtfunc specifies the function to call when formatting data from the given subsystem. Multiple subsystems can reference the same formatting function. Default is to form the function name from the subsystem ID as follows: subsys_ N _format where N is the subsystem ID number. If a null function is needed for this subsystem, specify -f NULL This is an optional field. -optfn optfunc (abbrev: -o) optfunc specifies the function used to process options in the netfmt filter configuration file (see netfmt (1M)). Multiple subsystems can reference the same options processing function. The default is an empty field in nettlgen.conf. netfmt assumes a NULL function for an empty optfunc field. This is an optional field. -group ssgrpname (abbrev: HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ -g) ssgrpname is a group name associated with the subsystem. It is −3− Section 1M− 559 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ nettlconf(1M) nettlconf(1M) typically the product name of the subsystem. Several subsystems can be grouped together so that a common banner is printed in the formatted header. This is a required field. The following option is used to remove a subsystem description from the database. -delete ssid (abbrev: -d) Deletes all information associated with the ssid (subsystem ID) from the database. WARNINGS The nettlconf utility is intended primarily for use by HP subsystems to configure themselves into the NetTL and KL facilites at installation time. System administrators may wish to use this command to alter the default logging class each subsystem starts up with, but no other information about the subsystem should be changed. The nettl , kl, and netfmt commands read the /etc/nettlgen.conf file each time they are executed. If the file becomes corrupted these commands cannot function. Some changes to the /etc/nettlgen.conf file do not take effect until nettl , kl , and netfmt are stopped and restarted. AUTHOR nettlconf was developed by HP. FILES /etc/nettlgen.conf /etc/rc.config.d/nettl subsystem configuration file maintained by nettlconf configuration file controlling nettl during system startup SEE ALSO netfmt(1M), nettl(1M), kl(1M), nettlgen.conf(4), environ(5). n Section 1M− 560 __ −4− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ newaliases(1M) newaliases(1M) NAME newaliases - rebuilds the database for the mail aliases file SYNOPSIS newaliases [-on ] DESCRIPTION newaliases rebuilds the random access database for the mail aliases file /etc/mail/aliases. It must be run each time this file is changed in order for the change to take effect. newaliases is identical to sendmail -bi . Options -on Validate addresses. When sendmail rebuilds the alias database files, it will check the legality of all addresses to the right of the colons. Each address is validated. If the validation fails, the address is skipped and a warning message is displayed. RETURN VALUE The newaliases utility exits 0 on success, and >0 if an error occurs. AUTHOR newaliases was developed by the University of California, Berkeley, and originally appeared in 4.0BSD. The manual page originally came from sendmail 8.7 . FILES /etc/mail/aliases The mail aliases file. /etc/mail/aliases.db Database of alias names. SEE ALSO aliases(5), sendmail(1M). n HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −1− Section 1M− 561 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ newarray(1M) newarray(1M) NAME newarray - configure a disk array SYNOPSIS newarray [-NConfig_Name | -rRAID_Level ] [Options ] device_file DESCRIPTION newarray , a front-end program for the utility cfl (see cfl (1M)), facilitates the configuration of HewlettPackard SCSI disk arrays. It is the recommended utility for all array configuration. Array configuration maps a set of one or more physical disk mechanisms in an array to a set of one or more logical disks, addressable by HP-UX. Logical disks are addressed through device files. Each logical disk in an array (also known as a LUN, for Logical UNit), has its own device file. A logical disk can consist of a single physical disk, a portion of a single physical disk, multiple physical disks, or portions of multiple physical disks. For additional information about possible array configurations, see the array configuration table contained in the file /etc/hpC2400/arraytab, and arraytab (4). Supported configurations for the array device are pre-defined in the array configuration table, located in file /etc/hpC2400/arraytab. newarray can configure a complete set of logical partitions for an array in one operation. Due to the inter-dependency of logical partitions, this is the recommended method for configuration. A single logical partition can be added to an array configuration using an entry from the array configuration table by using the -L option. device_file is a character device file that specifies the I/O address, and driver to use when configuring the disk array. The way that this file is used by newarray is system dependent. See dependencies below. Logical partitions in an array are independently addressable by using the appropriate device file to address the logical unit assigned to a partition. Prior to configuring the array (except with the -L option ), all currently configured logical partitions are removed from the configuration. n To simplify array configuration newarray obtains much of the necessary information directly from the array device, and its attached disk mechanisms. The array model number, and the number of available physical disks available, is determined by querying the device. This information is used to locate the appropriate configuration entry in the array configuration table. Optional parameters can be used to override the default, and inquiry values. The preferred configuration method is to use the -N option to specify a configuration by name. The name determines which configuration newarray uses from the array configuration table. Configuration parameters are obtained from the named configuration entry. Parameters of the chosen configuration can be overridden using options to newarray , or by creating and using a custom configuration entry in the array configuration table. See the WARNINGS section of this manpage. Because the array controller type, and disk mechanism types are used in addition to the configuration name to select an entry from the array configuration table the configuration name does not have to be unique within the array configuration table. However, the combination of configuration name, array controller type, and disk mechanism types must be unique within the array configuration table. During configuration, the array controller type, and disk mechanism types are obtained by querying the devices. The -r option specifies an operating mode, rather than specifying a configuration by name. The -d option, which specifies the size of a disk group, is often used with the -r option. If -d is not used, newarray selects the configuration in the array configuration table that most closely matches the disks in the array. When the configuration parameters have been determined, newarray calls cfl. If the -V option is used, newarray prints its actions, and the parameters it passes to cfl to configure the array (see cfl (1M)). Array Configuration newarray obtains its configuration values from the array configuration table. If not specified there, default values are provided by cfl (see cfl (1M)). Configuration values can be overridden by newarray options. Options -L unit addr Section 1M− 562 __ Configures a single LUN from the specified configuration. The -L option is useful for adding disks to an array without changing the existing configuration. Because the order in −1− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ newarray(1M) newarray(1M) which LUN’s are configured determines the physical mapping on the disks within the array, be very careful when using the -L option. -N config_name The name of the configuration to be used, as specified in the configuration file /etc/hpC2400/arraytab. See arraytab(4) . -V Display the parameters of array configuration, and the utility commands issued as part of the configuration process. -b block_size The size in bytes of the LUN block. Must be an integral number of the physical disk mechanism sector size. Currently supported values are 512, 1024, 2048, and 4096. -c capacity The size in blocks of the LUN. A value of 0 defaults to the largest capacity available. If the LUN type is set to sub-LUN, the capacity is the available capacity of the composite drive group or 2 GByte if the 2 GByte flag is set, which ever is smaller. See -f option. -d group_size Physical drive group will contain this number of disks in the logical partition configuration. -f flags Configuration flags. There are 16 flags, represented by a 16 bit hexadecimal number. Currently only four of the flags are defined. The flag definitions and their default value are: Bit 0 off Bit 1 on Bit 2 off Not used. Bit 3 off Not used. Bit 4 on When set (on), enables AEN (automatic event notification) polling. Bit 5 on When set (on), enables read parity verification. Bit 6 on When set (on), enables write with parity verification. Bit 7 off Not used. Bit 8 off Mode Sense default pages. Bit 8 and Bit 9 concurrently set is reserved. Bit 9 off Mode Sense current pages. Bit 8 and Bit 9 concurrently set is reserved. Bit 10-15 off Not used. Disable auto reconstruction. When set (on), disables the automatic detection, and initiation of failed disk data reconstruction. n Not used. -g group_name Use physical drive group configuration with label GroupName (in array configuration table) for this LUN configuration. -i seg0_size The size in bytes of the first segment LUN. This allows this area to be set to a size different than the remainder of the disk, an area typically used as the boot block for some systems. This must be a integral number of the block-size. If there are no special requirements, this parameter should be set to 0. -k recon_size Reconstruction size. The -k option specifies (in LUN blocks) the amount of data to be reconstructed in a single operation during reconstruction of a redundant drive configuration. Larger values provide more efficient (faster) reconstruction, but hold off the servicing of I/O requests. Smaller values allow quicker servicing of I/O requests, but with less efficient (slower) reconstruction. -l recon_freq Reconstruction frequency. The -l option specifies (in tenths of a second) the time period between reconstruction of disk segments in a redundant drive configuration. Small time periods cause the array to consume most of its time reconstructing data, but allow the reconstruction to complete more quickly. Large time periods allocate more time to I/O processing, but require longer reconstruction times. -r raid_level The RAID (redundancy level) to apply to the disks in the array. Valid entries for raid_level are RAID_0, RAID_1, RAID_3, and RAID_5. Some RAID levels require specific physical drive configurations. See also the -g option. -s seg_size The number of bytes of a contiguous segment of the logical address space residing on a single physical disk. This affects how many physical disks are involved in a single I/O request. If I/O requests are mostly random, single-block requests, set this value to the integral number of the LUN block size that minimizes the number of disks necessary to service most HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −2− Section 1M− 563 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ newarray(1M) newarray(1M) I/O requests. A larger size will allocate more time to I/O processing. -t LUN_type LUNs can be configured as regular LUNs (reg ), or sub-LUNs (sub ). A regular LUN utilizes all the available capacity of a disk group, or limits the LUN configuration to 2 GBytes if the 2 GByte limiter is set. If a regular LUN configuration is used, the -c option is ignored. A sub-LUN allows logical partitioning of the disk group capacity into a maximum of eight LUNs. Valid values for LUN_type are "reg " and "sub ". Custom Configurations You can create array configurations that might be better suited to a particular application by using newarray ’s command line parameters to override default values, or by creating special entries in the array configuration table in the file /etc/hpC2400/arraytab. Before you do, see cautionary notes in the WARNINGS section of this manpage. RETURN VALUES newarray will return the following values: 0 Successful completion. -1 Command failed (an error occurred). ERRORS newarray: device busy To ensure that newarray does not modify a disk array that is being used by another process, newarray attempts to obtain exclusive access to the disk array. If the disk array is already opened by another process (for example, LVM — the Logical Volume Manager), a ‘‘device busy ’’ error message is returned by the driver. To eliminate the ‘‘device busy ’’ condition, determine what process has the device open. In the case of LVM, it is necessary to deactivate the volume group containing the array before configuring the array (see vgchange (1M)). EXAMPLES: The following examples use configurations contained in /etc/hpC2400/arraytab. n Raid Level Specification To configure an HP C2425D with 5 internal disks to a five drive RAID level 0 configuration (on Series 700 computer): newarray -rRAID_0 /dev/rdsk/c2t3d0 To configure an HP C2425D with 5 internal disks to a one drive RAID level 0 configuration (on Series 700): newarray -rRAID_0 -d1 /dev/rdsk/c2t3d0 Name Specification To configure an HP C2430D with five disks connected on SCSI channel 3 (on a Series 800) using the configuration "Raid_3_5d" in /etc/hpC2400/arraytab: newarray -NRaid_3_5d /dev/rdsk/c2t3d0 WARNINGS We strongly recommend that you use the array configurations that are specified, and delivered by HewlettPackard, in the file /etc/hpC2400/arraytab. These configurations have been tested and certified for proper use on Hewlett-Packard computer systems. Custom configurations cannot be warranted for proper operation. Configuring a disk array causes the loss of user data on the array. When using the -L option, physical media is assigned to the logical unit in the order in which the logical units are configured. Existing logical unit configurations are NOT removed prior to configuration with this option. The use of this option is not recommended at this time. DEPENDENCIES File System Considerations The disk array maps the address space of one or more physical disk mechanisms onto logical "disk" partitions. The parameters defined in the configuration, together with the data access patterns of the user’s application, determine the operating characteristics of the logical disk. Some configurations create multiple logical partitions, that share a set of physical disks. I/O traffic to each of the logical partitions affects performance, due to the common physical disk resources. The file system or application using the "logical" disk may require or assume certain characteristics. For optimal system performance it is necessary that Section 1M− 564 __ −3− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ newarray(1M) newarray(1M) the file system configuration and application be compatible with the array configuration. Your choice of segment size directly affects the performance of the disk array. Choose this parameter in concert with the choice of the parameters used when building the file system on the device. In general, the segment size determines how much data from a single I/O will be stored on a single disk within the array. A smaller value will involve more of the disks with the I/O, whereas a larger value will involve fewer disks. If input/output operations tend to be very long, the involvement of multiple disks may hasten the completion of each I/O. In this case the access time is the same as a single disk, but the disk data transfer time is shared across the set of disks. If input/output operations are short, the access time will dominate relative to the disk data transfer time, and more input/output operations may be processed in parallel by involving fewer disks in each I/O. In all cases the relative locality of data and the access pattern will affect the performance. For highly sequential data, it may be advantageous to locate the data for a single I/O on a single disk, to take advantage of read-ahead caching within each disk. Configurations for the HP C2430 disk array should enable the automatic data reconstruction LUN flag as part of the configuration specification. Supported Array Products: The HP C2425 and HP C2427 disk arrays are only supported on Series 700 systems running HP-UX version 9.0X. The HP C2430 disk array is supported on Series 700 and 800 systems running HP-UX versions 9.0X and 10.0X. AUTHOR newarray was developed by HP. SEE ALSO arraytab(4), cfl(1M), buildfs(1M), fs(4), mkfs(1M), sss(1M), dcc(1M). n HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −4− Section 1M− 565 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ newfs(1M) newfs(1M) NAME newfs - construct a new file system SYNOPSIS /usr/sbin/newfs [-F FStype ] [-o specific_options ] [-V] special DESCRIPTION The newfs command is a "friendly" front-end to the mkfs command (see mkfs (1M)). The newfs command calculates the appropriate parameters and then builds the file system by invoking the mkfs command. special represents a character (raw) special device. Options newfs recognizes the following options: -F FStype Specify the file system type on which to operate (see fstyp (1M) and fs_wrapper (5)). If this option is not included on the command line, then the file system type is determined from the file /etc/fstab by matching special with an entry in that file. If there is no entry in /etc/fstab , then the file system type is determined from the file /etc/default/fs. -o specific_options Specify options specific to the file system type. specific_options is a list of suboptions and/or keyword/attribute pairs intended for an FStype -specific module of the command. See the file system specific manual entries for a description of the specific_options that are supported, if any. -V n Echo the completed command line, but perform no other actions. The command line is generated by incorporating the specified options and arguments and other information derived from /etc/fstab . This option allows the user to verify the command line. EXAMPLES Execute the newfs command to create an HFS file system on /dev/rdsk/c1t0d2 newfs -F hfs /dev/rdsk/c1t0d2 AUTHOR newfs was developed by HP and the University of California, Berkeley. FILES /etc/default/fs /etc/fstab File that specifies the default file system type. Static information about the file systems. SEE ALSO fsck(1M), fstyp(1M), mkfs(1M), newfs_hfs(1M), newfs_vxfs(1M), fstab(4), fs_wrapper(5). Section 1M− 566 __ −1− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ newfs_hfs(1M) newfs_hfs(1M) NAME newfs - construct a new HFS file system SYNOPSIS /usr/sbin/newfs [-F hfs ] [-B] [-d] [-L-S] [-O disk_type ] [-R swap ] [-v] [-V] [mkfs-options ] special DESCRIPTION The newfs command builds a file system by invoking the mkfs command. The newfs command creates the file system with a rotational delay value of zero (see tunefs (1M)). special represents a character (raw) special device. Options newfs recognizes the following options: -F hfs Specify the HFS file system type. -B Reserve space for boot programs past the end of the file system. If file /usr/lib/uxbootlf is present on the system then sufficient space to accommodate that file is reserved, otherwise 691 KB sectors are reserved. This option decreases the size of the file system to be created. This option cannot be used if the -s option is given; see "mkfs Options" below. -d This option allows the newfs command to make the new file system in an ordinary file. In this case, special is the name of an existing file in which to create the file system. The -s option (see "mkfs Options") must be provided with this option. -L-S There are two types of HFS file systems, distinguished mainly by directory formats that place different limits on the length of file names. If -L is specified, build a long-file-name file system that allows directory entries (file names) to be up to MAXNAMLEN (255) bytes long. If -S is specified, build a short-file-name file system that allows directory entries (file names) to be up to DIRSIZ (14) bytes long. n If neither -L nor -S is specified, build a file system of the same type as the root file system. -O disk_type Use disk parameters from the entry for the named disk type in /etc/disktab . This option is provided for backward compatibility with previous HP-UX releases. Any parameters specified in the command line will override the corresponding values in /etc/disktab . Any values not given in the command line or in /etc/disktab will be defaulted. -R swap Reserve swap megabytes (MB) of swap space past the end of the file system. This option decreases the size of the file system to be created by the given amount. This option cannot be used if the -s option is given; see "mkfs Options" below. -v Verbose; the newfs command prints out its actions, including the parameters passed to the mkfs command. -V Echo the completed command line, but perform no other actions. The command line is generated by incorporating the user-specified options and other information derived from /etc/fstab . This option allows the user to verify the command line. Both the -R and -B options can be given in the same command line. In this case, both the requested swap space and the space needed for boot programs are reserved. These options are for use when the file system size defaults to the size of the entire disk. mkfs Options The mkfs-options argument can be zero or more of the following options that can be used to override default values passed to the mkfs command: -b blksize The primary block size for files on the file system. Valid values are: 4096, 8192, 16384, 32768, and 65536. The default value is 8192 bytes. -c cylinders_per_group The number of disk cylinders per cylinder group. This number must be in the range 1 HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −1− Section 1M− 567 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ newfs_hfs(1M) newfs_hfs(1M) to 32. The default value is 16 cylinders per group. -f fragsize The fragment size for files on the file system. fragsize represents the smallest amount of disk space to be allocated to a file. It must be a power of two no smaller than DEV_BSIZE and no smaller than one-eighth of the file system block size. The default value is 1024 bytes. -i number_of_bytes_per_inode The density of inodes in the file system specified as the number of bytes per inode. The default is 6144 bytes per inode. This number should reflect the expected average size of files in the file system. If fewer inodes are desired, a larger number should be used; if more inodes are desired, a smaller number should be used. Note : The number of inodes that will be created in each cylinder group of a file system is approximately the size of the cylinder group divided by the number of bytes per inode, up to a limit of 2048 inodes per cylinder group. If the size of the cylinder group is large enough to reach this limit, the default number of bytes per inode will be increased. -m free_space_percent The minimum percentage of free disk space allowed. The default value is 10 percent. Once the file system capacity reaches this threshold, only users with appropriate privileges can allocate disk blocks. -r revolutions_per_minute The disk speed in revolutions per minute (rpm). The default value is 3600 revolutions per minute. -s size The number of DEV_BSIZE blocks in the file system. DEV_BSIZE is defined in <sys/param.h> . The default value is the size of the entire disk or disk section minus any swap or boot space requested. See mkfs_hfs (1M) for limits on the size of HFS file systems. n -t tracks_per_cylinder The number of tracks per cylinder. The default value depends on the size of the file system. For file systems of less than 500 MB, the default is 7; for file systems between 500 MB and 1 GB, the default is 12; for file systems larger than 1 GB the default is 16. -o specific_options Specify a list of comma separated suboptions and/or keyword/attribute pairs from the list below. largefiles |nolargefiles Controls the largefile featurebit for the file system. The default is nolargefiles . This means the bit is not set and files created on the file system will be limited to less than 2 gigabytes in size. If largefiles is specified, the bit is set and the maximum size for files created on the file system is not limited to 2 gigabytes (see mount_hfs (1M) and fsadm_hfs (1M)). Access Control Lists Every file with one or more optional ACL entries consumes an extra (continuation) inode. If you anticipate significant use of ACLs on a new file system, you can allocate more inodes by reducing the value of the argument to the -i option appropriately. The small default value typically causes allocation of many more inodes than are actually necessary, even with ACLs. To evaluate the need for extra inodes, run the bdf -i command on existing file systems. For more information on access control lists, see acl (5). EXAMPLES Execute the newfs command to create an HFS file system on a non-LVM disk /dev/rdsk/c1t0d2 and reserve 40 megabytes of swap space. newfs -F hfs -R 40 /dev/rdsk/c1t0d2 Create an HFS file system within a logical volume, my_lvol , whose size is identical to that of the logical volume. (Note the use of the character (raw) special device.) Section 1M− 568 __ −2− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ newfs_hfs(1M) newfs_hfs(1M) newfs -F hfs /dev/vg01/rmy_lvol WARNINGS The old -F option, from prior releases of newfs (1M), is no longer supported. newfs (1M) cannot be executed specifying creation of a file system on a whole disk if that disk was previously used as an LVM disk. If you wish to do this, use mediainit (1) to reinitialize the disk first. AUTHOR newfs was developed by HP and the University of California, Berkeley. FILES /etc/disktab /etc/fstab Static information about the file systems. SEE ALSO bdf(1M), fsadm_hfs(1M), mkboot(1M), mkfs(1M), mkfs_hfs(1M), mount_hfs(1M), newfs(1M), tunefs(1M), disktab(4), fs(4), acl(5). n HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −3− Section 1M− 569 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ newfs_vxfs(1M) newfs_vxfs(1M) NAME newfs - create a new VxFS file system SYNOPSIS /usr/sbin/newfs [-F vxfs ] [-B] [-O disk_type ] [-R swap ] [-V] [-v] [mkfs_vxfs_options ] special DESCRIPTION newfs -F vxfs builds a VxFS file system by invoking mkfs . special specifies a character (or raw) file (for example, /dev/rdsk/c0t6d0). Options newfs recognizes the following options: -F vxfs Specify the file-system type vxfs . -B Reserve space for boot programs past the end of the file system. If the file /usr/lib/uxbootlf is present on the system, sufficient space to accommodate that file is reserved; otherwise 691 kilobytes are reserved. This option decreases the size of the file system being created. This option cannot be used if the file-system size is also specified using -s (see mkfs_vxfs options below). -O disk_type Use disk parameters from the disk_type named in /etc/disktab . This option is provided for backward compatibility with previous HP-UX releases. Any parameters specified on the command line will the corresponding values in /etc/disktab . Any values not specified in the command line and not shown in /etc/disktab are defaulted. -R swap Reserve swap megabytes of swap space past the end of the file system. This option decreases the size of the file system to be created by the specified number of megabytes. -R cannot be used if the file-system size is also specified using -s (see mkfs_vxfs options below). -V Echo the completed command line, but do not execute the command. The command line is generated by incorporating the user-specified options and other information derived from /etc/fstab. This option allows the user to verify the command line. -v Specify verbose mode. passed to mkfs . n newfs prints out its actions, including the parameters NOTE: You can specify the -R and -B options in the same command line. In that case, both the requested swap space and the space needed for boot programs are reserved. These options are used when the file system size is defaulted to the size of the entire disk. mkfs_vxfs Options The following additional command-line options can be used to override default parameters passed to mkfs_vxfs: -b block_size File system block size in bytes. The default value is 1024 bytes. -o largefiles | nolargefiles Valid only for the Version 3 and later disk layouts. This option controls the largefiles flag for the file system. If largefiles is specified, the bit is set and files two gigabytes or larger can be created. If nolargefiles is specified, the bit is cleared and files created on the files system are limited to less than two gigabytes. The default is nolargefiles . See mkfs_vxfs (1M), mount_vxfs (1M) and fsadm_vxfs (1M). -s size File system size in DEV_BSIZE blocks (defined in <sys/param.h>). The default value is the size of the entire disk or disk section, minus any swap or boot space requested. The size specifies the number of sectors in the file system. By default, size is specified in units of DEV_BSIZE sectors. However, you can append a suffix to size to indicate another unit of measure. Append k or K to indicate that the value is in kilobytes, m or M to indicate megabytes, or g or G to indicate gigabytes. EXAMPLES To create a VxFS file system on /dev/rdsk/c1t5d0 and reserve 40 megabytes of swap space. newfs -F vxfs -R40 /dev/rdsk/c1t5d0 Section 1M− 570 __ −1− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ newfs_vxfs(1M) newfs_vxfs(1M) FILES /etc/disktab /etc/fstab Disk description file. Static information about the file systems. SEE ALSO fsadm_vxfs(1M), mkfs(1M), mkfs_vxfs(1M), mount_vxfs(1M), newfs(1M), disktab(4). n HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −2− Section 1M− 571 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ newkey(1M) newkey(1M) NAME newkey - create a new Diffie-Hellman key pair in the publickey database SYNOPSIS newkey -h hostname [ -s nisplus | nis | files ] newkey -u username [ -s nisplus | nis | files ] DESCRIPTION newkey establishes new public keys for users and machines on the network. These keys are needed when using secure RPC or secure NFS service. newkey prompts for a password for the given username or hostname and then creates a new public/secret Diffie-Hellman 192 bit key pair for the user or host. The secret key is encrypted with the given password. The key pair can be stored in the /etc/publickey file, the NIS publickey map, or the NIS+ cred.org_dir table. newkey consults the publickey entry in the name service switch configuration file (see nsswitch.conf (4)) to determine which naming service is used to store the secure RPC keys. If the publickey entry specifies a unique name service, newkey will add the key in the specified name service. However, if there are multiple name services listed, newkey cannot decide which source to update and will display an error message. The user is required to specify the source explicitly with the -s option. In the case of NIS, newkey should be run by the superuser on the master NIS server for that domain. In the case of NIS+, newkey should be run by the superuser on a machine which has permission to update the cred.org_dir table of the new user/host domain. In the case of NIS+, nisaddcred (1M) should be used to add new keys. Options -h hostname -u username n Create a new public/secret key pair for the privileged user at the given hostname . Prompts for a password for the given hostname . Create a new public/secret key pair for the given username . Prompts for a password for the given username . -s nisplus -s nis Update the database in the specified source: nisplus (for NIS+), nis (for NIS), or -s files files . Other sources may be available in the future. AUTHOR newkey was developed by Sun Microsystems, Inc. SEE ALSO chkey(1), keylogin(1), nisaddcred(1M), nisclient(1M), nsswitch.conf(4), publickey(4). Section 1M− 572 __ −1− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ nfsd(1M) nfsd(1M) NAME nfsd, biod - NFS daemons SYNOPSIS /usr/sbin/nfsd [ -a ] [ -p protocol ] [ -t device ] [nservers ] /usr/sbin/biod [nservers ] DESCRIPTION nfsd starts the NFS server daemons that handle client file system requests (see nfs (7)). nservers is the suggested number of file system request daemons that will start. The minimum number of daemons will be equal to the number of active processors plus one, or to a multiple of the number of active processors greater than or equal to nservers plus one. To obtain the best performance in most cases, set nservers to at least sixteen. biod starts nservers asynchronous block I/O daemons. This command is used on an NFS client to buffer cache handle read-ahead and write-behind. nservers is a number greater than zero. For best performance, set nservers to at least sixteen. Options nfsd recognizes the following options: -a Start a NFS daemon over all supported connectionless and connection-oriented transports, including udp and tcp. The NFS_TCP environment variable in /etc/rc.config.d/nfsconf configuration file, must have been set to 1 (one) in order to support connect-oriented (tcp) transport. -p protocol Start a NFS daemon over the specified protocol. -t device Start a NFS daemon for the transport specified by the given device. nservers nservers is the suggested number of file system request daemons that will start. The actual number of daemons started will be one tcp daemon (to support kernel tcp threads) plus the number of udp daemons. The minimum number of udp daemons will be equal to a multiple of the active processors, or to nservers , whichever is greater. To obtain the best performance in most cases, set nservers to at least sixteen. n AUTHOR nfsd was developed by Sun Microsystems, Inc. SEE ALSO mountd(1M), exports(4). HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −1− Section 1M− 573 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ nfsstat(1M) nfsstat(1M) NAME nfsstat - Network File System statistics SYNOPSIS nfsstat [ -cmnrsz ] DESCRIPTION nfsstat displays statistical information about the NFS (Network File System) and RPC (Remote Procedure Call), interfaces to the kernel. It can also be used to reinitialize this information. If no options are given, the default is nfsstat -cnrs That is, display everything, but reinitialize nothing. OPTIONS -c Display client information. Only the client side NFS and RPC information will be printed. Can be combined with the -n and -r options to print client NFS or client RPC information only. -m Display statistics for each NFS mounted file system. This includes the server name and address, mount flags, current read and write sizes, the retransmission count, and the timers used for dynamic retransmission. The srtt value contains the smoothed round trip time, the dev value contains the estimated deviation, and the cur value is the current backed-off retransmission value. -n Display NFS information. NFS information for both the client and server side will be printed. Can be combined with the -c and -s options to print client or server NFS information only. -r Display RPC information. -s Display server information. -z Zero (reinitialize) statistics. This option is for use by the super-user only, and can be combined with any of the above options to zero particular sets of statistics after printing them. n DISPLAYS The server RPC display includes the following fields: calls The total number of RPC calls received. badcalls The total number of calls rejected by the RPC layer (the sum of badlen and xdrcall as defined below). nullrecv The number of times an RPC call was not available when it was thought to be received. badlen The number of RPC calls with a length shorter than a minimum-sized RPC call. xdrcall The number of RPC calls whose header could not be XDR decoded. The server NFS display shows the number of NFS calls received (calls ) and rejected (badcalls ), and the counts and percentages for the various calls that were made. The client RPC display includes the following fields: calls The total number of RPC calls made. badcalls The total number of calls rejected by the RPC layer. retrans The number of times a call had to be retransmitted due to a timeout while waiting for a reply from the server. badxid The number of times a reply from a server was received which did not correspond to any outstanding call. timeout wait newcred timers The number of times a call timed out while waiting for a reply from the server. The number of times a call had to wait because no client handle was available. The number of times authentication information had to be refreshed. The number of times the calculated time-out value was greater than or equal to the minimum specified time-out value for a call. The client NFS display shows the number of calls sent and rejected, as well as the number of times a CLIENT handle was received (nclget ), the number of times a call had to sleep while awaiting a handle Section 1M− 574 __ −1− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ nfsstat(1M) nfsstat(1M) (nclsleep ), as well as a count of the various calls and their respective percentages. AUTHOR nfsstat was developed by Sun Microsystems, Inc. n HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −2− Section 1M− 575 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ nis_cachemgr(1M) nis_cachemgr(1M) NAME nis_cachemgr - maintains a cache containing location information about NIS+ servers SYNOPSIS /usr/sbin/nis_cachemgr [ -i ] [ -n ] [ -v ] DESCRIPTION The nis_cachemgr daemon maintains a cache of the NIS+ directory objects. The cache contains location information necessary to contact the NIS+ servers that serve the various directories in the name space. This includes transport addresses, information neeeded to authenticate the server, and a time to live field which gives a hint on how long the directory object can be cached. The cache helps to improve the performance of the clients that are traversing the NIS+ name space. nis_cachemgr should be running on all the machines that are using NIS+. However, it is not required that the nis_cachemgr program be running in order for NIS+ requests to be serviced. The cache maintained by this program is shared by all the processes that access NIS+ on that machine. The cache is maintained in a file that is memory mapped (see mmap (2)) by all the processes. On startup, nis_cachemgr initializes the cache from the cold start file (see nisinit (1M)) and preserves unexpired entries that already exist in the cache file. Thus, the cache survives machine reboots. The nis_cachemgr program is normally started from a system startup script. Note: The nis_cachemgr program makes NIS+ requests under the NIS+ principal name of the host on which it runs. Before running nis_cachemgr , security credentials for the host should be added to the cred.org_dir table in the host’s domain using nisaddcred(1M). Credentials of type DES will be needed if the NIS+ service is operating at security level 2 (see rpc.nisd (1M)). See the WARNINGS section, below. Additionally, a ’keylogin -r’ needs to be done on the machine. nisshowcache can be used to look at the cached objects. n Options -i Force nis_cachemgr to ignore the previous cache file and reinitialize the cache from just the cold start file. By default, the cache manager initializes itself from both the cold start file and the old cache file, thereby maintaining the entries in the cache across machine reboots. -n Run nis_cachemgr in an insecure mode. By default, before adding a directory object to the shared cache, on the request of another process on the machine, it checks the encrypted signature on the request to make sure that the directory object is a valid one and is sent by an authorized server. In this mode, nis_cachemgr adds the directory object to the shared cache without making this check. -v This flag sets verbose mode. In this mode, the nis_cachemgr program logs not only errors and warnings, but also additional status messages. The additional messages are logged using syslog (3C) with a priority of LOG_INFO . DIAGNOSTICS The nis_cachemgr daemon logs error messages and warnings using syslog (see syslog (3C)). Error messages are logged to the DAEMON facility with a priority of LOG_ERR , and warning messages with a priority of LOG_WARNING . Additional status messages can be obtained using the -v option. WARNINGS If the host principal does not have the proper security credentials in the cred.org_dir table for its domain, then running this program without the ’-n’ insecure mode option may significantly degrade the performance of processes issuing NIS+ requests. FILES /var/nis/NIS_SHARED_DIRCACHE the shared cache file /var/nis/NIS_COLD_START the coldstart file /etc/init.d/rpc initialization scripts for NIS+ AUTHOR nis_cachemgr was developed by Sun Microsystems, Inc. SEE ALSO keylogin(1), nisaddcred(1M), nisinit(1M), nisshowcache(1M), rpc.nisd(1M), mmap(2), syslog(3C), nisfiles(4). Section 1M− 576 __ −1− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ nisaddcred(1M) nisaddcred(1M) NAME nisaddcred - create NIS+ credentials SYNOPSIS nisaddcred [ -p principal ] [ -P nis_principal ] [ -l login_password ] auth_type [ domain_name ] nisaddcred -r [ nis_principal ] [ domain_name ] DESCRIPTION The nisaddcred command is used to create security credentials for NIS+ principals. NIS+ credentials serve two purposes. The first is to provide authentication information to various services; the second is to map the authentication service name into an NIS+ principal name. When the nisaddcred command is run, these credentials get created and stored in a table named cred.org_dir in the default NIS+ domain. If domain_name is specified, the entries are stored in the cred.org_dir of the specified domain. Note that the credentials of normal users must be stored in the same domain as their passwords. It is simpler to add credentials using nisclient (1M) because it obtains the required information itself. nispopulate (1M) can also be used to add credentials for entries in the hosts and the passwd NIS+ tables. NIS+ principal names are used in specifying clients that have access rights to NIS+ objects. For more details, refer to the "Principal Names" subsection of the nis+ (1) manual page. See nischmod (1), nischown (1), nis_objects (3N), and nis_groups (3N). Various other services can also implement access control based on these principal names. The cred.org_dir table is organized as follows : cname fred.foo.com. fred.foo.com. auth_type LOCAL DES auth_name 2990 unix.2990@foo.com public_data 10,102,44 098...819 private_data 3b8...ab2 The cname column contains a canonical representation of the NIS+ principal name. By convention, this name is the login name of a user or the host name of a machine, followed by a dot (‘‘.’’), followed by the fully qualified ‘‘home’’ domain of that principal. For users, the home domain is defined to be the domain where their DES credentials are kept. For hosts, their home domain is defined to be the domain name returned by the domainname (1) command executed on that host. n There are two types of auth_type entries in the cred.org_dir table: those with authentication type LOCAL and those with authentication type DES. auth_type, specified on the command line in upper or lower case, should be either local or des . Entries of type LOCAL are used by the NIS+ service to determine the correspondence between fully qualified NIS+ principal names and users identified by UIDs in the domain containing the cred.org_dir table. This correspondence is required when associating requests made using the AUTH_SYS RPC authentication flavor (see rpc_clnt_auth (3N)) to an NIS+ principal name. It is also required for mapping a UID in one domain to its fully qualified NIS+ principal name whose home domain may be elsewhere. The principal’s credentials for any authentication flavor may then be sought for within the cred.org_dir table in the principal’s home domain (extracted from the principal name). The same NIS+ principal may have LOCAL credential entries in more than one domain. Only users, and not machines, have LOCAL credentials. In their home domain, users of NIS+ should have both types of credentials. The auth_name associated with the LOCAL type entry is a UID that is valid for the principal in the domain containing the cred.org_dir table. This may differ from that in the principal’s home domain. The public information stored in public_data for this type contains a list of GIDs for groups in which the user is a member. The GIDs also apply to the domain in which the table resides. There is no private data associated with this type. Neither a UID nor a principal name should appear more than once among the LOCAL entries in any one cred.org_dir table. The DES auth_type is used for Secure RPC authentication (see secure_rpc (3N)). The authentication name associated with the DES auth_type is a Secure RPC netname . A Secure RPC netname has the form unix. id @domain, where domain must be the same as the domain of the principal. For principals that are users, the id must be the UID of the principal in the principal’s home domain. For principals that are hosts, the id is the host’s name. In Secure RPC, processes running under effective UID HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −1− Section 1M− 577 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ nisaddcred(1M) nisaddcred(1M) 0 (root) are identified with the host principal. Unlike LOCAL, there cannot be more than one DES credential entry for one NIS+ principal in the NIS+ namespace. The public information in an entry of authentication type DES is the public key for the principal. The private information in this entry is the private key of the principal encrypted by the principal’s network password. User clients of NIS+ should have credentials of both types in their home domain. In addition, a principal must have a LOCAL entry in the cred.org_dir table of each domain from which the principal wishes to make authenticated requests. A client of NIS+ that makes a request from a domain in which it does not have a LOCAL entry will be unable to acquire DES credentials. An NIS+ service running at security level 2 or higher will consider such users unauthenticated and assign them the name nobody for determining access rights. This command can only be run by those NIS+ principals who are authorized to add or delete the entries in the cred table. If credentials are being added for the caller itself, nisaddcred automatically performs a keylogin for the caller. Options -p principal Use the principal name principal to fill the auth_name field for this entry. For LOCAL credentials, the name supplied with this option should be a string specifying a UID. For DES credentials, the name should be a Secure RPC netname of the form unix. id @domain, as described earlier. If the -p option is not specified, the auth_name field is constructed from the effective UID of the current process and the name of the local domain. -P nis_principal Use the NIS+ principal name nis_principal. This option should be used when creating LOCAL credentials for users whose home domain is different from the local machine’s default domain. Whenever the -P option is not specified, nisaddcred constructs a principal name for the entry as follows. When it is not creating an entry of type LOCAL, nisaddcred calls nis_local_principal, which looks for an existing LOCAL entry for the effective UID of the current process in the cred.org_dir table and uses the associated principal name for the new entry. When creating an entry of authentication type LOCAL, nisaddcred constructs a default NIS+ principal name by taking the login name of the effective UID for its own process and appending to it a dot (‘‘.’’) followed by the local machine’s default domain. If the caller is a superuser, the machine name is used instead of the login name. n -l login_password Use the login_password specified as the password to encrypt the secret key for the credential entry. This overrides the prompting for a password from the shell. This option is intended for administration scripts only. Prompting guarantees not only that no one can see your password on the command line using ps (1), but it also checks to make sure you have not made any mistakes. NOTE: login_password does not really HAVE to be the user’s password, but if it is, it simplifies logging in. -r [ nis_principal ] Remove all credentials associated with the principal nis_principal from the cred.org_dir table. This option can be used when removing a client or user from the system. If nis_principal is not specified, the default is to remove credentials for the current user . If domain_name is not specified, the operation is executed in the default NIS+ domain. RETURN VALUE This command returns 0 on success and 1 on failure. EXAMPLES Add a LOCAL entry with a UID 2970 for the NIS+ principal name fredw.some.domain: nisaddcred -p 2970 -P fredw.some.domain. local Note that credentials are always added in the cred.org_dir table in the domain where nisaddcred is run, unless domainname is specified as the last parameter on the command line. If credentials are being Section 1M− 578 __ −2− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ nisaddcred(1M) nisaddcred(1M) added from the domain server for its clients, then domainname should be specified. The caller should have adequate permissions to create entries in the cred.org_dir table. The system administrator can add a DES credential for the same user: nisaddcred -p unix.2970@some.domain \ -P fredw.some.domain. des Here, 2970 is the UID assigned to the user, fredw . some.domain comes from the user’s home domain, and fredw comes from the password file. Note that DES credentials can be added only after the LOCAL credentials have been added. Note that the secure RPC netname does not end with a dot (‘‘.’’), while the NIS+ principal name (specified with the -P option) does. This command should be executed from a machine in the same domain as the user. Add a machine’s DES credentials in the same domain: nisaddcred -p unix.foo@some.domain \ -P foo.some.domain. des Note that no LOCAL credentials are needed in this case. Add a LOCAL entry with the UID of the current user and the NIS+ principal name of tony.some.other.domain: nisaddcred -P tony.some.other.domain. local You can list the cred entries for a particular principal with nismatch (1). AUTHOR nisaddcred was developed by Sun Microsystems, Inc. SEE ALSO chkey(1), keylogin(1), nis+(1), nischmod(1), nischown(1), nismatch(1), nistbladm(1), nisclient(1M), nispopulate(1M), nis_local_names(3N), rpc_clnt_auth(3N), secure_rpc(3N), nis_objects(3N), nis_groups(3N). NOTES The cred.org_dir NIS+ table replaces the maps publickey.byname and netid.byname used in NIS (YP). HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −3− n Section 1M− 579 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ nisaddent(1M) nisaddent(1M) NAME nisaddent - create NIS+ tables from corresponding /etc files or NIS maps SYNOPSIS /usr/lib/nis/nisaddent [ -D defaults ] [ -Parv ] [ -t table ] type [ nisdomain ] /usr/lib/nis/nisaddent [ -D defaults ] [ -Paprmv ] -f file [ -t table ] type [ nisdomain ] /usr/lib/nis/nisaddent [ -D defaults ] [ -Parmv ] [ -t table ] -y ypdomain [ -Y map ] type [ nisdomain ] /usr/lib/nis/nisaddent -d [-AMq] [ -t table ] type [ nisdomain ] DESCRIPTION nisaddent creates entries in NIS+ tables from their corresponding /etc files and NIS maps. This operation is customized for each of the standard tables that are used in the administration of HP-UX systems. The type argument specifies the type of the data being processed. Legal values for this type are one of aliases , bootparams , ethers , group , hosts , netid , netmasks , networks , passwd , protocols , publickey , rpc , services , shadow , or timezone for the standard tables, or keyvalue for a generic two-column (key, value) table. For a site specific table, which is not of key-value type, one can use nistbladm (1) to administer it. The NIS+ tables should have already been created by nistbladm (1), nissetup (1M), or nisserver (1M). It is easier to use nispopulate (1M) instead of nisaddent to populate the system tables. By default, nisaddent reads from the standard input and adds this data to the NIS+ table associated with the type specified on the command line. An alternate NIS+ table may be specified with the -t option. For type key-value , a table specification is required. Note that the data type can be different from the table name (-t). For example, the automounter tables have key-value as the table type. n Although, there is a shadow data type, there is no corresponding shadow table. Both the shadow and the passwd data are stored in the passwd table itself. Files may be processed using the -f option, and NIS version 2 (YP) maps may be processed using the -y option. The merge option is not available when reading data from standard input. When a ypdomain is specified, the nisaddent command takes its input from the dbm files for the appropriate NIS map (mail.aliases , bootparams , ethers.byaddr, group.byname , hosts.byaddr , netid.byname , netmasks.byaddr, networks.byname, passwd.byname, publickey.byname, rpc.bynumber , services.byname, or protocols.byname, timezone.byname). An alternate NIS map may be specified with the -Y option. For type keyvalue , a map specification is required. The map must be in the /var/yp/ ypdomain directory on the local machine. Note that ypdomain is case sensitive. ypxfr (1M) can be used to get the NIS maps. If a nisdomain is specified, nisaddent operates on the NIS+ table in that NIS+ domain; otherwise the default domain is used. In terms of performance, loading up the tables is fastest when done through the dbm files (-y). Options -a Add the file or map to the NIS+ table without deleting any existing entries. This option is the default. Note that this mode only propagates additions and modifications, not deletions. -d Dump the NIS+ table to the standard output in the appropriate format for the given type . For tables of type key-value , use niscat (1) instead. To dump the cred table, dump the publickey and the netid types. -f file -m Specify that file should be used as the source of input (instead of the standard input). Merge the file or map with the NIS+ table. This is the most efficient way to bring an NIS+ table up to date with a file or NIS map when there are only a small number of changes. This option adds entries that are not already in the database, modifies entries that already exist (if changed), and deletes any entries that are not in the source. Use the -m option whenever the database is large and replicated, and the map being loaded differs only in a few entries. This option reduces the number of update messages that have to be sent to the replicas. Also see the -r option. Section 1M− 580 __ −1− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ nisaddent(1M) nisaddent(1M) -p Process the password field when loading password information from a file. By default, the password field is ignored because it is usually not valid (the actual password appears in a shadow file). -q Dump tables in "quick" mode. The default method for dumping tables processes each entry individually. For some tables (e.g., hosts), multiple entries must be combined into a single line, so extra requests to the server must be made. In "quick" mode, all of the entries for a table are retrieved in one call to the server, so the table can be dumped more quickly. However, for large tables, there is a chance that the process will run out of virtual memory and the table will not be dumped. -r Replace the file or map in the existing NIS+ table by first deleting any existing entries, and then add the entries from the source (/etc files, or NIS+ maps). This option has the same effect as the -m option. The use of this option is strongly discouraged due to its adverse impact on performance, unless there are a large number of changes. -t table Specify that table should be the NIS+ table for this operation. This should be a relative name as compared to your default domain or the domainname if it has been specified. -v Verbose. -y ypdomain Use the dbm files for the appropriate NIS map, from the NIS domain ypdomain , as the source of input. The files are expected to be on the local machine in the /var/yp/ ypdomain directory. If the machine is not an NIS server, use ypxfr (1M) to get a copy of the dbm files for the appropriate map. All data. This option specifies that the data within the table and all of the data in tables in the initial table’s concatenation path be returned. -A -D defaults This option specifies a different set of defaults to be used during this operation. The defaults string is a series of tokens separated by colons. These tokens represent the default values to be used for the generic object properties. All of the legal tokens are described below. ttl= time This token sets the default time to live for objects that are created by this command. The value time is specified in the format as defined by the nischttl (1) command. The default is 12 hours. n owner= ownername This token specifies that the NIS+ principal ownername should own the created object. The default for this value is the principal who is executing the command. group= groupname This token specifies that the group groupname should be the group owner for the object that is created. The default is NULL . access= rights This token specifies the set of access rights that are to be granted for the given object. The value rights is specified in the format as defined by the nischmod (1) command. The default is - - - -rmcdr - - -r - - -. -M Master server only. This option specifies that lookups should be sent to the master server. This guarantees that the most up-to-date information is seen at the possible expense that the master server may be busy, or that it may be made busy by this operation. -P Follow concatenation path. This option specifies that lookups should follow the concatenation path of a table if the initial search is unsuccessful. -Y map Use the dbm files for map as the source of input. EXAMPLES Add the contents of /etc/passwd to the passwd.org_dir table: cat /etc/passwd | nisaddent passwd Add the shadow information (note that the table type here is shadow , not passwd , even though the actual information is stored in the passwd table): HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −2− Section 1M− 581 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ nisaddent(1M) nisaddent(1M) cat /etc/shadow | nisaddent shadow Replace the hosts.org_dir table with the contents of /etc/hosts (in verbose mode): nisaddent -rv -f /etc/hosts hosts Merge the passwd map from myypdomain with the passwd.org_dir.nisdomain table (in verbose mode) (the example assumes that the /var/yp/myypdomain directory contains the yppasswd map.): nisaddent -mv -y myypdomain passwd nisdomain Merge the auto.master map from myypdomain with the auto_master.org_dir table: nisaddent -m -y myypdomain -Y auto.master \ -t auto_master.org_dir key-value Dump the hosts.org_dir table: nisaddent -d hosts EXTERNAL INFLUENCES Environment Variables NIS_DEFAULTS This variable contains a default string that will override the NIS+ standard defaults. If the -D switch is used, those values will then override both the NIS_DEFAULTS variable and the standard defaults. NIS_PATH If this variable is set, and neither the nisdomain nor the table is fully qualified, each directory specified in NIS_PATH will be searched until the table is found (see nisdefaults (1)). RETURN VALUE nisaddent returns 0 on success and 1 on failure. AUTHOR n nisaddent was developed by Sun Microsystems, Inc. SEE ALSO niscat(1), nischmod(1), nisdefaults(1), ypxfr(1M), hosts(4), passwd(4). Section 1M− 582 __ nistbladm(1), −3− nispopulate(1M), nisserver(1M), nissetup(1M), HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ nisclient(1M) nisclient(1M) NAME nisclient - initialize NIS+ credentials for NIS+ principals SYNOPSIS /usr/lib/nis/nisclient -c [ -x ] [ -o ] [ -v ] [ -l network_password ] [ -d NIS+_domain ] client_name . . . /usr/lib/nis/nisclient -i [ -x ] [ -v ] -h NIS+_server_host [ -a NIS+_server_addr ] [ -d NIS+_domain ] [ -S 0|2 ] /usr/lib/nis/nisclient -u [ -x ] [ -v ] /usr/lib/nis/nisclient -r [ -x ] DESCRIPTION The nisclient shell script can be used to: • create NIS+ credentials for hosts and users • initialize NIS+ hosts and users • restore the network service environment NIS+ credentials are used to provide authentication information of NIS+ clients to NIS+ service. Use the first synopsis ( -c ) to create individual NIS+ credentials for hosts or users. You must be logged in as a NIS+ principal in the domain for which you are creating the new credentials. You must also have write permission to the local "cred" table. The client_name argument accepts any valid host or user name in the NIS+ domain (for example, the client_name must exist in the hosts or passwd table). nisclient verifies each client_name against both the hosts and passwd tables, then adds the proper NIS+ credentials for hosts or users. Note that if you are creating NIS+ credentials outside of your local domain, the host or user must exist in the hosts or passwd tables in both the local and remote domains. By default, nisclient will not overwrite existing entries in the credential table for the hosts and users specified. To overwrite, use the -o option. After the credentials have been created, nisclient will print the command that must be executed on the client machine to initialize the host or the user. The -c option requires a network password for the client which is used to encrypt the secret key for the client. You can either specify it on the command line with the -l option or the script will prompt you for it. You can change this network password later with nispasswd (1) or chkey (1). n nisclient -c is not intended to be used to create NIS+ credentials for all users and hosts that are defined in the passwd and hosts tables. To define credentials for all users and hosts, use nispopulate (1M). Use the second synopsis ( -i ) to initialize a NIS+ client machine. -i The option can be used to convert machines to use NIS+ or to change the machine’s domainname. You must be logged in as super-user on the machine that is to become a NIS+ client. Your administrator must have already created the NIS+ credential for this host by using nisclient -c or nispopulate -C. You will need the network password your administrator created. nisclient will prompt you for the network password to decrypt your secret key and then for this machine’s root login password to generate a new set of secret/public keys. If the NIS+ credential was created by your administrator using nisclient -c , then you can simply use the initialization command that was printed by the nisclient script to initialize this host instead of typing it manually. To initialize an unauthenticated NIS+ client machine, use the -i option with the -S 0. With these options, the nisclient -i option will not ask for any passwords. During the client initialization process, files that are being modified are backed up as files .no_nisplus. The files that are usually modified during a client initialization are: /etc/rc.config.d/namesvrs, /etc/nsswitch.conf, /etc/hosts , and, if it exists, /var/nis/NIS_COLD_START. Note that a file will not be saved if a backup file already exists. The -i option does not set up an NIS+ client to resolve hostnames using DNS. Please refer to the DNS documentation for information on setting up DNS. (See resolver (4)). Use the third synopsis ( -u ) to initialize a NIS+ user. You must be logged in as the user on a NIS+ client machine in the domain where your NIS+ credentials have been created. Your administrator should have already created the NIS+ credential for your username using nisclient -c or nispopulate (1M). You will need the network password your administrator used to create the NIS+ credential for your username. nisclient will prompt you for this network password to decrypt your secret key and then for your login password to generate a new set of secret/public keys. HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −1− Section 1M− 583 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ nisclient(1M) nisclient(1M) Use the fourth synopsis (-r) to restore the network service environment to whatever you were using before nisclient -i was executed. You must be logged in as super-user on the machine that is to be restored. The restore will only work if the machine was initialized with nisclient -i because it uses the backup files created by the -i option. Reboot the machine after initializing a machine or restoring the network service. Options -a NIS+_server_addr Specifies the IP address for the NIS+ server. This option is used only with the -i option. -c -d NIS+_domain Adds DES credentials for NIS+ principals. Specifies the NIS+ domain where the credential should be created when used in conjuction with the -c option. It specifies the name for the new NIS+ domain when used in conjuction with the -i option. The default is your current domainname. -h NIS+_server_host Specifies the NIS+ server’s hostname. This option is used only with the -i option. -i Initializes an NIS+ client machine. -l network_password Specifies the network password for the clients. This option is used only with the -c option. If this option is not specified, the script will prompt you for the network password. -o -r -S 0|2 n Overwrite existing credential entries. The default is not to overwrite. This is used only with the -c option. Restores the network service environment. Specifies the authentication level for the NIS+ client. Level 0 is for unauthenticated clients and level 2 is for authenticated (DES ) clients. The default is to set up with level 2 authentication. This is used only with the -i option. nisclient always uses level 2 authentication (DES ) for both -c and -u options. There is no need to run nisclient with -u and -c for level 0 authentication. Initializes an NIS+ user. -u -v -x Runs the script in verbose mode. turns the "echo" mode on. The script just prints the commands that it would have executed. Note that the commands are not actually executed. The default is off. EXAMPLES To add the DES credential for host hpws and user fred in the local domain: /usr/lib/nis/nisclient -c hpws fred To add the DES credential for host hpws and user fred in domain xyz.hp.com. : /usr/lib/nis/nisclient -c -d xyz.hp.com. hpws fred To initialize host hpws as an NIS+ client in domain xyz.hp.com. where nisplus_server is a server for the domain xyz.hp.com. : /usr/lib/nis/nisclient -i -h nisplus_server -d xyz.hp.com. The script will prompt you for the IP address of nisplus_server if the server is not found in the /etc/hosts file. The -d option is needed only if your current domain name is different from the new domain name. To initialize host hpws as an unauthenticated NIS+ client in domain xyz.hp.com. where nisplus_server is a server for the domain xyz.hp.com.: /usr/lib/nis/nisclient -i -S 0 -h nisplus_server -d xyz.hp.com. \ -a 129.140.44.1 To initialize user fred as an NIS+ principal, log in as user fred on an NIS+ client machine. /usr/lib/nis/nisclient -u FILES /var/nis/NIS_COLD_START This file contains a list of servers, their transport addresses, and their Secure Section 1M− 584 __ −2− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ nisclient(1M) nisclient(1M) RPC public keys that serve the machines default domain. /etc/defaultdomain the system default domainname /etc/nsswitch.conf /etc/hosts configuration file for the name-service switch local host name database AUTHOR nisclient was developed by Sun Microsystems, Inc. SEE ALSO chkey(1), keylogin(1), nis+(1), nispasswd(1), keyserv(1M), nisaddcred(1M), nisinit(1M), nispopulate(1M), nsswitch.conf(4), resolver(4). n HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −3− Section 1M− 585 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ nisinit(1M) nisinit(1M) NAME nisinit - NIS+ client and server initialization utility SYNOPSIS nisinit -r nisinit -p Y |D |N parent_domain host . . . nisinit -c -H host | -B | -C coldstart DESCRIPTION nisinit initializes a machine to be a NIS+ client or an NIS+ root master server. It may be easier to use nisclient (1M) or nisserver (1M) to accomplish this same task. Options -r Initialize the machine to be a NIS+ root server. This option creates the file /var/nis/root.object and initializes it to contain information about this machine. It uses the sysinfo() system call to retrieve the name of the default domain. To initialize the machine as an NIS+ root server, it is advisable to use the -r option of nisserver (1M), instead of using nisinit -r. -p Y | D | N parent_domain host . . . This option is used on a root server to initialize a /var/nis/parent.object to make this domain a part of the namespace above it. Only root servers can have parent objects. A parent object describes the namespace ‘‘above’’ the NIS+ root. If this is an isolated domain, this option should not be used. The argument to this option tells the command what type of name server is serving the domain above the NIS+ domain. When clients attempt to resolve a name that is outside of the NIS+ namespace, this object is returned with the error NIS_FOREIGNNS indicating that a name space boundary has been reached. It is up to the client to continue the name resolution process. n The parameter parent_domain is the name of the parent domain in a syntax that is native to that type of domain. The list of host names that follow the domain parameter are the names of hosts that serve the parent domain. If there is more than one server for a parent domain, the first host specified should be the master server for that domain. Y D N Specifies that the parent directory is a NIS version 2 domain. Specifies that the parent directory is a DNS domain. Specifies that the parent directory is another NIS+ domain. This option is useful for connecting a pre-existing NIS+ subtree into the global namespace. Note that in the current implementation, the NIS+ clients do not take advantage of the -p feature. Also, since the parent object is currently not replicated on root replica servers, it is recommended that this option not be used. -c Initializes the machine to be a NIS+ client. There are three initialization options available: initialize by coldstart, initialize by hostname, and initialize by broadcast. The most secure mechanism is to initialize from a trusted coldstart file. The second option is to initialize using a hostname that you specify as a trusted host. The third method is to initialize by broadcast and it is the least secure method. -C coldstart Causes the file coldstart to be used as a prototype coldstart file when initializing a NIS+ client. This coldstart file can be copied from a machine that is already a client of the NIS+ namespace. For maximum security, an administrator can encrypt and encode (with uuencode (1)) the coldstart file and mail it to an administrator bringing up a new machine. The new administrator would then decode (with uudecode() ), decrypt, and then use this file with the nisinit command to initialize the machine as an NIS+ client. If the coldstart file is from another client in the same domain, the nisinit command may be safely skipped and the file copied into the /var/nis directory as /var/nis/NIS_COLD_START. -H hostname Specifies that the host hostname should be contacted as a trusted NIS+ server. The nisinit command will iterate over each transport in the NETPATH environment variable and attempt to contact rpcbind(1M) on that machine. This hostname must be reachable from the client without the name service running. For IP networks this means that there must be an entry in Section 1M− 586 __ −1− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ nisinit(1M) nisinit(1M) /etc/hosts for this host when nisinit is invoked. -B Specifies that the nisinit command should use an IP broadcast to locate a NIS+ server on the local subnet. Any machine that is running the NIS+ service may answer. No guarantees are made that the server that answers is a server of the organization’s namespace. If this option is used, it is advisable to check with your system administrator that the server and domain served are valid. The binding information can be dumped to the standard output using the nisshowcache (1M) command. Note that nisinit -c will just enable navigation of the NIS+ name space from this client. To make NIS+ your name service, modify the file /etc/nsswitch.conf to reflect that. See nsswitch.conf (4) for more details. RETURN VALUE nisinit returns 0 on success and 1 on failure. EXAMPLES This example initializes the machine as an NIS+ client using the host freddy as a trusted server. nisinit -cH freddy This example sets up a client using a trusted coldstart file. nisinit -cC /tmp/colddata This example sets up a client using an IP broadcast. nisinit -cB This example sets up a root server. nisinit -r EXTERNAL INFLUENCES Environment Variables NETPATH This environment variable may be set to the transports to try when contacting the NIS+ server (see netconfig (4)). The client library will only attempt to contact the server using connection oriented transports. n FILES /var/nis/NIS_COLD_START This file contains a list of servers, their transport addresses, and their Secure RPC public keys that serve the machine’s default domain. /var/nis/ hostname /root.object This file describes the root object of the NIS+ namespace. It is a standard XDRencoded NIS+ directory object that can be modified by authorized clients using the nis_modify() interface. /var/nis/ hostname /parent.object This file describes the namespace that is logically above the NIS+ namespace. The most common type of parent object is a DNS object. This object contains contact information for a server of that domain. /etc/hosts Internet host table. AUTHOR nisinit was developed by Sun Microsystems, Inc. SEE ALSO nis+(1), uuencode(1), nisclient(1M), nisserver(1M), nisshowcache(1M), hosts(4), netconfig(4), nisfiles(4). HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −2− Section 1M− 587 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ nislog(1M) nislog(1M) NAME nislog - display the contents of the NIS+ transaction log SYNOPSIS /usr/sbin/nislog [ -h num | -t num ] [ -v ] [ directory . . . ] DESCRIPTION nislog displays the contents of the NIS+ server transaction log on the standard output. This command can be used to track changes in the namespace. The /var/nis/ hostname .log file contains the transaction log maintained by the NIS+ server. hostname is the string returned by uname -n. When updates occur, they are logged to this file and then propagated to replicas as log transactions. When the log is checkpointed, updates that have been propagated to the replicas are removed. The nislog command can only be run on an NIS+ server by superuser. It displays the log entries for that server only. If directory is not specified, the entire log is searched. Otherwise, only those log entries that correspond to the specified directories are displayed. Options -h [num] Display num transactions from the ‘‘head’’ of the log. If the numeric parameter is omitted, it is assumed to be 1. If the numeric parameter is 0, only the log header is displayed. -t [num] Display num transactions from the ‘‘tail’’ of the log. If the numeric parameter is omitted, it is assumed to be 1. If the numeric parameter is 0, only the log header is displayed. -v Verbose mode. FILES /var/nis/ hostname .log transaction log AUTHOR n nislog was developed by Sun Microsystems, Inc. SEE ALSO nis+(1), uname(1), rpc.nisd(1M), nisfiles(4). Section 1M− 588 __ −1− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ nisping(1M) nisping(1M) NAME nisping - send ping to NIS+ servers SYNOPSIS /usr/lib/nis/nisping [ -uf ] [ -H hostname ] [ -r | directory ] /usr/lib/nis/nisping -C [ -a ] [ -H hostname ] [ directory ] DESCRIPTION In the first SYNOPSIS line, the nisping command sends a ping to all replicas of a NIS+ directory. Once a replica receives a ping, it will check with the master server for the directory to get updates. Prior to pinging the replicas, this command attempts to determine the last update "seen" by a replica and the last update logged by the master. If these two timestamps are the same, the ping is not sent. The -f (force) option will override this feature. Under normal circumstances, NIS+ replica servers get the new information from the master NIS+ server within a short time. Therefore, there should not be any need to use nisping . In the second SYNOPSIS line, the nisping -C command sends a checkpoint request to the servers. If no directory is specified, the home domain, as returned by nisdefaults (1), is checkpointed. If all directories, served by a given server, have to be checkpointed, then use the -a option. On receiving a checkpoint request, the servers would commit all the updates for the given directory from the table log files to the database files. This command, if sent to the master server, will also send updates to the replicas if they are out of date. This option is needed because the database log files for NIS+ are not automatically checkpointed. nisping should be used at frequent intervals (such as once a day) to checkpoint the NIS+ database log files. This command can be added to the crontab (1) file. If the database log files are not checkpointed, their sizes will continue to grow. Options -a -C Checkpoint all directories on the server. -H hostname -f Only the host hostname is sent the ping, checked for an update time, or checkpointed. -r This option can be used to update or get status about the root object from the root servers, especially when new root replicas are added or deleted from the list. Send a request to checkpoint, rather than a ping, to each server. The servers schedule to commit all the transactions to stable storage. n Force a ping, even though the timestamps indicate there is no reason to do so. This option is useful for debugging. If used without -u option, -r will send a ping request to the servers serving the root domain. When the replicas receive a ping, they will update their root object if needed. The -r option can be used with all other options except with the -C option; the root object need not be checkpointed. Display the time of the last update; no servers are sent a ping. -u RETURN VALUE No servers were contacted, or the server specified by the -H switch could not be contacted. -1 0 1 Success. Some, but not all, servers were successfully contacted. EXAMPLES This example pings all replicas of the default domain: nisping Note that this example will not ping the the org_dir and group_dir subdirectories within this domain. This example pings the server example which is a replica of the org_dir.foo.com. directory: nisping -H example org_dir.foo.com. HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −1− Section 1M− 589 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ nisping(1M) nisping(1M) This example checkpoints all servers of the org_dir.bar.com. directory. nisping -C org_dir.bar.com. EXTERNAL INFLUENCES Environment Variables NIS_PATH If this variable is set, and the NIS+ directory name is not fully qualified, each directory specified will be searched until the directory is found. AUTHOR nisping was developed by Sun Microsystems, Inc. SEE ALSO crontab(1), nisdefaults(1), nislog(1M), nisfiles(4). NOTES If the server specified by the -H option does not serve the directory, then no ping is sent. n Section 1M− 590 __ −2− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ nispopulate(1M) nispopulate(1M) NAME nispopulate - populate the NIS+ tables in a NIS+ domain SYNOPSIS /usr/lib/nis/nispopulate -Y [-x] [-f] [-n] [-u] [-v] [-S 0|2] [-l network_passwd ] [-d NIS+_domain ] -h NIS_server_host [-a NIS_server_addr ] -y NIS_domain [table ] . . . /usr/lib/nis/nispopulate -F [-x] [-f] [-u] [-v] [-S 0|2] [-d NIS+_domain ] [-l network_passwd ] [-p directory_path ] [table ] . . . /usr/lib/nis/nispopulate -C [-x] [-f] [-v] [-d NIS+_domain ] [-l network_passwd ] [hosts |passwd ] DESCRIPTION The nispopulate shell script can be used to populate NIS+ tables in a specified domain from their corresponding files or NIS maps. nispopulate assumes that the tables have been created either through nisserver (1M) or nissetup (1M). The table argument accepts standard names that are used in the administration of HP-UX systems and non-standard key-value type tables. See nisaddent(1M) for more information on key-value type tables. If the table argument is not specified, nispopulate will automatically populate each of the standard tables. These standard (default) tables are: auto_master , auto_home , ethers , group , hosts , networks , passwd , protocols , services , rpc , netmasks , bootparams , netgroup , aliases andshadow . Note that the shadow table is only used when populating from files. The nonstandard tables that nispopulate accepts are those of key-value type. These tables must first be created manually with the nistbladm (1) command. Use the first SYNOPSIS (-Y) to populate NIS+ tables from NIS maps. nispopulate uses ypxfr (1M) to transfer the NIS maps from the NIS servers to the /var/yp/ NIS_domain directory on the local machine. Then, it uses these files as the input source. Note that NIS_domain is case sensitive. Make sure there is enough disk space for that directory. Use the second SYNOPSIS (-F ) to populate NIS+ tables from local files. nispopulate will use those files that match the table name as input sources in the current working directory or in the specified directory. n Note that when populating the hosts and passwd tables, nispopulate will automatically create the NIS+ credentials for all users and hosts that are defined in the hosts and passwd tables, respectively. A network passwd is required to create these credentials. This network password is used to encrypt the secret key for the new users and hosts. This password can be specified using the -l option or it will use the default password, "nisplus". nispopulate will not overwrite any existing credential entries in the credential table. Use nisclient (1M) to overwrite the entries in the cred table. It creates both LOCAL and DES credentials for users, and only DES credentials for hosts. To disable automatic credential creation, specify the -S 0 option. The third SYNOPSIS (-C) is used to populate NIS+ credential table with level 2 authentication (DES ) from the passwd and hosts tables of the specified domain. The valid table arguments for this operation are passwd and hosts. If this argument is not specified then it will use both passwd and hosts as the input source. If nispopulate was earlier used with -S 0 option, then no credentials were added for the hosts or the users. If later the site decides to add credentials for all users and hosts, then this (-C ) option can be used to add credentials. Options -a NIS_server_addr specifies the IP address for the NIS server. This option is only used with the -Y option. -C populate the NIS+ credential table from passwd and hosts tables using DES authentication (security level 2). -d NIS+_domain. -F -f specifies the NIS+ domain. The default is the local domain. populates NIS+ tables from files. forces the script to populate the NIS+ tables without prompting for confirmation. HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −1− Section 1M− 591 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ nispopulate(1M) nispopulate(1M) -h NIS_server_host specifies the NIS server hostname from where the NIS maps are copied. This is only used with the -Y option. This host must already exist in either the NIS+ hosts table or /etc/hosts file. If the hostname is not defined, the script will prompt you for its IP address, or you can use the -a option to specify the address manually. -l network_passwd specifies the network password for populating the NIS+ credential table. This is only used when you are populating the hosts and passwd tables. The default passwd is nisplus . -n does not overwrite local NIS maps in /var/yp/ NISdomain directory if they already exist. The default is to overwrite the existing NIS maps in the local /var/yp/ NISdomain directory. This is only used with the -Y option. -p directory_path -S 0|2 specifies the authentication level for the NIS+ clients. Level 0 is for unauthenticated clients and no credentials will be created for users and hosts in the specified domain. Level 2 is for authenticated (DES ) clients and DES credentials will be created for users and hosts in the specified domain. The default is to set up with level 2 authentication (DES ). There is no need to run nispopulate with -C for level 0 authentication. -u updates the NIS+ tables (ie., adds, deletes, modifies) from either files or NIS maps. This option should be used to bring an NIS+ table up to date when there are only a small number of changes. The default is to add to the NIS+ tables without deleting any existing entries. Also, see the -n option for updating NIS+ tables from existing maps in the /var/yp directory. -v -x n specifies the directory where the files are stored. This is only used with the -F option. The default is the current working directory. runs the script in verbose mode. -Y -y NIS_domain populate the NIS+ tables from NIS maps. turns the "echo" mode on. The script just prints the commands that it would have executed. Note that the commands are not actually executed. The default is off. specifies the NIS domain to copy the NIS maps from. This is only used with the -Y option. The default domainname is the same as the local domainname. EXTERNAL INFLUENCES TMPDIR nispopulate normally creates temporary files in the directory /tmp . You may specify another directory by setting the environment variable TMPDIR to your chosen directory. If TMPDIR is not a valid directory, then nispopulate will use /tmp . EXAMPLES To populate all the NIS+ standard tables in the domain xyz.hp.com. from NIS maps of the yp.hp.com domain as input source where host yp_host is a YP server of yp.hp.com : /usr/lib/nis/nispopulate -Y -y yp.hp.com -h yp_host -d xyz.hp.com. To update all of the NIS+ standard tables from the same NIS domain and hosts shown above: /usr/lib/nis/nispopulate -Y -u -y yp.hp.com \ -h yp_host -d xyz.hp.com. To populate the hosts table in domain xyz.hp.com. from the hosts file in the /var/nis/files directory using "somepasswd" as the network password for key encryption: /usr/lib/nis/nispopulate -F -p /var/nis/files -l somepasswd hosts To populate the passwd table in domain xyz.hp.com. from the passwd file in the /var/nis/files directory without automatically creating the NIS+ credentials: /usr/lib/nis/nispopulate -F -p /var/nis/files -d xys.hp.com. \ -S 0 passwd To populate the credential table in domain xyz.hp.com. for all users defined in the passwd table. /usr/lib/nis/nispopulate -C -d xys.hp.com. passwd Section 1M− 592 __ −2− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ nispopulate(1M) To create nispopulate(1M) and populate a non-standard key-value type NIS+ table, "private", from the file /var/nis/files/private: (nispopulate assumes that the private.org_dir key-value type table has already been created). /usr/bin/nistbladm -D access=og=rmcd,nw=r \ -c private key=S,nogw= value=,nogw= private.org.dir /usr/lib/nis/nispopulate -F -p /var/nis/files private FILES /etc/hosts local host name database /var/yp NIS(YP) domain directory /var/nis NIS+ domain directory /tmp AUTHOR nispopulate was developed by Sun Microsystems, Inc. SEE ALSO nis+(1), nistbladm(1), nisaddcred(1M), rpc.nisd(1M), ypxfr(1M). nisaddent(1M), nisclient(1M), nisserver(1M), nissetup(1M), n HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −3− Section 1M− 593 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ nisserver(1M) nisserver(1M) NAME nisserver - set up NIS+ servers SYNOPSIS /usr/lib/nis/nisserver [-g NIS+_groupname ] [-l /usr/lib/nis/nisserver [-g NIS+_groupname ] [-h /usr/lib/nis/nisserver -r [-x] [-f] [-v] [-Y] [-d NIS+_domain ] network_passwd ] -M [-x] [-f] [-v] [-Y] -d NIS+_domain NIS+_server_host ] -R [-x] [-f] [-v] [-Y] [-d NIS+_domain ] [-h NIS+_server_host ] DESCRIPTION The nisserver shell script can be used to set up a root master, non-root master, and replica NIS+ servers with level 2 security (DES). When setting up a new domain, this script creates the NIS+ directories (including groups_dir and org_dir ) and system table objects for the domain specified. It does not populate the tables. You will need to use nispopulate (1M) to populate the tables. Use the first SYNOPSIS (-r) to set up a root master server. You must be logged in as super-user on the server machine. Use the second SYNOPSIS (-M) to set up a non-root master server for the specified domain. You must be logged in as an NIS+ principal on a NIS+ machine and have create permission to the parent directory of the domain that you are setting up. The new non-root master server machine must already be an NIS+ client (see nisclient (1M)) and have the rpc.nisd daemon running (see rpc.nisd (1M)). Use the third SYNOPSIS (-R) to set up a replica server for both root and non-root domains. You must be logged in as an NIS+ principal on an NIS+ machine and have create permission to the parent directory of the domain that you are replicating. The new replica server machine must already be an NIS+ client (see nisclient (1M)) and have the rpc.nisd daemon running (see rpc.nisd (1M)). n Options -d NIS+_domain specifies the name for the NIS+ domain. The default is your local domain. -f forces the NIS+ server setup without prompting for confirmation. -g NIS+_groupname specifies the NIS+ group name for the new domain. This option is not valid with -R option. The default group is admin .domain. -h NIS+_server_host specifies the hostname for the NIS+ server. It must be a valid host in the local domain. Use a fully qualified hostname (for example, hostx.xyz.hp.com.) to specify a host outside of your local domain. This option is ONLY used for setting up nonroot master or replica servers. The default for non-root master server setup is to use the same list of servers as the parent domain. The default for replica server setup is the local hostname. -l network_password specifies the network password with which to create the credentials for the root master server. This option is ONLY used for master root server setup (-roption). If this option is not specified, the script will prompt you for the login password. -r sets up the server as a root master server. Use the -R option to set up a root replica server. -v -x runs the script in verbose mode. -M sets up the specified host as a master server. Make sure that rpc.nisd (1M) is running on the new master server before this command is executed. -R sets up the specified host as a replica server. Make sure that rpc.nisd (1M) is running on the new replica server. -Y sets up an NIS+ server with NIS-compatibility mode. The default is to set up the server without NIS-compatibility mode. Section 1M− 594 __ turns the "echo" mode on. The script just prints the commands that it would have executed. Note that the commands are not actually executed. The default is off. −1− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ nisserver(1M) nisserver(1M) EXAMPLES To set up a root master server for domain hp.com. : root_server# /usr/lib/nis/nisserver -r -d hp.com. For the following examples make sure that the new servers are NIS+ clients and rpc.nisd is running on these hosts before executing nisserver . To set up a replica server for domain hp.com. on host hpreplica : root_server# /usr/lib/nis/nisserver -R -d hp.com. -h hpreplica To set up a non-root master server for domain xyz.hp.com. on host hpxyz with the NIS+ groupname as admin-mgr.xyz.hp.com. : root_server# /usr/lib/nis/nisserver -M -d xyz.hp.com. \ -h hpxyz -g admin-mgr.xyz.hp.com. To set up a non-root replica server for domain xyz.hp.com. on host hpabc : hpxyz# /usr/lib/nis/nisserver -R -d xyz.hp.com. -h hpabc AUTHOR nisserver was developed by Sun Microsystems, Inc. SEE ALSO nis+(1), nisgrpadm(1), nismkdir(1), nisaddcred(1M), nispopulate(1M), nissetup(1M), rpc.nisd(1M). nisclient(1M), nisinit(1M), nismkdir(1), n HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −2− Section 1M− 595 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ nissetup(1M) nissetup(1M) NAME nissetup - initialize a NIS+ domain SYNOPSIS /usr/lib/nis/nissetup [ -Y ] [ domain ] DESCRIPTION nissetup is a shell script that sets up a NIS+ domain to serve clients that wish to store system administration information in a domain named domain. This domain should already exist prior to executing this command (see nismkdir (1) and nisinit (1M)). A NIS+ domain consists of a NIS+ directory and its subdirectories: org_dir and groups_dir . org_dir stores system administration information and groups_dir stores information for group access control. nissetup creates the subdirectories org_dir and groups_dir in domain . Both subdirectories will be replicated on the same servers as the parent domain. After the subdirectories are created, nissetup creates the default tables that NIS+ serves. These are auto_master , auto_home , bootparams , cred , ethers , group , hosts , mail_aliases , netmasks , networks , passwd , protocols , rpc , services , and timezone . The nissetup script uses the nistbladm (1) command to create these tables. The script can be easily customized to add site specific tables that should be created at setup time. This command is normally executed just once per domain. Options -Y Specify that the domain will be served as both a NIS+ domain as well as an NIS domain using the backward compatibility flag. This will set up the domain to be less secure by making all the system tables readable by unauthenticated clients as well. AUTHOR nissetup was developed by Sun Microsystems, Inc. n SEE ALSO nis+(1), nismkdir(1), nistbladm(1), nisaddent(1M), nisinit(1M), nisserver(1M). NOTES While this command creates the default tables, it does not initialize them with data. This is accomplished with the nisaddent(1M) command. It is easier to use the nisserver (1M) script to create subdirectories and the default tables. Section 1M− 596 __ −1− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ nisshowcache(1M) nisshowcache(1M) NAME nisshowcache - NIS+ utility to print out the contents of the shared cache file SYNOPSIS /usr/lib/nis/nisshowcache [ -v ] DESCRIPTION nisshowcache prints out the contents of the per-machine NIS+ directory cache that is shared by all processes accessing NIS+ on the machine. By default, nisshowcache only prints out the directory names in the cache along with the cache header. The shared cache is maintained by nis_cachemgr (1M). Options -v Verbose mode. Print out the contents of each directory object, including information on the server name and its universal addresses. DIAGNOSTICS Error messages are sent to the syslogd (1M) daemon. FILES /var/nis/NIS_SHARED_DIRCACHE AUTHOR nisshowcache was developed by Sun Microsystems, Inc. SEE ALSO nis_cachemgr(1M), syslogd(1M), nisfiles(4). n HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −1− Section 1M− 597 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ nisstat(1M) nisstat(1M) NAME nisstat - report NIS+ server statistics SYNOPSIS /usr/lib/nis/nisstat [ -H host ] [ directory ] DESCRIPTION The nisstat command queries a NIS+ server for various statistics about its operations. These statistics may vary between implementations and from release to release. Not all statistics are available from all servers. Requesting a statistic from a server that does not support that statistic is never fatal, it simply returns ’unknown statistic.’ By default, statistics are fetched from the server(s) of the NIS+ directory for the default domain. If directory is specified, servers for that directory are queried. Supported statistics for this release are as follows: root server This reports whether the server is a root server. NIS compat mode This reports whether the server is running in NIS compat mode. DNS forwarding in NIS mode This reports whether the server in NIS compat mode will forward host lookup calls to DNS. security level This reports the security level of this server. serves directories This lists the directories served by this server. Operations This statistic returns results in the form: OP=opname:C=calls:E=errors :T=micros n Where opname is replaced by the RPC procedure name or operation, calls is the number of calls to this procedure that have been made since the server started running. errors is the number of errors that have occurred while processing a call, and micros is the average time in microseconds to complete the last 16 calls. Directory Cache This statistic reports the number of calls to the internal directory object cache, the number of hits on that cache, the number of misses, and the hit rate percentage. Group Cache This statistic reports the number of calls to the internal NIS+ group object cache, the number of hits on that cache, the number of misses, and the hit rate percentage. Static Storage This statistic reports the number of bytes the server has allocated for its static storage buffers. Dynamic Storage This statistic reports the amount of heap the server process is currently using. Uptime Options -H host directory This statistic reports the time since the service has been running. Normally all servers for the directory are queried. With this option, only the machine named host is queried. If the named machine does not serve the directory, no statistics are returned. If specified, servers for that directory are queried. EXTERNAL INFLUENCES Environment Variables NIS_PATH If this variable is set, and the NIS+ directory name is not fully qualified, each directory specified will be searched until the directory is found (see nisdefaults (1)). AUTHOR nisstat was developed by Sun Microsystems, Inc. SEE ALSO nisdefaults(1). Section 1M− 598 __ −1− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ nisupdkeys(1M) nisupdkeys(1M) NAME nisupdkeys - update the public keys in a NIS+ directory object SYNOPSIS /usr/lib/nis/nisupdkeys [ -a | -C ] [ -H host ] [ directory ] /usr/lib/nis/nisupdkeys -s [ -a | -C ] -H host DESCRIPTION This command updates the public keys in an NIS+ directory object. When the public key for a NIS+ server is changed, the new key must be propagated to all directory objects that reference that server. nisupdkeys reads a directory object and attempts to get the public key for each server of that directory. These keys are placed in the directory object and the object is then modified to reflect the new keys. If directory is present, the directory object for that directory is updated. Otherwise the directory object for the default domain is updated. On the other hand, nisupdkeys -s gets a list of all the directories served by host and updates those directory objects. This assumes that the caller has adequate permission to change all the associated directory objects. The list of directories being served by a given server can also be obtained by nisstat (1M). Before you do this operation, make sure that the new address/public key has been propagated to all replicas. Options -a Update the universal addresses of the NIS+ servers in the directory object. Currently, this only works for the TCP/IP family of transports. This option should be used when the IP address of the server is changed. The server’s new address is resolved using gethostbyname() on this machine. The /etc/nsswitch.conf file must point to the correct source for the hosts entry for this resolution to work. -C Specify to clear rather than set the public key. Communication with a server that has no public key does not require the use of secure RPC. -H host Limit key changes only to the server named host . If the hostname is not a fully qualified NIS+ name, then it is assumed to be a host in the default domain. If the named host does not serve the directory, no action is taken. -s Update all the NIS+ directory objects served by the specified server. This assumes that the caller has adequate access rights to change all the associated directory objects. If the NIS+ principal making this call does not have adequate permissions to update the directory objects, those particular updates will fail and the caller will be notified. If the rpc.nisd on host cannot return the list of servers it serves, the command will print an error message. The caller would then have to invoke nisupdkeys multiple times (as in the first SYNOPSIS ), once per NIS+ directory that it serves. n EXAMPLES The following example updates the keys for servers of the foo.bar. domain. nisupdkeys foo.bar. This example updates the key for host fred which serves the foo.bar. domain. nisupdkeys -H fred foo.bar. This example clears the public key for host wilma in the foo.bar. directory. nisupdkeys -CH wilma foo.bar. This example updates the public key in all directory objects that are served by the host wilma. nisupdkeys -s -H wilma AUTHOR nisupdkeys was developed by Sun Microsystems, Inc. SEE ALSO chkey(1), niscat(1), nisaddcred(1M), gethostent(3N), nis_objects(3N). HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −1− Section 1M− 599 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ nisupdkeys(1M) nisupdkeys(1M) NOTES The user executing this command must have modify access to the directory object for it to succeed. The existing directory object can be displayed with the niscat (1) command using the -o option. This command does not update the directory objects stored in the NIS_COLD_START file on the NIS+ clients. If a server is also the root master server, then nisupdkeys -s cannot be used to update the root directory. n Section 1M− 600 __ −2− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ ntpdate(1M) ntpdate(1M) NAME ntpdate - set the date and time via NTP SYNOPSIS ntpdate [ -Bbdpqsuv ] [ -a key# ] [ -e authdelay ] [ -k keyfile ] [ -o version ] [ -p samples ] [ -t timeout ] server [ ... ] DESCRIPTION ntpdate sets the local date and time by polling those Network Time Protocol (NTP) server(s) given as the server arguments to determine the correct time. It must be run as root on the local host. A number of samples are obtained from each of the servers specified and a subset of the NTP clock filter and selection algorithms are applied to select the best of these. Note that the accuracy and reliability of ntpdate depends on the number of servers, the number of polls each time it is run, and the interval between the runs. ntpdate can be run manually as necessary to set the host clock, or it can be run from the host startup script to set the clock at boot time. This is useful in some cases to set the clock initially before starting the NTP daemon xntpd . It is also possible to run ntpdate from a cron script. However, it is important to note that ntpdate with contrived cron scripts is no substitute for the NTP daemon, which uses sophisticated algorithms to maximize accuracy and reliability while minimizing resource use. Finally, since ntpdate does not discipline the host clock frequency as does xntpd , the accuracy using ntpdate is limited. Time adjustments are made by ntpdate in one of two ways. If ntpdate determines the clock is in error more than 0.5 seconds, it will simply step the time by calling the clock_settime (see clocks (2)) system routine. If the error is less than 0.5 seconds, it will slew the time by calling the adjtime (see adjtime (2)) system routine. The latter technique is less disruptive and more accurate when the error is small, and works quite well when ntpdate is run by cron (see cron (1M)) every hour or two. ntpdate will decline to set the date if an NTP server daemon (e.g., xntpd ) is running on the same host. When running ntpdate on a regular basis from cron as an alternative to running a daemon, doing so once every hour or two will result in precise enough timekeeping to avoid stepping the clock. n COMMAND LINE OPTIONS ntpdate supports the following options: -a Enable the authentication function and specify the key identifier to be used for authentication. The keys and key identifiers must match in both the client and server key files. The default is to disable the authentication function. -B Force the time to always be slewed using the adjtime system call, even if the measured offset is greater than +-128 ms. The default is to step the time using the clock_settime system call if the offset is greater than +-128 ms. Note that, if the offset is much greater than +-128 ms it can take a long time (hours) to slew the clock to the correct value. During this time the host should not be used to synchronize clients. -b Force the time to be stepped using the clock_settime system call, rather than slewed (default) using the adjtime system call. This option should be used when called from a startup file at boot time. -d Enable the debugging mode, in which ntpdate will go through all the steps, but not adjust the local clock. Information useful for general debugging will also be printed. -e authdelay Specify the processing delay to perform an authentication function as the value authdelay , in seconds and fraction (see xntpd (1M) for details). This number is usually small enough to be negligible for most purposes, though specifying a value may improve timekeeping on very slow CPU’s. -k keyfile Specify the path for the authentication key file as the string keyfile . The default is /etc/ntp.keys . This file should be in the format described in xntpd . -o version Specify the NTP version for outgoing packets as the integer version, which can be 1 or 2. The default is 3. This allows ntpdate to be used with older NTP versions. -p samples Specify the number of samples to be acquired from each server as the integer samples, with values from 1 to 8 inclusive. The default is 4. HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −1− Section 1M− 601 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ ntpdate(1M) ntpdate(1M) -q Prints the offset measurement, stratum of the server(s) and delay measurement without adjusting the local clock. This is similar to -d option which gives a more detailed debugging information. -s Divert logging output from the standard output (default) to the system syslog (see syslog (3C)) facility. This is designed primarily for convenience of cron scripts. -t timeout Specify the maximum waiting time for a server response as the value timeout, in seconds and fraction. The value is rounded to a multiple of 0.2 seconds. The default is 1 second, a value suitable for polling across a LAN. -u Direct ntpdate to use an unprivileged port for outgoing packets. This is most useful when behind a firewall, that blocks incoming traffic to privileged ports, and you want to synchronise with hosts beyond the firewall. Note that the -d option always uses unprivileged ports. -v Prints the NTP version number and the offset measurement information. FILES /etc/ntp.keys Contains the encryption keys used by ntpdate . SEE ALSO adjtime(2), clocks(2), cron(1M), syslog(3C), ntpq(1M), xntpd(1M), xntpdc(1M). DARPA Internet Request For Comments RFC1035 Assigned Numbers. AUTHOR ntpdate was developed by Dennis Ferguson at the University of Toronto. n Section 1M− 602 __ −2− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ ntpq(1M) ntpq(1M) NAME ntpq - standard Network Time Protocol query program SYNOPSIS ntpq [ -dinp ] [ -c command ] [ host ] [ ... ] DESCRIPTION ntpq is used to query NTP servers, that implement the recommended NTP mode 6 control message format about current state and to request changes in that state. The program may be run either in interactive mode or controlled mode using command line arguments. Requests to read and write arbitrary variables can be assembled, with raw and pretty-printed output options available. ntpq can also obtain and print a list of peers in a common format by sending multiple queries to the server. If one or more request options is included on the command line when ntpq is executed, each of the requests will be sent to the NTP servers running on each of the hosts given as command line arguments, or on to localhost by default. If no request options are given, ntpq will attempt to read commands from the standard input and execute these on the NTP server running on the first host given on the command line, again defaulting to localhost when no other host is specified. ntpq will prompt for commands if the standard input is a terminal device. ntpq uses NTP mode 6 packets to communicate with the NTP server, and hence can be used to query any compatible server on the network which permits it. Note that since NTP is a UDP protocol this communication will be somewhat unreliable, especially over large distances in terms of network topology. ntpq makes one attempt to retransmit requests, and will time out if the remote host is not heard from within a suitable timeout time. COMMAND LINE OPTIONS The command line options supported are described below. Specifying a command line option other than -i or -n will cause the specified query (queries) to be sent to the indicated host(s) immediately. Otherwise, ntpq will attempt to read interactive format commands from the standard input. -c command Interactive format command. The command is added to the list of commands to be executed on the specified host(s). Multiple -c options may be given. -d -i Print debugging information. n Force ntpq to operate in interactive mode. Prompts will be written to the standard output and commands read from the standard input. -n Output all host addresses in dotted-quad numeric format rather than converting to the canonical host names. -p Print a list of the peers known to the server as well as a summary of their state. This is equivalent to the peers interactive command. INTERACTIVE COMMANDS Interactive format commands consist of a keyword followed by zero to four arguments. Only enough characters of the full keyword to uniquely identify the command needs to be typed. The output of a command is normally sent to the standard output, but optionally the output of individual commands may be sent to a file by appending a > followed by a file name, on the command line. A number of interactive format commands are executed entirely within the ntpq program itself and do not result in NTP mode 6 requests being sent to a server. These are described below. ? [ command_keyword ] help [ command_keyword ] A ? or help by itself will print a list of all the command keywords known to this version of ntpq . A ? or help followed by a command keyword will print function and usage information about the command. addvars [ variable_name=value ][ ... ] rmvars [ variable_name=value ][ ... ] clearvars The data carried by NTP mode 6 messages consists of a list of items of the form variable_name = value , where the = value is ignored, and can be omitted in requests to the server to read variables. ntpq maintains an internal list in which data to be HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −1− Section 1M− 603 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ ntpq(1M) ntpq(1M) included in control messages can be assembled, and sent using the readlist and writel- ist commands described below. addvars This command allows variables and their optional values to be added to the list. If more than one variable is to be added, the list should be comma-separated and not contain white space. rmvars This command can be used to remove individual variables from the list. clearlist This command removes all variables from the list. authenticate [ yes |no ] Normally ntpq does not authenticate requests unless they are write requests. The command authenticate yes causes ntpq to send authentication with all requests it makes. Authenticated requests causes some servers to handle requests slightly differently, and can occasionally melt the CPU in fuzzballs if you turn authentication on before doing a peer display. cooked Causes output from query commands to be cooked . Variables which are recognized by the server will have their values reformatted for human usage. debug [ more|less|off ] Turns internal query program debugging on and off. delay milliseconds Specify a time interval to be added to timestamps included in requests which require authentication. This is used to enable (unreliable) server reconfiguration over long delay network paths or between machines whose clocks are unsynchronized. Actually the server does not now require timestamps in authenticated requests, so this command may be obsolete. host hostname Set the host to which future queries will be sent. Hostname may be either a host name or a numeric address. n hostnames [ yes |no ] If yes is specified, host names are printed in information displays. If no is specified, numeric addresses are printed instead. The default is yes , unless modified using the command line -n option. keyid keyid-id This command allows the specification of a key number to be used to authenticate configuration requests. This must correspond to a key number the server has been configured to use for this purpose. ntpversion [ 1|2|3 ] Sets the NTP version number which ntpq claims in packets. Defaults to 3, Note that mode 6 control messages (and modes) did not exist in NTP version 1. There appears to be no servers left which demand version 1. quit Exit ntpq . passwd This command prompts you to type in a password (which will not be echoed) which will be used to authenticate configuration requests. The password must correspond to the key configured for use by the NTP server for this purpose if such requests are to be successful. raw Causes all output from query commands to be printed as received from the remote server. The only formatting/interpretation done on the data is to transform nonascii data into a printable form. timeout milliseconds Specify a timeout period for responses to server queries. The default is about 5000 milliseconds. Note that since ntpq retries each query once after a timeout, the total waiting time for a timeout will be twice the timeout value set. CONTROL MESSAGE COMMANDS Each peer known to an NTP server has 16 bit integer association identifier assigned to it. NTP control messages which carry peer variables must identify the peer, the values it corresponds to by including its association ID. An association ID of 0 is special, and indicates the variables are system variables, whose names are drawn from a separate name space. Section 1M− 604 __ −2− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ ntpq(1M) ntpq(1M) Control message commands result in one or more NTP mode 6 messages being sent to the server, and cause the data returned to be printed in some format. Most commands currently implemented send a single message and expect a single response. The current exceptions are the peers command, which will send a preprogrammed series of messages to obtain the data it needs, and the mreadlist and mreadvar commands, which will iterate over a range of associations. The supported control messages are listed below: associations Obtains and prints a list of association identifiers and peer status for in-spec peers of the server being queried. The list is printed in columns. The first of these columns is an index numbering the associations from 1 for internal use, the second column is the actual association identifier returned by the server and the third column is the status word for the peer. This is followed by a number of columns containing data decoded from the status word. Note that the data returned by the associations command is cached internally in ntpq . The index is then of use when dealing with stupid servers which use association identifiers which are hard for humans to type, in that for any subsequent commands which require an association identifier as an argument, the form and index may be used as an alternative. clockvar [ assocID ][ variable_name[=value[ ... ]][ ... ]] cv [ assocID ][ variable_name[=value[ ... ]][ ... ]] Requests that a list of the server’s clock variables be sent. Servers which have a radio clock or other external synchronization will respond positively to this. If the association identifier is omitted or zero the request is for the variables of the system clock and will generally get a positive response from all servers with a clock. If the server treats the clocks as pseudo-peers, then more than one clock connected at once, referencing the appropriate peer association ID will show the variables of a particular clock. Omitting the variable list will cause the server to return a default variable display. lassociations Obtains and prints a list of association identifiers and peer status for all associations for which the server is maintaining state. This command differs from the associations command only for servers which retain state for out-of-spec client associations (i.e., fuzzballs). Such associations are normally omitted from the display when the associations command is used, but are included in the output of lassociations. lpassociations n Print data for all associations, including out-of-spec client associations, from the internally cached list of associations. This command differs from passociations command only when dealing with fuzzballs. lpeers Similar to peers command, except a summary of all associations for which the server is maintaining state is printed. This can produce a much longer list of peers from fuzzball servers. mreadlist assocID assocID mrl assocID assocID Similar to the readlist command, except the query is done for each range of (nonzero) association IDs. This range is determined from the association list cached by the most recent associations command. mreadvar assocID assocID [variable_name[ =value ][ ... ]] mrv assocID assocID [variable_name[=value ][ ... ]] Similar to the readvar command, except the query is done for each range of (nonzero) association IDs. This range is determined from the association list cached by the most recent associations command. opeers An old form of the peers command with the reference ID replaced by the local interface address. passociations Prints association data concerning in-spec peers from the internally cached list of associations. This command performs identically to the associations except that it displays the internally stored data rather than making a new query. peers Obtains a list of in-spec peers of the server, along with a summary of each peer’s state. Summary information includes the address of the remote peer, the reference ID (0.0.0.0 if the refID is unknown), the stratum of the remote peer, the type of the peer (local, unicast, multicast or HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −3− Section 1M− 605 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ ntpq(1M) ntpq(1M) broadcast), when the last packet was received, the polling interval, in seconds, the reachability register, in octal, and the current estimated delay, offset and dispersion of the peer, all in seconds. The character in the left margin indicates the fate of this peer in the clock selection process. The codes mean: <BLANK> x . + # * o discarded due to high stratum and/or failed sanity checks; designated falseticker by the intersection algorithm; culled from the end of the candidate list; discarded by the clustering algorithm; included in the final selection set; selected for synchronization but distance exceeds maximum; selected for synchronization; and selected for synchronization, PPS signal in use. Note that since the peers command depends on the ability to parse the values in the responses it gets, it may fail to work from time to time with servers which poorly control the data formats. The contents of the host field may be one of four forms. It may be a host name, an IP address, a reference clock implementation name with its parameter or REFCLK ( <implementation number >, <parameter >). On hostnames no only IP-addresses will be displayed. pstatus assocID Sends a read status request to the server for the given association. The names and values of the peer variables returned will be printed. Note that the status word from the header is displayed preceding the variables, both in hexadecimal and in English. readlist [ assocID ] rl [ assocID ] Requests that the values of the variables in the internal variable list be returned by the server. If the association ID is omitted or is 0, the variables are assumed to be system variables. Otherwise they are treated as peer variables. If the internal variable list is empty, a request is sent without data, which should induce the remote server to return a default display. n readvar assocID variable_name [ =value ][ ... ]] rv assocID variable_name [ =value ][ ... ]] Requests that the values of the specified variables be returned by the server by sending a read variables request. If the association ID is omitted or is given as zero, the variables are system variables. Otherwise they are peer variables and the values returned will be those of the corresponding peer. Omitting the variable list will send a request with no data which should induce the server to return a default display. writevar assocID variable_name [ =value ][ ... ]] Similar to the readvar command, except the specified variables are written instead of read. writelist [ assocID ] Similar to the readlist command, except the internal list variables are written instead of read. WARNINGS The peers command is non-atomic and may occasionally result in spurious error messages about invalid associations occurring and terminating the command. The timeout time is a fixed constant, which means a long wait for timeouts since it assumes a worst case. FILES /etc/ntp.keys Contains the encryption keys used for authentication. AUTHOR ntpq was developed by Dennis Ferguson at the University of Toronto. SEE ALSO ntpdate(1M), xntpd(1M), xntpdc(1M). DARPA Internet Request For Comments RFC1035 Assigned Numbers. Section 1M− 606 __ −4− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ ocd(1M) ocd(1M) NAME ocd - outbound connection daemon used by DDFA software SYNOPSIS ocd -fpseudonym -nnode_name [-bboard_no ] [-cconfig_file ] [-llog_level ] [-pport_no ] DESCRIPTION The Outbound Connection Daemon (ocd ) is part of the Data Communications and Terminal Controller (DTC) Device File Access (DDFA) software. It manages the connection and data transfer to the remote terminal server port. It can be spawned from the Dedicated Port Parser (dpp ) or run directly from the shell. For performance reasons, ocd does not have a debug mode. However, a version called ocdebug with debug facilities is available. See ddfa (7) for more information on how to configure the DDFA software and for an explanation of how it works. ocd logs important messages and error conditions to /var/adm/syslog. Options ocd recognizes the following options: -bboard_no The board number of a DTC. If it is omitted, the port number option must contain the full TCP service port address. The -b and -p options must not be used if the IP address given in the -n option is the IP address of a port. If the -n option explicitly names a terminal server port, the -b option is not needed. -cconfig_file Specify the name (including the absolute path) of the configuration file used to profile the terminal server port. If this option is omitted, the default values specified in the default pcf file (/usr/examples/ddfa/pcf) are used. If the file specified does not exist, an error message is logged and the following values are used (note that the values for open_tries and open_timer are different from the default values): telnet_mode: timing_mark: telnet_timer: binary_mode: open_tries: open_timer: close_timer: status_request: status_timer: eight_bit: tcp_nodelay: -fpseudonym -llog_level enable enable 120 disable 0 0 0 disable 30 disable enable o The absolute or relative path to the device file that is linked by the software to the reserved pty . Applications use pseudonym and not the dynamically allocated pty slave. Specify the logging level. It determines the severity of messages sent to /var/adm/syslog. The logging levels (and how they relate to system logging levels) are as follows: 0 1 2 3 Log Log Log Log only LOG_CRIT messages. only LOG_CRIT and LOG_ERR messages. only LOG_CRIT, LOG_ERR, and LOG_WARNING messages. all messages. If this option is omitted, the logging level is set to 1. -nnode_name -pport_no The IP address of the terminal server or the port. A DTC port number or, if the -b option is omitted, the TCP port service address that will be used by the software to access the port. If the value is omitted, the value 23 (Telnet) is used by default. HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −1− Section 1M− 607 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ ocd(1M) ocd(1M) In order to shutdown every ocd running without restarting them, the following command can be executed: kill -15 ‘ps -e | grep ocd | awk ’{print $1}’‘ WARNINGS In order to ensure that commands (such as ps ) display the correct device file name (that is, the pseudonym ), all pseudonyms should be placed into the directory /dev/telnet . If pseudonyms are not specified for placement in this directory, the correct display of device file names with many commands is not guaranteed. In addition, in order to ensure that commands (such as w, passwd , finger , and wall ) work correctly, each pseudonym must be unique in its first 17 characters (including the directory prefix /dev/telnet/ ). If pseudonyms are not unique in their first 17 characters, the correct functioning of many commands is not guaranteed. Also, in order to reliably handle timing mark negotiations (and ensure that files printing on a printer attached to a terminal server have been completely flushed to that printer), the following line must be added near the end of each printer interface script for printers attached to a terminal server: stty exta <&1 2>/dev/null The printer interface scripts reside in the directory /etc/lp/interface. The line must be added just prior to the final exit command in each printer interface script. If this line is not added as specified, the printing reliability of printers attached to a terminal server is not guaranteed. FILES /usr/examples/ddfa/dp /usr/examples/ddfa/pcf /usr/sbin/dpp /usr/sbin/ocd /usr/sbin/ocdebug /var/adm/dpp_login.bin /var/adm/utmp.dfa o SEE ALSO dpp(1M), ocdebug(1M), syslog(3C), dp(4), pcf(4), ddfa(7). Section 1M− 608 __ −2− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ ocdebug(1M) ocdebug(1M) NAME ocdebug - outbound connection daemon debug utility used by DDFA software SYNOPSIS ocdebug -fpseudonym -nnode_name [-bboard_no ] [-cconfig_file ] [-ddebug_level ] [-llog_level ] [-pport_no ] DESCRIPTION The ocdebug daemon is the debugging version of the Outbound Connection Daemon (ocd ). ocd is part of the Data Communications and Terminal Controller (DTC) Device File Access (DDFA) software. It manages the connection and data transfer to the remote terminal server port. See ddfa (7) for more information on how to configure the DDFA software and for an explanation of how it works. Debugging may be toggled interactively by sending the SIGUSR1 signal to the process using: kill -16 pid. ocdebug logs important messages and error conditions to /var/adm/syslog. Debug messages are logged to the file /var/adm/ocd pid and the file name is displayed at the start of debugging. Options ocdebug recognizes the following options. Apart from the -d option they are the same as the ocd options. -bboard_no Specify the board number of a DTC. If it is omitted, the port number option must contain the full TCP service port address. The -b and -p options must not be used if the IP address given in the -n option is the IP address of a port. If the -n option explicitly names a terminal server port, the -b option is not needed. -cconfig_file Specify the name (including the absolute path) of the configuration file used to profile the terminal server port. If this value is omitted, the values specified in the default pcf file (/usr/examples/ddfa/pcf) are used. If the file specified does not exist, an error message is logged and the following values are used (note that the values for open_tries and open_timer are different from the default values): telnet_mode: timing_mark: telnet_timer: binary_mode: open_tries: open_timer: close_timer: status_request: status_timer: eight_bit: tcp_nodelay: enable enable 120 disable 0 0 0 disable 30 disable enable o -ddebug_level Specify the level of debugging. Levels can be added together to accumulate debugging functions. For example, -d7 enables all levels and -d3 enables only the first two levels. The levels are: 0 1 2 4 No debug messages. Trace procedure entry/exit logged. Additional tracking messages logged. Data structures dumped. -fpseudonym Specify the absolute or relative path to the device file, which is linked by the software to the reserved pty . Applications use the pseudonym and not the dynamically allocated pty slave. -llog_level Specify the logging level. It determines the severity of messages sent to /var/adm/syslog. The logging levels (and how they relate to system logging levels) are as follows: 0 HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ Log only LOG_CRIT messages. −1− Section 1M− 609 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ ocdebug(1M) ocdebug(1M) 1 2 3 Log only LOG_CRIT and LOG_ERR messages. Log only LOG_CRIT, LOG_ERR, and LOG_WARNING messages. Log all messages. If it is omitted, the logging level is set to 1. -nnode_name Specify the IP address of the terminal server or the port. -pport_no Specify a DTC port number or, if the -b option is omitted, the TCP port service address that will be used by the software to access the port. If the value is omitted, the value 23 (Telnet) is used by default. In order to shutdown every ocd running without restarting them, the following command can be executed: kill -15 ‘ps -e | grep ocd | awk ’{print $1}’‘ WARNINGS In order to ensure that commands (such as ps ) display the correct device file name (that is, the pseudonym ), all pseudonyms should be placed into the directory /dev/telnet . If pseudonyms are not specified for placement in this directory, the correct display of device file names with many commands is not guaranteed. In addition, in order to ensure that commands (such as w, passwd , finger , and wall ) work correctly, each pseudonym must be unique in its first 17 characters (including the directory prefix /dev/telnet/ ). If pseudonyms are not unique in their first 17 characters, the correct functioning of many commands is not guaranteed. Also, in order to reliably handle timing mark negotiations (and ensure that files printing on a printer attached to a terminal server have been completely flushed to that printer), the following line must be added near the end of each printer interface script for printers attached to a terminal server: stty exta <&1 2>/dev/null The printer interface scripts reside in the directory /etc/lp/interface. The line must be added just prior to the final ’exit’ command in each printer interface script. o If this line is not added as specified, the printing reliability of printers attached to a terminal server is not guaranteed. FILES /usr/examples/ddfa/dp /usr/examples/ddfa/pcf /usr/sbin/dpp /usr/sbin/ocd /usr/sbin/ocdebug /var/adm/dpp_login.bin /var/adm/ocd pid /var/adm/syslog /var/adm/utmp.dfa SEE ALSO dpp(1M), ocd(1M), syslog(3C), dp(4), pcf(4), ddfa(7). Section 1M− 610 __ −2− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ opx25(1M) opx25(1M) NAME opx25 - execute HALGOL programs SYNOPSIS /usr/lbin/uucp/X25/opx25 [-f scriptname ] [-c char ] [-ofile-descriptor ] [-ifile-descriptor ] [-nstring ] [-d ] [-v ] DESCRIPTION HALGOL is a simple language for communicating with devices such as modems and X.25 PADs. It has simple statements similar to send xxx and expect yyy that are described below. Options: opx25 recognizes the following options: -f script Causes opx25 to read script as the input program. If -f is not specified, opx25 reads the standard input as a script. -c char Causes opx25 to use char as the first character in the input stream instead of actually reading it from the input descriptor. This is useful sometimes when the program that calls opx25 is forced to read a character but then cannot ‘‘unread’’ it. -o number Causes opx25 to use number for the output file descriptor (i.e., the device to use for send ). The default is 1. Causes opx25 to use ’number’ for the input file descriptor (ie, the device to use for -i number ’expect’). The default is 0. -n string Causes opx25 to save this string for use when \# is encountered in a send command. -d Causes opx25 to turn on debugging mode. -v Causes opx25 to turn on verbose mode. An opx25 script file contains lines of the following types: (empty) Empty lines are ignored. / Lines beginning with a slash (/) are ignored (comments) ID ID denotes a label, and is limited to alphanumerics or _. send string string must be surrounded by double quotes. The text is sent to the device specified by the -o option. Non-printable characters are represented as in C; i.e., as \DDD, where DDD is the octal ascii character code. \# in a send string is the string that followed the -n option. o break Send a break "character" to the device. expect number string Here number is how many seconds to wait before giving up. 0 means wait forever, but this is not advised. Whenever string appears in the input within the time allotted, the command succeeds. Thus, it is not necessary to specify the entire string. For example, if you know that the PAD will send several lines followed by an @ prompt, you could just use @ as the string. run program args The program (sleep , date , etc.) is run with the args specified. Do not use quotes here. Also, the program is invoked directly (using execp ), so wild cards, redirection, etc. are not possible. error ID If the most recent expect or run encountered an error, go to the label ID . exec program args Similar to run , but does not fork. echo string Similar to send , but goes to standard error instead of to the device. set debug Sets the program in debug mode. It echoes each line to /tmp/opx25.log, as well as giving the result of each expect and run. This can be useful for writing new scripts. The command set nodebug disables this feature. HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −1− Section 1M− 611 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ opx25(1M) set log opx25(1M) Sends subsequent incoming characters to /var/uucp/.Log/LOGX25. This can be used in the *.in file as a security measure, because part of the incoming data stream contains the number of the caller. There is a similar feature in getx25 ; it writes the time and the login name into the same logfile. The command set nolog disables this feature. set numlog Similar to set log , but better in some cases because it sends only digits to the log file, and not other characters. The command set nonumlog disables this feature. timeout number Sets a global timeout value. Each expect uses time in the timeout reservoir; when this time is gone, the program gives up (exit 1). If this command is not used, there is no global timeout. Also, the global timeout can be reset any time, and a value of 0 turns it off. exit number Exits with this value. 0 is success; anything else is failure. To perform a rudimentary test of configuration files, run opx25 by hand, using the -f option followed by the name of the script file. opx25 then sends to standard output and expects from standard input; thus you can type the input, observe the output, and use the echo command to see messages. See the file /usr/lbin/uucp/X25/ventel.out for a good example of HALGOL programming. AUTHOR opx25 was developed by HP. SEE ALSO getx25(1), uucp(1). o Section 1M− 612 __ −2− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ ospf_monitor(1M) ospf_monitor(1M) NAME ospf_monitor - monitor OSPF (Open Shortest Path First protocol) gateways SYNOPSIS ospf_monitor mon_db_file DESCRIPTION Use the ospf_monitor command to query OSPF routers. The ospf_monitor command operates in interactive mode. It allows the user to query the various OSPF routers to provide detailed information on IO statistics, error logs, link-state data bases, AS external data bases, the OSPF routing table, configured OSPF interfaces, and OSPF neighbors. mon_db_file is the complete pathname of a database composed of records configuring destinations for ospf_monitor remote commands. Each destination record is a single-line entry which lists the destination IP address, the destination hostname, and an OSPF authentication key (if authentication is activated by the destination). Since authentication keys may be present in the destination records, it is recommended that general access to this database be restricted. Refer to RFC-1583 (OSPF Specification, version 2) for details about OSPF database and packet formats. COMMANDS Upon entering interactive mode, ospf_monitor presents this prompt: [ # ] dest command params > From this prompt, you can enter any of the ospf_monitor interactive commands. Interactive commands can be interrupted at any time via a keyboard interrupt. Note that the command line length must be less than 200 characters. Local Commands ? Display all local commands and their functions. ?R d Display all remote commands and their functions. Display all configured destinations. This command displays dest_index , the IP address, and the hostname of all potential ospf_monitor command destinations configured in mon_db_file . h Display the command history buffer showing the last 30 interactive commands. x Exit the ospf_monitor program. @ remote_command Send remote_command to the same (previous) destination. @dest_index remote_command Send remote_command to configured destination dest_index . F filename Send all ospf_monitor output to filename. S Send all ospf_monitor output to stdout. o Remote Commands a area_id type ls_id adv_rtr Display link state advertisement. area_id is the OSPF area for which the query is directed. adv_rtr is the router-id of the router which originated this link state advertisement. type specifies the type of advertisement to request and should be specified as follows: 1 Request the router links advertisements. They describe the collected states of the router’s interfaces. For this type of request, the ls_id field should be set to the originating router’s Router ID. 2 Request the network links advertisements. They describe the set of routers attached to the network. For this type of request, the ls_id field should be set to the IP interface address of the network’s Designated Router. 3 Request the summary link advertisements describing routes to networks. They describe inter-area routes, and enable the condensing of routing information at area borders. For this type of request, the ls_id field should be set to the destination network’s IP address. 4 Request the summary link advertisements describing routes to AS boundary routers. They describe inter-area routes, and enable the condensing of routing information at area borders. For this type of request, the ls_id field should be set to the Router ID of the described AS boundary router. HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −1− Section 1M− 613 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ ospf_monitor(1M) 5 ospf_monitor(1M) Request the AS external link advertisements. They describe routes to destinations external to the Autonomous System. For this type of request, the ls_id field should be set to the destination network’s IP address. c Display cumulative log. This log includes input/output statistics for monitor request, hello, data base description, link-state request, link-state update, and link-state ack packets. Area statistics are provided which describe the total number of routing neighbors and number of active OSPF interfaces. Routing table statistics are summarized and reported as the number of intra-area routes, inter-area routes, and AS external data base entries. e Display cumulative errors. This log reports the various error conditions which can occur between OSPF routing neighbors and shows the number of occurrences for each. h Display the next hop list. This list of valid next hops is mostly derived from the SPF calculation. l [retrans] Display the link-state database (except for ASE’s). This table describes the routers and networks making up the AS. If retrans is non-zero, the retransmit list of neighbors held by this lsdb structure will be printed. A [retrans] Display the AS external data base entries. This table reports the advertising router, forwarding address, age, length, sequence number, type, and metric for each AS external route. If retrans is non-zero, the retransmit list of neighbors held by this lsdb structure will be printed. o [which] Display the OSPF routing table. This table reports the AS border routes, area border routes, summary AS border routes, networks, summary networks, and AS external networks currently managed via OSPF. If which is omitted, all of the above will be listed. If specified, the value of which (between 1 and 63) specifies that only certain tables should be displayed. The appropriate value is determined by adding up the values for the desired tables from the following list: 1 Routes to area border routers for this area. 4 Summary routes to AS border routers in other areas. 8 Routes to networks in this area. 16 Summary routes to networks in other areas. 32 o Routes to AS border routers in this area. 2 AS routes to non-OSPF networks. I Display all interfaces. This report shows all interfaces configured for OSPF. Information reported includes the area, interface IP address, interface type, interface state, cost, priority, and the IP address of the DR and BDR for the network. N Display all OSPF routing neighbors. Information reported includes the area, local interface address, router ID, neighbor IP address, state, and mode. V Display Gated version information. AUTHOR Rob Coltun of University of Maryland Jeffrey C. Honig of Cornell University SEE ALSO gated(1M), gdc(1M), ripquery(1M), gated.conf(4). GateD Documentation GateD Configuration Guide Section 1M− 614 __ −2− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ owners(1M) owners(1M) NAME /usr/sbin/owners - lists owners of outgoing network connections SYNOPSIS owners DESCRIPTION owners displays a list of established network connections which originate on this system, and indicates the owners of each connection using the identd running on this system. SEE ALSO sendmail(1M). o HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −1− Section 1M− 615 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ parcreate(1M) parcreate(1M) NAME parcreate - create a new partition SYNOPSIS parcreate [-P PartitionName ] [-I IPaddress ] -c cell:[cellType ]:[use_on_next_boot]:[failure_usage ] [-c...] [-b path ] [-t path ] [-s path ] [-r cell ] [-r ...] [-B ] [-k s_lock ] DESCRIPTION The parcreate command creates a new partition. This command takes the specified cells (and any attached I/O chassis) from the free cell list and assigns them to the partition. This command finds an available partition id and assigns it to the new partition. It returns the partition id of the newly created partition. Options and Arguments parcreate recognizes the following command line options and arguments: -P PartitionName Specifies the name of the new partition. The characters which can appear in a valid partition name are a-z, A-Z, 0-9, - (dash), _ (underscore), " " (space) and . (period). If the partition name includes space then the name should be enclosed within double quotes. -I IPaddress Specifies the IP address that should be used by management tools (like SAM) to address this partition. This value must be consistent with the IP address that is assigned to the partition once HP-UX is installed and networking is configured. -c cell:[cellType]:[ use_on_next_boot]:[ failure_usage] Specifies the cell(s) to be assigned to the partition. cell specifies the cell id. It can be specified either in the local (cabinet# /slot# ) or global (slot# ) format. For example, the cell located in cabinet 2, slot 4 is locally identified as 2/4 or globally as simply 20. cellType specifies the cell type. The current valid cellType value is: base , which is the default if cellType is not specified. use_on_next_boot specifies whether the cells will participate in a reboot. The current valid values for use_on_next_boot are: y participate in reboot. Default. n do not participate in reboot. p The valid value for failure_usage is: ri reactivate with interleave. This is the default. Other values will be supported in future releases. -b path -t path -s path -r cell Specifies the primary boot path. path specifies the physical hardware path. Specifies the alternate boot path. path specifies the physical hardware path. Specifies the secondary boot path. path specifies the physical hardware path. Specifies the root alternates. One to four cells can be specified. The first cell specified is the first root alternate cell, the second cell specified is the second root alternate cell, the third cell specified is the third root alternate and the fourth cell specified is the fourth root alternate. A cell can be specified either in the local (cabinet# /slot# ) or global (slot# ) format. For example, the cell located in cabinet 2, slot 4 is locally identified as 2/4 or globally as simply 20. -B -k s_lock Specifies to boot the partition. The default is not to boot. Specifies a lock key for the Stable Complex Configuration Data provided by SAM. This option is not available to the command line user. At least one of the cells specified must contain core I/O with the use_on_next_boot flag set to "y". Root permissions are required to run this command. Section 1M− 616 __ −1− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ parcreate(1M) parcreate(1M) EXIT STATUS The parcreate utility exits with one of the following values: 0 1 Successful completion. Error condition occurred. EXAMPLES Create a new partition myPartition with 2 cells. One of the cells is located in cabinet 2, slot 4. The cellType for the cell is base . The failure_usage policy for this cell is ri - reactivate with interleave. The other cell is located in cabinet 2, slot 6. The cellType is base and failure_usage policy for this cell is ri - reactivate with memory interleave. The use_on_next_boot for both cells is y. parcreate -P myPartition -c 2/4:base:y:ri -c 2/6:base:y:ri -b 0/0/52/2.6 -t 0/0/52/3.6 -s 0/0/52/4.6 -r 2/4 Create a new partition nextPartition with 2 cells. The cells are located in cabinet 0, slot 4 and slot 6. This example uses the default values for the cells. parcreate -P nextPartition -c 4::: -c 6::: AUTHOR parcreate was developed by the Hewlett-Packard Company. SEE ALSO fruled(1), parstatus(1), partition(1), frupower(1M), parmodify(1M), parremove(1M), parunlock(1M). p HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −2− Section 1M− 617 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ parmgr(1M) parmgr(1M) NAME parmgr - partition manager SYNOPSIS /usr/sbin/parmgr [ [-t task ] [optional_params ] ] DESCRIPTION The parmgr command provides a single access point to the SuperDome configuration toolset to perform partition administration tasks. Omitting all parameters launches the Partition Manager configuration tool interface. Partition Manager can also be launched from SAM on SuperDome systems. parmgr requires superuser (user root ) privileges to execute successfully. parmgr does not provide a terminal interface as provided with SAM. Options Use one of these parmgr task options to launch a configuration task: -h Display usage instructions. -t create Create new partition. -t modify Modify an existing partition. Requires a -p par_id argument. See below. -t cell_details Display cell details sheet. Requires a -c cell_num argument. See below. -t par_details Display partition details sheet. Requires a -p par_id argument. See below. -t io_details Display I/O chassis details sheet. Requires -i io_chassis_num arguments. See below. -t complex_details Display SuperDome complex details sheet. Available optional_params are: p -p par_id -c cell_num Partition number. Cell number. Specify either in the local (cabinet_id/slot_num) or global (cell_ID) format. -i io_chassis_num The I/O chassis number. cabinet_id/bay_num/chassis_num Must be specified in the form: EXAMPLES Run Partition Manager as root: /opt/parmgr/bin/parmgr Create a new partition: parmgr -t create Modify existing partition number 5: parmgr -t modify -p 5 Start the partition details sheet for partition 5: parmgr -t par_details -p 5 Start the cell details sheet for the cell in cabinet 1, slot 0: parmgr -t cell_details -c 1/0 Start the I/O details sheet for cabinet 1, bay 0, chassis 3 parmgr -t io_details -i 1/0/3 Start the complex details sheet: parmgr -t complex_details Section 1M− 618 __ −1− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ parmgr(1M) parmgr(1M) DEPENDENCIES parmgr runs in an X Window environment. parmgr requires a minimum of 16 MB of internal memory. More swap space may be required depending on other applications running concurrently. Partition Manager includes online help that is displayed in a Web browser. In this release of Partition Manager, the online help will only display correctly in the Netscape[tm] web browser, version 4 or later. An appropriate version of Netscape is included in the HP-UX 11i Operating Environment (OE) bundle. For full access to the online help, the OE bundle should be installed on each system running Partition Manager. AUTHOR parmgr was developed by HP. FILES /opt/parmgr/bin/ parmgr executable files. /opt/webadmin/parmgr/help/$LANG/ parmgr online help files. /opt/parmgr/lib/ parmgr internal configuration files. /usr/var/sam/ parmgr uses some SAM executables. /var/parmgr/ parmgr working space, including lock files (if a parmgr session dies, it may leave behind a spurious lock file), preferences, logging, and temporary files. /var/sam/ parmgr uses some SAM files. /var/sam/log/samlog Unformatted SAM and parmgr logging messages. This file should not be modified by users. Use samlog_viewer to view the contents of this file (see samlog_viewer (1)). /var/sam/log/samlog.old Previous SAM and parmgr log file created by when /var/sam/log/samlog is larger than the user specified limit. Use samlog_viewer with its -f option to view the contents of this file (see samlog_viewer (1)). SEE ALSO frupower(1M), frulock(1M), sam(1M), samlog_viewer(1), parstatus(1M), parcreate(1M), parmodify(1M), parunlock(1M), parremove(1M). p These manuals are available on http://docs.hp.com: • Managing SuperDome Complexes • Installing and Administering Internet Service for HP-UX 11.0 • Installing and Administering LAN/9000 Software for HP-UX 11.0 • Installing and Administering NFS Services for HP-UX 11.0 • X.25/9000 User’s Guide HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −2− Section 1M− 619 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ parmodify(1M) parmodify(1M) NAME parmodify - modify an existing partition SYNOPSIS parmodify -p PartitionNumber { -a cell :[cellType ]:[use_on_next_boot]:[failure_usage ] [-a ...] | -m cell :[cellType ]:[use_on_next_boot ]:[failure_usage ] [-m ...] | -I IPaddress | -r cell [-r ...] | -d cell [-d ...] | -b path | -t path | -s path | -P PartitionName | -B | -k s_lock:p_lock } DESCRIPTION The parmodify command is used to modify the attributes of an existing partition. This command can modify the following attributes: Partition name Cell assignment: Add cells to this partition Delete cells from this partition Attributes of existing cells: cellType use_on_next_boot failure_usage Root alternates Primary boot path HA Alternate boot path Secondary boot path Partition’s IP address Options and Arguments parmodify recognizes the following command line options and arguments: -p PartitionNumber p Specifies the partition to be modified. PartitionNumber specifies the unique number (integer) assigned to the partition. Note: The user has to specify any one or more of the following options. -a cell:[cellType]:[ use_on_next_boot]:[ failure_usage] Specifies the cell(s) to be added to the partition. cell specifies the cell id. It can be specified either in the local (cabinet# /slot# ) or global (slot# ) format. For example, the cell located in cabinet 2, slot 4 is locally identified as 2/4 or globally as simply 20. cellType specifies the cell type. The valid cellType value is: base , which is the default if cellType is not specified. The valid use_on_next_boot values are: y participate in reboot. Default. n do not participate in reboot. The valid failure_usage value for cells is: ri reactivate with memory interleave. This is the default. Other values will be supported in future releases. -m cell:[cellType]:[ use_on_next_boot]:[ failure_usage] Modify attributes of a cell already assigned to this partition. cell specifies the cell id. It can be specified either in the local (cabinet# /slot# ) or global (slot# ) format. For example, the cell located in cabinet 2, slot 4 is locally identified as 2/4 or globally as simply 20. The valid cellType value is: base . Section 1M− 620 __ −1− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ parmodify(1M) parmodify(1M) The valid use_on_next_boot values are: y participate in reboot. n do not participate in reboot. The valid failure_usage value for cells is: ri reactivate with memory interleave. Other values will be supported in future releases. -I IPaddress Specifies the IP address that should be used by management tools (like SAM) to address this partition. This value must be consistent with the IP address that is assigned to the partition once HP-UX is installed and networking is configured. -r cell Specifies the root alternates. One to four cells can be specified. The first cell specified is the first root alternate cell, the second cell specified is the second root alternate cell, the third cell specified is the third root alternate and the fourth cell specified is the fourth root alternate. Use of this option will override previous root alternates selections. So, if the order of a given cell is changing, all of the alternate cells should be specified in the new order. A cell can be specified either in the local (cabinet# /slot# ) or global (slot# ) format. For example, the cell located in cabinet 2, slot 4 is locally identified as 2/4 or globally as simply 20. -d cell -b path -t path -s path -P Partition Name Delete the specified cells from the partition. -B Specifies to reboot the partition now. The default is not to boot. If this option is specified and the partition to be modified is not the current partition, then the command proceeds only if the specified partition is not active. Also this option is necessary only if -a or -d option has been specified. Note: The partition in which the command is executing is called the current partition. -k s_lock:p_lock Specifies the lock keys provided by SAM for Stable Complex Configuration Data and Partition Configuration Data. The lock keys should always be specified in pairs. If any lock key is not available -1 should be specified. For example: if the s_lock is available but the p_lock is not available, then it should be specified as -k s_lock:-1 . Specifies the primary boot path. path specifies the physical hardware path. Specifies the alternate boot path. path specifies the physical hardware path. Specifies the secondary boot path. path specifies the physical hardware path. Specifies the name of the partition. The characters which can appear in a valid partition name are a-z, A-Z, 0-9, - (dash), _ (underscore), " " (space) and . (period). If the partition name includes space then the name should be enclosed within double quotes. p Note: The -k option is not available to the command line user. Root permissions are required to run parmodify . EXIT STATUS The parmodify utility exits with one of the following values: 0 1 Successful completion. Error condition occurred. EXAMPLES Add a new cell to the existing partition with Partition Number 2. parmodify -p 2 -a 2/5:base:y:ri Delete a cell from the existing partition with Partition Number 2. parmodify -p 2 -d 2/5 AUTHOR parmodify was developed by the Hewlett-Packard Company. HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −2− Section 1M− 621 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ parmodify(1M) parmodify(1M) SEE ALSO fruled(1), parstatus(1), partition(1), frupower(1M), parcreate(1M), parremove(1M), parunlock(1M). p Section 1M− 622 __ −3− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ parremove(1M) parremove(1M) NAME parremove - remove an existing partition SYNOPSIS parremove -p PartitionNumber [-F] [-k s_lock :p_lock ] DESCRIPTION The parremove command removes an existing partition. This will unassign all cells from the partition and destroy the partition definition. Options and Arguments parremove recognizes the following command line options and arguments: -p PartitionNumber Specifies the partition to be removed. PartitionNumber specifies the unique partition number (integer) assigned to the partition. Forcibly remove the partition. -F If the partition is inactive, the partition is removed. If the partition is active and if it is the current partition, the partition is removed. If the partition is active but is not the current partition, then the partition will not be removed. Note: The partition in which the command is executing is called the current partition. -k s_lock:p_lock Specifies the lock keys provided by SAM for Stable Complex Configuration Data and Partition Configuration Data. The lock keys should always be specified in pairs. If any lock key is not available, -1 should be specified. For example: if the s_lock is available but the p_lock is not available, then it should be specified as -k s_lock:-1 . Note: The -k option is not available to the command line user. This command fails if a partition is booted/active. This means all the cells in the partition must be shutdown for reconfiguration before using the parremove command. This warning does not apply if the partition being deleted is the current partition and the -F option has been specified. p Root permissions are required to run this command. EXIT STATUS The parremove utility exits with one of the following values: 0 1 Successful completion. Error condition occurred. EXAMPLES Remove the partition whose partition number is 2. parremove -p 2 AUTHOR parremove was developed by the Hewlett-Packard Company. SEE ALSO fruled(1), parstatus(1), partition(1), frupower(1M), parcreate(1M), parmodify(1M), parunlock(1M). HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −1− Section 1M− 623 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ parunlock(1M) parunlock(1M) NAME parunlock - unlock the Stable Complex Configuration Data or Partition Configuration Data SYNOPSIS parunlock [-p PartitionNumber ] [-s] parunlock -A DESCRIPTION The parunlock command unlocks the specified Partition Configuration Data or the Stable Complex Configuration Data. Options and Arguments parunlock recognizes the following command line options and arguments: -p PartitionNumber Unlock the Partition Configuration Data of the specified partition. PartitionNumber specifies the unique partition number (integer) assigned to the partition. Unlock the Stable Complex Configuration Data. -s -A Unlock the Stable Complex Configuration Data and the Partition Configuration Data of all the partitions in the complex. This command should be used with caution. It should be used only when the system resources are locked due to the abnormal termination of any partition command or other similar applications. Root permission is required to run this command. EXIT STATUS The parunlock utility exits with one of the following values: 0 1 Successful completion. Error condition occurred. EXAMPLES Unlock the partition profile of the partition whose partition number is 2. p parunlock -p 2 Unlock the Stable Complex Configuration Data. parunlock -s Unlock the Stable Configuration Data and the Partition Configuration Data of all the partitions in the system. parunlock -A AUTHOR parunlock was developed by the Hewlett-Packard Company. SEE ALSO fruled(1), frupower(1M), parcreate(1M), parmodify(1M), parremove(1M), parstatus(1), partition(1). Section 1M− 624 __ −1− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ pcnfsd(1M) pcnfsd(1M) NAME pcnfsd - PC-NFS authentication and print request server SYNOPSIS /usr/sbin/rpc.pcnfsd DESCRIPTION pcnfsd is an RPC server that supports ONC clients on PC (DOS, OS/2, Macintosh, and other) systems. This describes version two of the pcnfsd server. pcnfsd can be started from the /sbin/init.d/nfs.server startup script by setting the PCNFS_SERVER variable to 1 in /etc/rc.config.d/nfsconf, or from the inetd daemon (see inetd (1M)). It reads the configuration file /etc/pcnfsd.conf, if present, and services RPC requests directed to program number 150001. The pcnfsd daemon now supports version 1 and version 2 of the PCNFSD protocol. The requests serviced by pcnfsd fall into three categories: authentication, printing, and other. Only the authentication and printing categories have administrative significance. Authentication When pcnfsd receives a PCNFSD_AUTH or PCNFSD2_AUTH request, it will "log in" the user by validating the user name and password, returning the corresponding user ID, group IDs, home directory, and umask. It will also append a record to the wtmp data base (see wtmp (4)). If you do not want PC "logins" recorded in this way, add a line to the /etc/pcnfsd.conf file in the form: wtmp off By default, pcnfsd will only allow authentication or print requests for users with user IDs in the range 101 to 60002 (this corresponds, in SVR4, to the range for nonsystem accounts). To override this, add a line to the /etc/pcnfsd.conf file in the form: uidrange range [, range ]... where each range is a user ID number in the form uid or an inclusive range of user ID numbers in the form uid -uid p NOTE: pcnfsd will deny authentication if the /etc/shells file is incorrectly setup. Printing pcnfsd supports a printing model that uses NFS to transfer print data from the client to the server. The client system issues a PCNFSD_PR_INIT or PCNFSD2_PR_INIT request, and the server returns the path to a spool directory that is exported by NFS for use by the client. pcnfsd creates a subdirectory for each client. By default, the parent directory is /var/spool/pcnfs, and the name of each subdirectory is the same as its client’s host name. To use a different parent directory, add a line to the /etc/pcnfsd.conf file in the form: spooldir path Once a client has mounted the spool directory using NFS, and transferred print data to a file in that directory, it will issue a PCNFSD_PR_START or PCNFSD2_PR_START request. pcnfsd handles most print-related requests by constructing a command based on the printing services of the server’s operating system, and executing that command using the identity of the PC user. Because this involves set-user-ID privileges, pcnfsd must be run as root . Every print request from a client includes the name of the printer to be used. This name corresponds to a printer that has been configured into the line printer spooling system using the lpadmin command. To process print data in a special way (for example, to print it in landscape mode, or to print it in duplex mode), define a new printer and arrange for the client to print to that printer. There are two ways to define the new printer: • You can add a new printer to the line printer spooling system that uses a different printer model script, and arrange for the client to use the new printer. Do this using the lpadmin command (see lpadmin (1M)). HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −1− Section 1M− 625 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ pcnfsd(1M) • pcnfsd(1M) pcnfsd includes a mechanism to define virtual printers known only to pcnfsd clients. Each of these printers is defined by an entry in the file /etc/pcnfsd.conf using the following format: printer name alias-for command with the following values: name The name of the printer, as it will be referred to in print requests from clients. alias-for The corresponding name for the printer, as it is defined in the line printer spooling system. For example, a request to display the queue for name will be translated into the corresponding request for the printer alias-for . If you have defined a printer within pcnfsd that has no corresponding printer defined in the line printer spooling system, use a single hyphen (-) for this field. For an example, see the definition of the printer test in the examples section, below. command A command that will be executed whenever a file is printed on name . This command is executed by the POSIX shell, /usr/bin/sh using the -c option. For complex operations, construct an executable shell program and execute that in command . Within command the following tokens will be replaced: Token Substitution $FILE Replaced by the full path name of the print data file. When the command has been executed, the file will be unlinked. $USER Replaced by the user name of the user logged in to the client system. $HOST Replaced by the host name of the client system. Reconfiguration By checking the modification time (and contents) of the file /var/spool/lp/pstatus, pcnfsd will detect when printers have been added or deleted, and will rebuild its list of valid printers. However, pcnfsd does not monitor the file /etc/pcnfsd.conf for updates; if you change this file, you must kill and restart pcnfsd for the changes to take effect. p EXAMPLES Given the following entries for the file /etc/pcnfsd.conf: printer abc lj lp -dlj -oraw printer test - /usr/bin/cp $FILE /usr/tmp/$HOST-$USER If a user on a client system prints a job on printer abc , the request will be sent to destination lj in raw mode. If the client requests a list of the print queue for printer abc , the pcnfsd daemon will translate this into a request for a listing for printer lj . Printer test is used only for testing. Any file sent to this printer will be copied into the directory /usr/tmp . Any request to list the queue, check the status, etc., of printer test will be rejected because alias-for has been specified as a hyphen (-). FILES /etc/pcnfsd.conf /etc/rc.config.d/nfsconf /var/spool/lp/pstatus /var/spool/pcnfs /etc/shells SEE ALSO lp(1), lpstat(1), inetd(1M), lpadmin(1M), wtmp(4). Section 1M− 626 __ −2− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ pcserver(1M) pcserver(1M) NAME pcserver - Basic Serial and HP AdvanceLink server SYNOPSIS pcserver [-n] [-l [ log_file ] ] [-v] DESCRIPTION pcserver is the hostside server program for Basic Serial and AdvanceLink, and is started and terminated by an application program running on a PC. pcserver supports both the Basic Serial and the AdvanceLink protocols. Basic Serial offers a library of routines that support a variety of services between a PC and a serially connected host computer, including file transfers and remote interprocess communications. AdvanceLink is a terminal emulation program that also supports file transfers between a PC and host system over various physical connections. Options The following options are recognized by pcserver : -l [logfile] This option is now obsolete, but is retained for compatibility with earlier versions of software. Logging is now controlled by the presence or absence of the server.pro file as described in NOTES, below. Enables packet logging and records pcserver messages to a specified log file (for debugging). If logfile is not specified, the file s-log is used in the default logging directory, as defined in the server.pro file. pcserver looks for a local version of server.pro in the user’s home directory. If none is found, it will look for a system-wide version as /var/adm/server.pro or /usr/adm/server.pro. If the logfile exists, logging is appended to it. If the file does not exist, logging is disabled. -n Informs pcserver that a "netmode" for data encryption should be used during special operations (for example, a netmode is needed to mask device control characters when a PAD is being used). The details of the netmode are then negotiated between the pcserver and the PC application. For a more comprehensive discussion on netmode, see Using Basic Serial Connection Files . -v Causes pcserver to print its version number to standard output and quit. pcserver is designed to be invoked by a PC application program rather than from the command line. In order for the connection to be correctly established, the PC and host port must be properly configured. p If you are using pcserver to manage a session between a PC and a hostside application (via Basic Serial), you may need to use a Basic Serial connection file to actually log in to your account. Establishing connections using Basic Serial connection files is a sensitive operation. Before attempting to use them, you should read the manual Using Basic Serial Connection Files . If you are using pcserver to transfer files between a PC and a host machine via Advancelink, use the following AdvanceLink commands: &HOSTCOPY "pcserver" &TERMINATOR "$" If your prompt does not end with $, replace the $ in the terminator command with the last character in your normal prompt. To permanently configure AdvanceLink for the HP-UX version of pcserver , refer to the Using AdvanceLink manual for more information. NOTES Packet logging is controlled by the presence or absence of the file server.pro pcserver looks for a local version of server.pro in the user’s home directory. If none is found, it will look for a system-wide version as /var/adm/server.pro or /usr/adm/server.pro. If no logging file is found in these directories, logging is not performed. A commented example of a or server.pro may be found in /usr/newconfig/var/adm/server.pro.ex /usr/adm/server.pro.ex. To make use of this file, copy it to the active file name, server.pro , in one of the previously mentioned directory locations. HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −1− Section 1M− 627 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ pcserver(1M) pcserver(1M) If your screen displays a Command not found message when you choose START TRANSFER from AdvLink, either pcserver has not yet been installed on your HP-UX system, or it has been installed in a directory that is not part of your current path. HP-UX treats files containing binary or ASCII data identically. Therefore it is up to the user to specify the desired file type when using pcserver to transfer files with Advancelink. The difference between the two is that during ASCII transfers, pcserver maps HP-UX line-feed characters to the MS-DOS carriage-return/line-feed pair. This produces incorrect results when transferring a binary file as an ASCII file. Also, older versions of AdvanceLink show totally inaccurate estimates for file transfer times. This does not interfere with the actual transfer. If the PC is reset while a transfer is taking place, it may temporarily appear to be a "dead" terminal port. This is no cause for alarm; left to its own devices, pcserver will restore the port in a short time. In the worst case, it could take six timeout periods (6 × 20 = 120 seconds). For faster response, press the Break key a few times to terminate pcserver immediately. FILES the executable program /usr/bin/pcserver system-wide logging profile /var/adm/server.pro system-wide logging profile /usr/adm/server.pro $HOME/server.pro local logging profile commented inactive example of server.pro /usr/newconfig/var/adm/server.pro.ex commented inactive example of server.pro /usr/adm/server.pro.ex SEE ALSO Using AdvanceLink Describes protocol and how to use AdvanceLink. Using Basic Serial Connection Files Describes Basic Serial and how connection files should be used. p Section 1M− 628 __ −2− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ pdc(1M) pdc(1M) NAME pdc - processor-dependent code (firmware) DESCRIPTION pdc is the firmware that implements all processor-dependent functionality, including initialization and selftest of the processor. Upon completion, it loads and transfers control to the initial system loader (isl (1M)). Firmware behavior varies somewhat, depending on the hardware series as described below. Series 800 Behavior To load isl from an external medium, pdc must know the particular device on which isl resides. Typically the device is identified by the Primary Boot Path that is maintained by pdc in Stable Storage. A path specification is a series of decimal numbers each suffixed by ’/’, indicating bus converters, followed by a series of decimal numbers separated by ’.’, indicating the various card and slot numbers and addresses. The first number, not specifying a bus converter, is the MID-BUS module number (that is, slot number times four) and followed by the CIO slot number. If the CIO slot contains a terminal card, the next number is the port number, which must be zero for the console. When the processor is reset after initialization and self-test complete, pdc reads the Console Path from Stable Storage, and attempts to initialize the console device. If the initialization fails, pdc attempts to find and initialize a console device. Algorithms used to find a console device are model-dependent. pdc then announces the Primary Boot, Alternate Boot, and Console Paths. If autoboot (see isl (1M)) is enabled, pdc provides a 10-second delay, during which time the operator can override the autoboot sequence by typing any character on the console. If the operator does not interrupt this process, pdc initializes and reads isl from the Primary Boot Path. On models that support autosearch, if this path is not valid and autosearch (see isl (1M)) is enabled, pdc then searches through the MID-BUS modules and CIO slots to find a bootable medium. Currently, autosearch is only implemented on the model 825. If the autoboot sequence is unsuccessful, overridden by the operator, or not enabled in the first place, pdc interactively prompts the operator for the Boot Path to use. Any required path components that are not supplied default to zero. The Primary Boot, Alternate Boot, and Console Paths as well as autoboot and autosearch enable can be modified via isl. Series 700 Behavior To load isl from an external medium, pdc must know the particular device on which isl resides. Typically the device is identified by the Primary Boot Path that is maintained by pdc in Stable Storage. A path specification is an I/O subsystem mnemonic that varies according to hardware model. p When the processor is reset after initialization and self-test complete, pdc reads the Console Path from Stable Storage, and attempts to initialize the console device. If the initialization fails, pdc attempts to find and initialize a console device. Algorithms used to find a console device vary according to hardware model. If autoboot and autosearch (see isl (1M)) are enabled, pdc waits for approximately 10 seconds during which time the operator can override the autoboot sequence pressing and holding the ESC (escape) key on the console. The system then begins a search for potentially bootable devices. If allowed to complete, a list of potentially bootable devices is displayed, labeled with abbreviated path identifiers (P0, P1, etc). A simple menu is then displayed where the user can: • Boot a specific device, using the abbreviated path identifier, or the full mnemonic. • Start a device search where the contents are searched for IPL images (note the first search only identified devices and did not check the contents). • Enter the boot administration level. • Exit the menu and return to autobooting • Get help on choices The search of potentially bootable devices can be aborted by pressing and holding the escape key. The search for device contents can also be aborted by pressing and holding the escape key. If the operator does not interrupt the search process, pdc initializes and reads isl from the Primary Boot Path. HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −1− Section 1M− 629 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ pdc(1M) pdc(1M) If the autoboot sequence is unsuccessful, overridden by the operator, or not enabled in the first place, pdc executes the device search and enters the menu described above. The Primary Boot, Alternate Boot, and Console Paths as well as autoboot and autosearch enable can be modified via isl or at the pdc boot administration level. SEE ALSO boot(1M), isl(1M). p Section 1M− 630 __ −2− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ pddcesetup(1M) pddcesetup(1M) (TO BE OBSOLETED) NAME pddcesetup - configure DCE for the HPDPS SYNOPSIS pddcesetup [force ] DESCRIPTION The pddcesetup command is used to configure DCE information for the HP Distributed Print Service (HPDPS). pddcesetup must be run on each HP-UX host in your DCE cell that will execute the HPDPS in the Extended Environment. If a host will run the HPDPS in the Basic Environment only, not in the Extended Environment, then execution of pddcesetup is not needed on that host. If you do not intend to execute the HPDPS in a DCE cell, or do not wish to use DCE services in conjunction with the HPDPS, then each host must execute the HPDPS in the Basic Environment, and execution of pddcesetup is not needed on any of the hosts in your network. pddcesetup must be executed once on each host in your DCE cell that will execute an HPDPS client daemon, spooler, or supervisor in the Extended Environment. pddcesetup must be executed before starting any of these HPDPS components on that host. The first time that pddcesetup executes in your DCE cell, it will prompt for and create various DCE security identities and CDS namespace entries that are then configured for the entire cell. On subsequent executions of pddcesetup , only local information needed by the local host is configured; the DCE security identities and CDS namespace entries have already been created for the cell. If the parameter force is given, then pddcesetup will give you the option to fully recreate security identities and CDS directories. This option is useful if DCE has been only partially configured, or if configuration is accidentally removed after creation. If the force parameter is not given, then pddcesetup quickly checks to see if it appears the DCE information has already been configured, and if so, pddcesetup does not attempt to configure any of this information. The host on which pddcesetup is executed must already be configured as a DCE client or server, using DCE command-line utilities or the SAM program. You must also be DCE logged in using an account with sufficient administrator privileges to modify DCE security and namespace information. The DCE login of the cell administrator for your cell is normally used for this purpose (the default DCE login name is cell_admin ). The HPDPS DCE information created by pddcesetup is: • Accounts adm_user and pd_server. • Principals adm_user and pd_server. • Groups pd_admin and pd_operator. • CDS namespace directories and links. • Initial Access Control List entries. • Local key table entries for principal pd_server. p EXAMPLES An example execution follows. This example illustrates the execution of pddcesetup for the first time in a DCE cell. # pddcesetup Checking whether your host is configured in a DCE cell. Verifying your DCE login. You are DCE logged in as <your login>. Checking whether HPDPS security identities have already been configured in your cell. DCE security identities needed for the HPDPS have not yet been configured in your DCE cell. The security identities that must be configured are: Accounts adm_user and pd_server Principals adm_user and pd_server Groups pd_admin and pd_operator HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −1− Section 1M− 631 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ pddcesetup(1M) pddcesetup(1M) (TO BE OBSOLETED) p Are you ready to configure these identities now (y/n)? y The new groups and accounts about to be created must be members of a DCE "organization". You may use an existing organization if you have already defined one. Do you wish to create a new DCE organization (y/n)? y Please enter the name of the new organization: <organization name> Creating organization <organization name>. Creating group pd_admin. Creating group pd_operator. Creating principal pd_server. Creating principal adm_user. Adding new principals to groups and organizations. pddcesetup is ready to create DCE accounts pd_server and adm_user. To accomplish this, you must enter the password for the DCE account under which you are currently logged in. If not entered correctly, an attempt to create the new accounts will generate the error message "data integrity error". Please enter the password for your current DCE login account: <password> Please choose a unique password for new account adm_user. This account will be used by HPDPS administrators. Please enter the password for account adm_user: <password> Please re-enter the password for account adm_user: <password> Creating account adm_user. Please choose a unique password for the pd_server account. This password is used by the HPDPS client daemon, spooler, and supervisor to automatically DCE login to account pd_server. Please enter the password for account pd_server: <password> Please re-enter the password for account pd_server: <password> Creating account pd_server. Creating HPDPS directories and links in the DCE CDS namespace. Creating initial HPDPS Access Control List entries. Adding entry for pd_server to the local key table. pddcesetup: DCE setup is complete. SEE ALSO dce_config(1M), dce_login(1M). HP Distributed Print Service Administration Guide Section 1M− 632 __ −2− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ pdfck(1M) pdfck(1M) NAME pdfck - compare Product Description File to File System SYNOPSIS pdfck [ -n ] [ -r alternate_root ] PDF DESCRIPTION pdfck is a program that compares the file descriptions in a PDF (Product Description File) to the actual files on the file system. It is intended as a tool to audit the file system and detect corruption and/or tampering. Differences found are reported in the format described in the pdfdiff (1M) manual entry. (Size growth (-p option) is not reported.) For a detailed explanation of the PDF fields see pdf (4). The command pdfck -r /pseudoroot /system/AL_CORE/pdf is roughly equivalent to mkpdf -r /pseudoroot /system/ AL_CORE/pdf - | \ pdfdiff /system/ AL_CORE/pdf Options pdfck recognizes the following options: -n Compare numerical representation of user id uid and group id gid of each file, instead of the usual text representation. If owner or group is recorded in the PDF as a name, look the name up in the /etc/passwd or /etc/group file, respectively, to find the id number. -r alternate_root alternate_root is a string that is prefixed to each pathname in the prototype when the filesystem is being searched for that file. Default is NULL. EXAMPLES The following output indicates tampering with /usr/bin/cat : /usr/bin/cat: mode(-r-xr-xr-x -> -r-sr-xr-x)(became suid), size(27724 -> 10345), checksum(1665 -> 398) WARNING Use of PDFs is discouraged since this functionality is obsolete and is being replaced with Software Distributor (see sd (4)). p FILES /system/ fileset_name /pdf Product Description File of fileset called fileset_name . SEE ALSO mkpdf(1M), pdfdiff(1M), pdf(4). HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −1− Section 1M− 633 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ pdfdiff(1M) pdfdiff(1M) NAME pdfdiff - compare two Product Description Files SYNOPSIS pdfdiff [-n] [-p percent ] pdf1 pdf2 DESCRIPTION pdfdiff is a program that compares two PDFs (Product Description Files). The PDFs can be generated using the mkpdf command (see mkpdf (1M)). Individual fields in the PDFs are compared, and differences found in these fields are reported. For a detailed explanation of the PDF fields see pdf (4). The report format is: pathname: diff_ field[(details) ][ ,...] diff_ field is one of the field names specified in pdf (4). The format of details is ‘‘oldvalue −> newvalue ’’ and may include an additional ‘‘(added description )’’. A summary of total product growth in bytes, DEV_BSIZE disk blocks, and the percentage change in disk blocks is reported. This summary includes growth of all files, including those for which growth did not exceed the threshhold percent . Format of the growth summary is: Growth: x bytes, y blocks (z%) Options pdfdiff recognizes the following options: -n Compare numerical representation of user ID uid and group ID gid of each file, instead of the usual text representation. If owner or group is recorded in the PDF as a name, look the name up in the /etc/passwd or /etc/group file, respectively, to find the ID number. -p percent p specifies a threshhold percentage for file growth. Files having a net size change greater than or equal to this percentage are reported. A decrease in size is reported as a negative number. If -p is not specified, a default value of zero percent is used. EXAMPLES The following output results when the /usr/bin/cat entry in the example from pdf(4) is different in the compared PDF: /usr/bin/cat: mode(-r-xr-xr-x -> -r-sr-xr-x)(became suid), size(27724 -> 10345), checksum(1665 -> 398) Growth: -17379 bytes, -17 blocks (-4%) WARNING Use of PDFs is discouraged since this functionality is obsolete and is being replaced with Software Distributor (see sd (4)). FILES /system/ fileset_name /pdf SEE ALSO mkpdf(1M), pdfck(1M), pdf(4). Section 1M− 634 __ −1− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ pdgwcfg(1M) pdgwcfg(1M) (TO BE OBSOLETED) NAME pdgwcfg - configures HPDPS gateway printers in a Basic environment SYNOPSIS pdgwcfg [-a|-m] [-h] [-p] [-v] DESCRIPTION The pdgwcfg utility simplifies the configuration of HPDPS gateway printers in a Basic (non-DCE Extended) environment by reading an administrator-supplied configuration file /etc/pdgwcfg.conf (see pdgwcfg.conf (4)). It creates-enables and/or deletes gateway printers as appropriate. Gateway printers are similar to "remote printers" provided by the LP spooler, allowing access to a printer in a foreign (DCE Extended or Basic) environment. You must have super-user privileges to invoke the utility. The default behavior of the utility will not modify any previously-created gateway printers listed in /etc/pdgwcfg.conf. Any new entries will be created and any gateway printers not listed will be deleted. All output is sent to $PDBASE/pdgwcfg/error.log (or /var/opt/pd/pdgwcfg/error.log by default). Previous error logs are retained in separate files in this directory for reference and, if used extensively, the directory may need to be cleaned-up periodically. If a severe error is encountered that causes a premature abort, an error message is also sent to stderr. Options pdgwcfg uses the following options: -a Retain all previously-created gateway printers, even if they are no longer listed in /etc/pdgwcfg.conf. No gateway printers will be deleted. The administrator must manually remove any unwanted gateway printers. -m Retain any manually-created gateway printers. These would not contain the text PDGWCFGMARKER in the descriptor attribute which is placed there by the pdgwcfg utility when it creates a gateway printer. This option is intended for scenarios where /etc/pdgwcfg.conf is not used exclusively for gateway printer configuration (e.g. a local sysadmin also creates gateway printers without the utility). -h Provides invocation syntax help. -p Preview mode. No changes to the gateway configuration will actually be made. For best results, the local HPDPS system should be running so that the utility can query the system to determine which gateway printers, if any, would be created/deleted. p -v Verbose mode. Provides more extensive output in the error.log . RETURN VALUE pdgwcfg exits with one of the following values: 0 1 Successful completion. Failure. EXTERNAL INFLUENCES Environment Variables PATH needs to include at a minimum /usr/bin:/opt/pd/bin. PDBASE affects the location of the error.log EXAMPLES If it is desirable to have a single configuration file distributed across multiple systems, there are various ways to distribute the configuration file and have the utility invoked to configure a system (e.g. swinstall (1M), rdist (1), etc.). Each method should be weighed against the administration and security concerns of your particular environment. The below is just an example using rdist (1) and is not intended to be a recommendation. # sample distfile for use with rdist # copies /etc/pdgwcfg.conf and invokes the pdgwcfg utility # invoke as ’rdist -b -h -f distfile’ HOSTS = ( host7 host8 ) HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −1− Section 1M− 635 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ pdgwcfg(1M) pdgwcfg(1M) (TO BE OBSOLETED) FILES = ( /etc/pdgwcfg.conf ) ${FILES} -> ${HOSTS} install ; special /etc/pdgwcfg.conf \ " PATH=/usr/bin:/opt/pd/bin;pdgwcfg" ; To update the configuration on host8 only, one would invoke: rdist -b -h -f distfile -m host8 WARNINGS By default, any gateway printer not listed in /etc/pdgwcfg.conf will be removed. pdgwcfg does not check for entry modifications in /etc/pdgwcfg.conf. See pdgwcfg.conf (4) for possible ways to accomplish modifications. If the descriptor attribute is modified, then the -m option will not consider these gateway printers as candidates for deletion because it overrides the PDGWCFG-MARKER marker that pdgwcfg would have placed in that attribute. AUTHOR pdgwcfg was developed by HP. SEE ALSO pdgwcfg.conf(4), pdcreate(1), and the HP Distributed Print Service Administration Guide (re: gateway printers). p Section 1M− 636 __ −2− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ pdstartclient(1M) pdstartclient(1M) (TO BE OBSOLETED) NAME pdstartclient - start the HPDPS client daemon SYNOPSIS pdstartclient [-l locale ] [-p port ] [-q] DESCRIPTION The pdstartclient utility is issued by an administrator to start the HPDPS client daemon. Options The pdstartclient utility uses the following flag: -l locale -p port Allows you to specify the locale for HPDPS messages in a specific language. -q Allows you to query the status whether the daemon is running or not running without starting the daemon. Allows you to specify the port number when starting a HPDPS client in a locale other than the default locale. The port number you assign must not conflict with port numbers in use by other processes. The file /etc/services lists the port numbers reserved by other processes. EXAMPLES Start a Daemon To start the daemon, enter the following: pdstartclient Start a Daemon in a Different Locale To start the daemon in a Japanese locale and assign port number 1411, enter the following: pdstartclient -l ja_JP.SJIS -p 1411 Query the Status of a Daemon To query the status of a daemon, enter the following: pdstartclient -q; echo $? If the daemon is running, you will receive the following message: p The HPDPS daemon is already running 0 If the daemon is not running, you will receive a 1. To query the status of a daemon running in locale ja_JP.SJIS , enter the following: pdstartclient -q -l ja_JP.SJIS To query the status of a daemon running on port 1411, enter the following: pdstartclient -q -p 1411 SEE ALSO pdstopd(1M), pdstartspl(1M), pdstartsuv(1M). HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −1− Section 1M− 637 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ pdstartspl(1M) pdstartspl(1M) (TO BE OBSOLETED) NAME pdstartspl - create or restart an HPDPS spooler SYNOPSIS pdstartspl [-F] ServerName DESCRIPTION The pdstartspl utility is issued by an administrator to create or restart a spooler. A spooler represents the server that manages the validation, routing, and scheduling of jobs. A spooler contains logical printers and queues. You can restart a spooler after it is terminated by issuing this same utility. When you create or restart a spooler, you must specify its name. Options The pdstartspl utility uses the following flag: -F Bypasses (does not display) prompts; force creation of a new spooler Arguments The argument value identifies the specific object to which the utility applies. The valid argument value for the pdstartspl utility is: ServerName Assigns a name to a new spooler or specifies the name of the spooler to restart. EXAMPLES Create or Restart a Spooler To create or restart a spooler, spool1 , enter the command: pdstartspl spool1 SEE ALSO pdstartclient(1M), pdstartsuv(1M), pdshutdown(1). p Section 1M− 638 __ −1− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ pdstartsuv(1M) pdstartsuv(1M) (TO BE OBSOLETED) NAME pdstartsuv - create or restart an HPDPS supervisor SYNOPSIS pdstartsuv [-F] ServerName DESCRIPTION The pdstartsuv utility is issued by an administrator to create or restart a supervisor. A supervisor receives jobs from a spooler and manages the printing process. A single supervisor may contain many physical printers. The supervisor may be started on a different HP-UX processor from the spooler, but it must be able to communicate with its printer devices. If the supervisor already exists but is shut down, the pdstartsuv utility restarts it. Options The pdstartsuv utility uses the following flag: -F Bypasses (does not display) prompts; force creation of a new supervisor. Arguments The argument value identifies the specific object to which the utility applies. The valid argument value for the pdstartsuv utility is: ServerName Assigns a name to a new supervisor or specifies the name of the supervisor to restart. EXAMPLES Create or Restart a Supervisor To create or restart a supervisor, super1 , enter the command: pdstartsuv super1 SEE ALSO pdstartclient(1M), pdstartspl(1M), pdshutdown(1). p HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −1− Section 1M− 639 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ pdstopd(1M) pdstopd(1M) (TO BE OBSOLETED) NAME pdstopd - stop the HPDPS client daemon SYNOPSIS pdstopd DESCRIPTION The pdstopd utility is issued by an administrator to stop the HPDPS client daemon. EXAMPLES Stopping a Daemon To stop the daemon, enter the command: pdstopd To stop the daemon running in a specific locale, such as ja_JP.SJIS enter the following: export LC_ALL=ja_JP.SJIS pdstopd export LC_ALL= SEE ALSO pdstartclient(1M), pdstartspl(1M), pdstartsuv(1M). p Section 1M− 640 __ −1− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ pfs_exportfs(1M) pfs_exportfs(1M) NAME pfs_exportfs - export and unexport directories to PFS clients SYNOPSIS /usr/sbin/pfs_exportfs [ -a -u -v ] [ pathname ] DESCRIPTION pfs_exportfs makes a local directory or filename available for mounting over the network by PFS clients. It is recommended that a command to invoke pfs_exportfs at boot time be added to rc (1M). pfs_exportfs uses information contained in the /etc/pfs_exports file to export pathname (which must be specified as a full pathname). The superuser can run pfs_exportfs at any time to alter the list or characteristics of exported directories and filenames. Directories and files that are currently exported are listed in the file /etc/pfs_xtab. With no options or arguments, pfs_exportfs prints out the list of directories and filenames currently exported. Options -a All. Export all pathnames listed in /etc/pfs_exports, or if -u is specified, unexport all of the currently exported pathnames. -u Unexport the indicated pathnames. -v Verbose. Print each directory or filename as it is exported or unexported. AUTHOR psf_exportfs was developed by Young Minds, Inc. FILES /etc/pfs_exports /etc/pfs_xtab static export information current state of exported pathnames SEE ALSO pfs_exports(5). p HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −1− Section 1M− 641 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ pfs_mount(1M) pfs_mount(1M) NAME pfs_mount, pfs_umount - mount and unmount CD-ROM file systems SYNOPSIS pfs_mount [-v -a] pfs_mount [-v -a -f -n] [ -t type ] [ -x xlat ] [ -o options ] filesystem directory pfs_mount [-v -a -f -n] [ -x xlat ] [ -o options ] filesystem | directory pfs_umount [ -v -a -c ] filesystem | directory DESCRIPTION pfs_mount attaches a named filesystem to the file system hierarchy at the pathname location directory , which must already exist. If directory has any contents prior to the pfs_mount operation, these remain hidden until the filesystem is once again unmounted. If filesystem is of the form host :pathname, it is assumed to be a remote file system. In the case of a local mount, pfs_mount probes the specified character device to determine the file system type. It then contacts the local pfs_mountd.rpc program to register the specified directory as a valid mounted file system. pfs_mountd.rpc will reply with the address of the pfsd.rpc who will be handling all requests for files on that directory . Remote mounts are very similar, except that both the local and remote mount daemons will be contacted. The remote mount daemon will supply the PFS server address, and the local mount daemon will be contacted to register the mount. pfs_umount unmounts a currently mounted PFS file system, which can be specified as either a directory or a filesystem . pfs_umount contacts the local mount daemon to determine what actions should be taken to perform the unmount. If the file system was originally remotely mounted, the remote mount daemon is informed of the unmount, and the file system is unmounted. Otherwise, it is simply unmounted. pfs_mount and pfs_umount maintain a table of mounted file systems in /etc/pfs_mtab, described in pfs_fstab (5). If invoked without an argument, pfs_mount displays the contents of this table. If invoked with either a filesystem or a directory only, pfs_mount searches the file /etc/pfs_fstab for a matching entry, and mounts the file system indicated in that entry on the indicated directory. p If a user unmounts a PFS file system with the umount program, or interrupts the pfs_umount program before it has completed processing, the PFS daemons may leave the mount device open after the file system is no longer accessible. To clear these problems, use the -c flag for pfs_umount . PFS expects a character device to be used for mounts, not a block device. Use of a block device with PFS is not supported. pfs_mount Options -v Verbose. Display a message indicating each file system being mounted. -a -f All. Mount all file systems described in the /etc/pfs_fstab file. -n Mount the file system without making an entry in /etc/mnttab . Note: This option has no effect on HP-UX 10.30 or later. -x xlat Filename translation options. Any combination can be specified, although some combinations do not make sense (i.e. dot_version and no_version ). Fake an /etc/mnttab entry, but do not actually mount any file systems. Note: This option has no effect on HP-UX 10.30 or later. no_version will suppress the printing of the version number (and semicolon) at the end of ISO 9660 and High Sierra filenames. dot_version replaces the version number (and semicolon) with a period followed by the version number. lower_case unix -t type Section 1M− 642 __ Converts upper to lower case on all file (and directory) names. Shorthand for no_version and lower_case . Force the CD-ROM to be mounted as the specified type, if possible. Accepted types are: −1− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ pfs_mount(1M) pfs_mount(1M) iso9660 will cause the mount program to attempt to mount the CD-ROM image using the ISO 9660 specifications. If the CD image is not ISO 9660 compatible, the mount fails. Note that if the CD image is also Rock Ridge compliant, and the -t iso9660 option is not specified, the CD-ROM image will be mounted with Rock Ridge extensions enabled. hsfs will cause the mount program to attempt to mount the CD-ROM image using the High Sierra specifications. If the CD image is not hsfs compatible, the mount fails. rrip will cause the mount program to attempt to mount the CD-ROM image using the Rock Ridge Interchange specifications. If the CD image is not RRIP compatible, the mount fails. Note, that if the CD-ROM image supports the Rock Ridge Interchange Protocol, and the CD-ROM image is mounted with rrip , the translation options are suppressed. Note that these get entered into the /etc/pfs_mtab and /etc/pfs_fstab with a pfs- preceding the type. -o options Specify file system options as a list of comma-separated words from the list below. options valid on all file systems: ro Even if not specified, the read-only option is implied. suid | nosuid SetUID execution allowed or disallowed. bg | fg If the first attempt fails, retry in the background, or, in the foreground. retry= n The number of times to retry the mount operation. rsize= n Set the read buffer size to n bytes. timeo= n Set the PFS timeout to n tenths of a second. retrans= n The number of PFS retransmissions. soft | hard Return an error if the server does not respond, or continue the retry request until the server responds. intr Allow keyboard interrupts on hard mounts. The defaults are: suid,fg,retry=10000,timeo=7,rsize=2048,retrans=3,hard options specific to iso9660 and hsfs file systems: xlat=xlat_flags xlat_flags is a colon (:) separated list of translation options. Currently supported are no_version , dot_version , lower_case , and unix . They allow you to perform the same translations options the -x flag does. The -x flag remains for backward compatibility. It is suggested that you use the xlat= option flag as they can be placed in the /etc/pfs_fstab file. p pfs_umount Options -v Verbose. Display a message indicating each file system as it is unmounted. -a All. Unmount all PFS mounted file systems. -c Close. Instruct the PFS daemons to close the given file system, but do not attempt to umount the file system. This is useful when the file system has already been unmounted, but the PFS daemons still have the source character device open. pfs_mount CONFIGURATIONS Background vs. Foreground Filesystems mounted with the bg option indicate that pfs_mount is to retry in the background if the server’s mount daemon (see pfs_mountd (1M)) does not respond. pfs_mount retries the request up to the count specified in the retry= n option. Once the file system is mounted, each PFS request made in the kernel waits timeo= n tenths of a second for a response. If no response arrives, the time-out is multiplied by 2 and the request is retransmitted. When the number of retransmissions has reached the number specified in the retrans= n option, a file system mounted with the soft option returns an error on the request; one mounted with the hard option prints a warning message and continues to retry the request. Interrupting Processes With Pending PFS Requests The intr option allows keyboard interrupts to kill a process that is hung while waiting for a response on a hard-mounted file system. HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −2− Section 1M− 643 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ pfs_mount(1M) pfs_mount(1M) Attributes Cache The server’s attribute cache retains file attribute information on requests that have been made. This provides faster access to entries which have previously been decoded. Lookup Cache The Lookup Cache holds information about the sequential nature of the directory entries. This cache stores the location of the next directory entry. When a request comes in for a directory entry, if the preceding directory entry had been accessed earlier, this location is examined first to see if the directory entry being requested matches the directory entry at that location. Block Cache This cache holds raw 8k blocks of recently accessed data. EXAMPLES To mount a CD-ROM disk: pfs_mount /dev/rdsk/c0t6d0 /cd-rom To mount a remote file system: pfs_mount serv:/cd-rom /cd-rom To fake an entry for iso9660 on /cd-rom: pfs_mount -f -t iso9660 /dev/rdsk/c0t6d0 /cd-rom To hard mount a remote file system: pfs_mount -o hard serv:/cd-rom /cd-rom AUTHOR pfs_mount was developed by Young Minds, Inc. FILES /etc/mnttab /etc/pfs_fstab /etc/pfs_mtab p table of mounted file systems table of PFS file systems table of mounted PFS file systems SEE ALSO pfs_fstab(5), pfs_mountd(1M), pfsd(1M). BUGS If the directory on which a file system is to be mounted is a symbolic link, the file system is mounted on the directory to which the symbolic link refers , rather than being mounted on top of the symbolic link itself. On Pioneer six disc changers (and perhaps other drives) if you mount the file system using the block device driver, the Pioneer returns information to the driver indicating there is no data, causing the mount to fail. Either mount the file system again (which will should succeed), or use the raw device driver. Section 1M− 644 __ −3− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ pfs_mountd(1M) pfs_mountd(1M) NAME pfs_mountd, pfs_mountd.rpc - PFS mount request server SYNOPSIS /usr/etc/pfs_mountd DESCRIPTION This program is available with the Portable File System Package (PFS) . pfs_mountd is an RPC server that answers file system mount requests. In the case of remote mount requests, it reads the file /etc/pfs_xtab, described in pfs_exports (5), to determine which file systems are available for mounting by which machines. It is recommended that the pfs_mountd daemon be invoked by rc (1M). It must be invoked in the background. The pfs mount daemon is composed of two programs: pfs_mountd and pfs_mountd.rpc. The pfs_mountd.rpc program should not be run directly. It is invoked by the pfs_mountd program. The mount daemon assigns servers to mounted file systems in a round-robin fashion. For example, if there are four pfs daemons, and four pfs_mount ’s are performed, each daemon will be serving a different mount. Options -v Verbose. Show version number, etc. AUTHOR pfs_mountd was developed by Young Minds, Inc. FILES /etc/pfs_xtab SEE ALSO pfs_exports(5), rc(1M). p HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −1− Section 1M− 645 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ pfsd(1M) pfsd(1M) NAME pfsd, pfsd.rpc - PFS daemon SYNOPSIS pfsd [nservers ] [ -v ] [ -o options ] DESCRIPTION pfsd starts the daemons that handle client filesystem requests. nservers is the number of file system server daemons to start. This number should be based on the load expected on this server. The load is defined by the number of mounted file systems. Mounts are distributed in a round-robin fashion to the pfsd daemons. It is recommended that the pfsd daemon be invoked by rc (1M). It must be invoked in the background. The PFS daemon is composed of two programs: pfsd and pfsd.rpc . The pfsd.rpc program should not be run directly. It is invoked by the pfsd program. Options -v -o options Verbose. Show version number, etc. Specify filesystem options using a comma-separated list from the following: acsize= n bcsize= n lcsize= n The defaults are: The number of entries to keep in the attribute cache (1390 bytes per entry). The number of entries to keep in the block cache (8244 bytes per entry). The number of entries to keep in the lookup cache (56 bytes per entry). acsize=200,bcsize=25,lcsize=100 Attributes Cache The server’s attribute cache retains file attribute information on requests that have been made. This provides faster access to entries which have previously been decoded. p Lookup Cache The lookup cache holds information about the sequential nature of the directory entries. This cache stores the location of the next directory entry. When a request comes in for a directory entry, if the preceding directory entry had been accessed earlier, this location is examined first to see if the directory entry being requested matches the directory entry at that location. Block Cache This cache holds raw 8k blocks of recently accessed data. EXAMPLES To start a pfs daemon with a 400 entry attribute cache: pfsd -o acsize=400 & To start 4 pfs daemons with the default cache sizes: pfsd 4 & WARNINGS It is not a good idea to have the cache sizes of the pfsd exceed the amount of physical memory (or actually a small portion thereof). If the pfsd spends excessive amounts of time swapping to and from disk, the benefits of the caching are diminished. Specifying cache which consume more virtual memory than available will cause the daemon to die with a virtual memory error. AUTHOR pfsd was developed by Young Minds, Inc. SEE ALSO pfs_mountd(1M). Section 1M− 646 __ −1− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ ping(1M) ping(1M) NAME ping - send ICMP Echo Request packets to network host SYNOPSIS ping [-oprv ] [-i address ] [-t ttl ] host [-n count ] ping [-oprv ] [-i address ] [-t ttl ] host packet-size [ [-n] count ] DESCRIPTION The ping command sends ICMP Echo Request (ECHO_REQUEST) packets to host once per second. Each packet that is echoed back via an ICMP Echo Response packet is written to the standard output, including round-trip time. ICMP Echo Request datagrams ("pings") have an IP and ICMP header, followed by a struct timeval (see gettimeofday (2)) and an arbitrary number of "pad" bytes used to fill out the packet. The default datagram length is 64 bytes, but this can be changed by using the packet-size option. Options The following options and parameters are recognized by ping : -i address If host is a multicast address, send multicast datagrams from the interface with the local IP address specified by address in ‘‘dot’’ notation (see inet (3N)). If the -i option is not specified, multicast datagrams are sent from the default interface, which is determined by the route configuration. -o Insert an IP Record Route option in outgoing packets, summarizing routes taken when the command terminates. It may not be possible to get the round-trip path if some hosts on the route taken do not implement the IP Record Route option. A maximum of 9 Internet addresses can be recorded due to the maximum length of the IP option area. -p The new Path MTU information is displayed when a ICMP "Datagram Too Big" message is received from a gateway. The -p option must be used in conjunction with a large packetsize and with the -v option. -r Bypass the normal routing tables and send directly to a host on an attached network. If the host is not on a directly-connected network, an error is returned. This option can be used to ping the local system through an interface that has no route through it, such as after the interface was dropped by gated (see gated (1M)). -t ttl If host is a multicast address, set the time-to-live field in the multicast datagram to ttl . This controls the scope of the multicast datagrams by specifying the maximum number of external systems through which the datagram can be forwarded. p If ttl is zero, the datagram is restricted to the local system. If ttl is one, the datagram is restricted to systems that have an interface on the network directly connected to the interface specified by the -i option. If ttl is two, the datagram can forwarded through at most one multicast router; and so forth. Range : zero to 255. The default value is 1. -v Verbose output. Show ICMP packets other than Echo Responses that are received. host Destination to which the ICMP Echo Requests are sent. host can be a hostname or an Internet address. All symbolic names specified for host are looked up by using gethostbyname() (see gethostent (3N)). If host is an Internet address, it must be in "dot" notation (see inet (3N)). If a system does not respond as expected, the route might be configured incorrectly on the local or remote system or on an intermediate gateway, or there might be some other network failure. Normally, host is the address assigned to a local or remote network interface. If host is a broadcast address, all systems that receive the broadcast should respond. Normally, these are only systems that have a network interface on the same network as the local interface sending the ICMP Echo Request. If host is a multicast address, only systems that have joined the multicast group should respond. These may be distant systems if the -t option is specified, and there is a multicast router on the network directly connected to the interface specified by the -i HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −1− Section 1M− 647 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ ping(1M) ping(1M) option. packet-size The size of the transmitted packet, in bytes. By default (when packet-size is not specified), the size of transmitted packets is 64 bytes. The minimum value allowed for packet-size is 8 bytes, and the maximum is 4095 bytes. If packet-size is smaller than 16 bytes, there is not enough room for timing information. In that case, the round-trip times are not displayed. count The number of packets ping will transmit before terminating. Range : zero to 2147483647. The default is zero, in which case ping sends packets until interrupted. When using ping for fault isolation, first specify a local address for host to verify that the local network interface is working correctly. Then specify host and gateway addresses further and further away to determine the point of failure. ping sends one datagram per second, and it normally writes one line of output for every ICMP Echo Response that is received. No output is produced if there are no responses. If an optional count is given, only the specified number of requests is sent. Round-trip times and packet loss statistics are computed. When all responses have been received or the command times out (if the count option is specified), or if the command is terminated with a SIGINT , a brief summary is displayed. This command is intended for use in testing, managing and measuring network performance. It should be used primarily to isolate network failures. Because of the load it could impose on the network, it is considered discourteous to use ping unnecessarily during normal operations or from automated scripts. AUTHOR ping was developed in the Public Domain. FILES /etc/hosts SEE ALSO gethostent(3N), inet(3N). p Section 1M− 648 __ −2− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ power_onoff(1M) power_onoff(1M) (Series 800 Only) NAME power_onoff - timed, automatic system power on, and power off SYNOPSIS /usr/sbin/power_onoff -n /usr/sbin/power_onoff time [ date ] [ [ next +increment] time_designation ] DESCRIPTION power_onoff instructs the UPS monitor (ups_mond ) to shut down the system, and optionally informs the monitor when to power on the system again. The UPS monitor in turn instructs the uninterruptible power source (UPS) when to turn the power off and on. The UPS monitor then proceeds to shut down the system. The time to restart the system (power on) is specified with power_onoff command-line arguments. Some UPS units limit the time that can elapse between the time the power is turned off and the time it is turned back on. Please see your UPS documentation for information about limitations. power_onoff requires a UPS that is supported by the UPS monitor (see ups_mond (1M)). Command Line Arguments The power_onoff command has two forms, and recognizes the following arguments: -n No power on. Causes the system to be shutdown and not be powered back on. time Can be specified as one, two, or four digits. One- and two-digit numbers represent hours; four digits represent hours and minutes. time can also be specified as two numbers separated by a colon ( : ), single quote ( ’ ), the letter "h" ( h ), a period ( . ), or comma ( , ). A suffix am or pm can be appended. Otherwise a 24-hour clock time is understood. For example, 0815 , 8:15 , 8’15 , 8h15 , 8.15 , and 8,15 are read as 15 minutes after 8 in the morning. The suffixes zulu and utc can be used to indicate Coordinated Universal Time. The special names noon , midnight , now , and next are also recognized. date Can be specified as either a day of the week (fully spelled out or abbreviated) or a date consisting of a day, a month, and optionally a year. The day and year fields must be numeric, and the month can be fully spelled out, abbreviated, or numeric. These three fields can be in any order, and be separated by punctuation marks such as slash ( / ), hyphen ( - ), period ( . ), or comma ( , ). The years 00-68 would be interpreted as 2000-2068 and 69-99 would be 19691999. Two special ‘‘days’’, today and tomorrow , are also recognized. If no date is given, today is assumed if the given time is greater than the current time; tomorrow is assumed if it is less. If the given month is less than the current month (and no year is given), next year is assumed. p If followed by a time_designation of minutes , hours , days , weeks , months , or years , lets the user startup the system when the specified time_designation has elapsed. A numerical or +increment operator, +increment, enables the user to schedule the startup several hours, days, weeks, months, or years in advance (see EXAMPLES). Using the argument next is equivalent to using an increment of +1. Both plural and singular forms of time_designation are accepted. next EXTERNAL INFLUENCES International Code Set Support Single- and multi-byte character code sets are supported. RETURN VALUE Exit code 0 is returned upon successful completion, otherwise non 0 is returned. DIAGNOSTICS power_onoff issues diagnostic messages when it encounters syntax errors and out-of-range times. EXAMPLES To startup the system at 5:00 am next Tuesday, use power_onoff 5am Tuesday next week To startup the system at 5:30 am tomorrow, use HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −1− Section 1M− 649 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ power_onoff(1M) power_onoff(1M) (Series 800 Only) power_onoff 5:30 tomorrow To make your system startup each weekday at 7:30 am and shutdown at 5:30 pm each week day, use crontab to execute the first entry on Monday through Thursday and the second entry on Friday (see crontab (1)). power_onoff 7:30 tomorrow power_onoff 7:30 Monday To startup the system at 8:15 on January 24, use power_onoff 0815 Jan 24 To startup the system at 5:15 on January 24, use power_onoff 5:15 Jan 24 To startup the system at 9:30 tomorrow, use power_onoff 9:30am tomorrow To startup the system 24 hours from now, use power_onoff now + 1 day To shutdown the system and not start it up, use power_onoff -n WARNINGS Jobs can be submitted up to 2037. If jobs were submitted any later than 2037, an error message will display "BAD DATE". Some UPS units limit the time that can elapse between the time the power is turned off and the time it is turned back on. Please see your UPS documentation for information about limitations. If the date argument begins with a number and the time argument is also numeric (and without suffix), the time argument should be a four-digit number that can be correctly interpreted as hours and minutes. Do not use both next and + increment within a single power_onoff command; only the first operator is accepted and the trailing operator is ignored. No warning or error is produced. p The power cord must be disconnected before servicing the unit. AUTHOR power_onoff was developed by HP. FILES /var/tmp/timed_off fifo for communicating with ups_mond. SEE ALSO at(1), cron(1M), crontab(1), queuedefs(4), proto(4), kill(1), sam(1M), ups_mond(1M). Section 1M− 650 __ −2− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ pscan(1M) pscan(1M) NAME pscan - scan an HP SCSI disk array LUN for parity consistency SYNOPSIS pscan -s system_state device_file DESCRIPTION pscan is a front end script to scn designed to be called during system bootup and shutdown. It stores information on the disk array used to indicate improper system shutdown. If the system was not properly shutdown, a parity scan is initiated when the system boots. The values of 0 (operating system booting), and 1 (operating system shutdown) are expected for system_state . device_file refers to the device file associated with the selected disk array. If multiple hosts (initiators) are connected to the disk array, the file /etc/hpC2400/pscan.initiators needs to be created. This file will contain an integer value from 1 to 8. If the file is not created, pscan will assume that only one host (initiator) is connected to the disk array. RETURN VALUE pscan returns the following values: 0 -1 Successful completion. Command failed (an error occurred). DIAGNOSTICS AND ERRORS Errors can originate from problems with: • pscan • SCSI (device level) communications • system calls Error messages generated by pscan: usage: pscan -s <system_state> <special> An error in command syntax has occurred. Enter command again with all required arguments, in the order shown. pscan: LUN # too big The LUN number, which is derived from the device file name, is out of range. pscan: Not a raw file Utilities must be able to open the device file for raw access. p pscan: LUN does not exist The addressed LUN is not configured, and thus is not known to the array controller. pscan: Not an HP SCSI disk array The device being addressed is not an HP SCSI disk array. SCSI (device level) communication errors: Sense data associated with the failed operation is printed. Error messages generated by system calls: pscan uses the following system calls: malloc() , free() , stat() , open() , close() , fopen() , fclose() , read() , write() , and ioctl() . Documentation for these HP-UX system calls contains information about the specific error conditions associated with each call. pscan does not alter the value of errno . The interpretation of errno for printing purposes is performed by the system utility strerror() . EXAMPLES To call pscan on the LUN /dev/rdsk/c2t0d2 prior to a system shutdown on a series 800: pscan -s 1 /dev/rdsk/c2t0d2 To call pscan on the LUN /dev/rdsk/c2t0d2 during a system bootup on a series 700: pscan -s 0 /dev/rdsk/c2t0d2 HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −1− Section 1M− 651 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ pscan(1M) pscan(1M) DEPENDENCIES The HP C2425 and HP C2427 disk arrays are only supported on Series 700 systems running HP-UX version 9.0X. The HP C2430 disk array is supported on Series 700 and 800 systems running HP-UX versions 9.0X and 10.0X. AUTHOR pscan was developed by HP. p Section 1M− 652 __ −2− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ pvchange(1M) pvchange(1M) NAME pvchange - change characteristics and access path of physical volume in LVM volume group SYNOPSIS /usr/sbin/pvchange /usr/sbin/pvchange /usr/sbin/pvchange /usr/sbin/pvchange /usr/sbin/pvchange [-A autobackup] -s pv_path [-A autobackup] -S autoswitch pv_path [-A autobackup] -x extensibility pv_path [-A autobackup] -t IO_timeout pv_path [-A autobackup] -z sparepv pv_path Remarks pvchange cannot be performed if the volume group is activated in shared mode. DESCRIPTION The pvchange command changes the characteristics and access path of a physical volume (pv_path ) in a volume group. For multiported devices accessed via multiple paths, pvchange may be used to customize the circumstances that may cause LVM to automatically switch from one path to another, or when LVM will switch back to a prior path which failed when it is available again (generally described as the physical volume’s autoswitch behavior). pvchange also permits you to switch manually to a specific path to the physical volume. pvchange sets the allocation permission to add physical extents to the physical volume. If you have installed the optional HP MirrorDisk/UX software, you can use the -z option to designate a spare physical volume to be used to replace an existing physical volume within a volume group when mirroring is in effect, in the event the existing physical volume fails. Options and Arguments pvchange recognizes the following options and arguments. pv_path The block device path name of a physical volume. -A autobackup Set automatic backup for this invocation of this command. autobackup can have one of the following values: y Automatically back up configuration changes made to the logical volume. This is the default. p After this command executes, the vgcfgbackup command (see vgcfgbackup (1M)) is executed for the volume group to which the logical volume belongs. n -s -S autoswitch Do not back up configuration changes this time. Immediately begin accessing the associated physical volume named by pv_path. This option specifies the autoswitch behavior for multiported physical volumes accessed via multiple paths. It has no effect for physical volumes without alternate paths. autoswitch option may be set to one of the following values: y n -x extensibility LVM is directed to automatically switch to using the best available path only when the path currently in use is unavailable. LVM will continue using a specific path for the physical volume as long as it works, regardless of whether another better path recovers from a failure. Set the allocation permission to add physical extents to the physical volume pv_path . extensibility can have the following values: HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ LVM is directed to automatically switch from the path it is using whenever a better path to the physical volume is available. LVM will switch paths when a better path recovers (after it had failed earlier), or if the current path fails and another path is available. This is the default. −1− Section 1M− 653 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ pvchange(1M) pvchange(1M) y Allow allocation of additional physical extents on the physical volume. This is the default. n Prohibit allocation of additional physical extents on the physical volume. However, logical volumes residing on the physical volume are accessible. -t IO_timeout Set IO_timeout for the physical volume to the number of seconds indicated. An IO_timeout value of zero (0) causes the system to use the default value supplied by the device driver associated with the physical device. IO_timeout is used by the device driver to determine how long to wait for disk transactions to complete before concluding that an IO request can not be completed (and the device is offline or unavailable). -z sparepv This option requires the installation of the optional HP MirrorDisk/UX software. It allows you to change the physical volume specified by pv_path into a spare physical volume for its volume group, or change the specified spare physical volume back into a regular physical volume for this volume group. No physical extents from a spare physical volume will be available as part of the "free" pool of extents in the volume group. A spare physical volume will only be used in the event that another physical volume within this volume group becomes unavailable (fails). sparepv can have one of the following values: y n p Change the specified physical volume to be a "stand-by" spare for its volume group. The specified physical volume must not have extents allocated on it (i.e., no logical volumes residing on it) at the time this command is issued. A stand-by spare physical volume will only be used in the event of a failure of another physical volume -- prior to such a failure, no logical volume is allowed to reside on it. Change the specified spare physical volume back into a regular physical volume. If the physical volume was a stand-by spare, then all of the disk space associated with it will be immediately available for use by logical volumes. If the physical volume is an "active" spare, that is, it was previously a stand-by spare but then took over for a failed physical volume, it will simply mark the physical volume as a regular member of its volume group and the logical volumes residing on it will remain unchanged. EXTERNAL INFLUENCES Environment Variables LANG determines the language in which messages are displayed. If LANG is not specified or is null, it defaults to C (see lang (5)). If any internationalization variable contains an invalid setting, all internationalization variables default to C (see environ (5)). EXAMPLES Prohibit the allocation of additional physical extents to a physical volume: pvchange -x n /dev/dsk/c0t0d0 Allow the allocation of additional physical extents to a physical volume: pvchange -x y /dev/dsk/c0t0d0 Only switch paths when the current path is unavailable. Do not switch back to a prior path which had failed and has recovered, when the current path works: pvchange -S n /dev/dsk/c0t0d0 Switch paths whenever a better path becomes available again after a failure, even if the current path is fine: pvchange -S y /dev/dsk/c0t0d0 Manually switch a physical volume to use another controller path: Section 1M− 654 __ −2− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ pvchange(1M) pvchange(1M) pvchange -s /dev/dsk/c2t0d2 Set the IO_timeout value for a physical volume to 60 seconds: pvchange -t 60 /dev/dsk/c2t0d2 Set the IO_timeout value for a physical volume to zero (0) to use the driver default: pvchange -t 0 /dev/dsk/c2t0d2 Change the (empty) physical volume to become a stand-by spare for the volume group: pvchange -z y /dev/dsk/c2t0d2 Change the (active or stand-by) spare physical volume to become a regular member of the volume group: pvchange -z n /dev/dsk/c2t0d2 SEE ALSO pvdisplay(1M). p HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −3− Section 1M− 655 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ pvck(1M) pvck(1M) NAME pvck - check or repair a physical volume in LVM volume group SYNOPSIS /usr/sbin/pvck -y pv_path /usr/sbin/pvck -n pv_path DESCRIPTION Note: Currently pvck is only capable of detecting bad checksums caused by a forward system migration after a backward system migration. It should not be used in other situations. The pvck command examines and repairs LVM data structures on a raw disk (pv_path ) in a volume group. Options and Arguments pvck recognizes the following options and arguments. -y -n Repair problems found. pv_path The raw device path name of a physical volume. Report, but do not repair problems. RETURN VALUE pvck returns the following values 0 1 Either no problems were found or all problems were corrected. Unable to repair. EXAMPLES Examine LVM checksums on /dev/rdsk/c0t6d0 without modifying anything: pvck -n /dev/rdsk/c0t6d0 Repair LVM checksums on /dev/rdsk/c0t6d0 if necessary: pvck -y /dev/rdsk/c0t6d0 WARNINGS pvck should only be run on a device whose volume group has not been activated. p It is designed to repair the root device or devices while the system is booted in maintenance mode ("hpux -lm ", see hpux (1M)). AUTHOR pvck was developed by HP. Section 1M− 656 __ −1− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ pvcreate(1M) pvcreate(1M) NAME pvcreate - create physical volume for use in LVM volume group SYNOPSIS /usr/sbin/pvcreate [-b] [-B] [-d soft_defects ] [-s disk_size ] [-f] [-t disk_type ] pv_path DESCRIPTION The pvcreate command initializes a direct access storage device (a raw disk device) for use as a physical volume in a volume group. If pv_path contains a file system and the -f option is not specified, pvcreate asks for confirmation. The request for confirmation avoids accidentally deleting a file system. The operation is denied if pv_path belongs to another volume group. Only physical volumes not belonging to other volume groups can be created. The operation is also denied if pv_path refers to a disk device already under the control of the VERITAS Volume Manager. After using pvcreate to create a physical volume, use vgcreate to add it to a new volume group or vgextend to add it to an existing volume group (see vgcreate (1M) and vgextend (1M)). Disks cannot be added to a volume group until they are properly initialized by pvcreate . pv_path can be made into a bootable disk by specifying the -B option, which reserves space on the physical volume for boot-related data. This is a prerequisite for creating root volumes on logical volumes. Refer to mkboot (1M) and lif (4) for more information. Options and Arguments pvcreate recognizes the following options and arguments: pv_path The character (raw) device path name of a physical volume. -b Read from standard input the numbers that correspond to the indexes of all known bad blocks on the physical volume, pv_path , that is being created. Specify the indexes using decimal, octal, or hexadecimal numbers in standard Clanguage notation, with numbers separated by newline, tab, or formfeed characters. If this option is not used, pvcreate assumes that the physical volume contains no bad blocks. -B -d soft_defects Make a bootable physical volume (i.e., a system disk). -s disk_size Effective size of the physical volume to be created, specified in number of physical sectors. -f Force the creation of a physical volume (thus deleting any file system present) without first requesting confirmation. -t disk_type Specify the minimum number of bad blocks that LVM should reserve in order to perform software bad block relocation. This number can be no larger than 7039. If not specified, one block is reserved for each 8K of data blocks. p Retrieve configuration information about the physical volume from the file /etc/disktab . disk_type specifies the device (for example, hp7959S). The disk_type only needs to be specified when pvcreate fails to get the size from the underlying disk driver. If the driver successfully returns the size of the device, disk_type is ignored. EXTERNAL INFLUENCES Environment Variables LANG determines the language in which messages are displayed. If LANG is not specified or is null, it defaults to "C" (see lang (5)). If any internationalization variable contains an invalid setting, all internationalization variables default to "C" (see environ (5)). EXAMPLES Create a physical volume on raw device /dev/rdsk/c1t0d0, and force the creation without confirmation: HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −1− Section 1M− 657 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ pvcreate(1M) pvcreate(1M) pvcreate -f /dev/rdsk/c1t0d0 Create a physical volume on raw device /dev/rdsk/c1t0d0, specifying that a bad blocks list (7, 13, 95, and 133) must be read from standard input: echo 7 13 95 133 | pvcreate -b /dev/rdsk/c1t0d0 FILES /etc/disktab Disk geometry and disk partition characteristics for all disk devices on the system WARNINGS Check the manufacturer’s listing or run diagnostics testing for bad blocks on the device prior to creating a physical volume. If bad blocks are present, use the -b option when creating the physical volume. SEE ALSO mkboot(1M), vgcreate(1M), vgextend(1M), lif(4). p Section 1M− 658 __ −2− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ pvdisplay(1M) pvdisplay(1M) NAME pvdisplay - display information about physical volumes within LVM volume group SYNOPSIS /usr/sbin/pvdisplay [-v] [-b BlockList ] pv_path ... DESCRIPTION The pvdisplay command displays information about each physical volume specified by a pv_path parameter. Options pvdisplay recognizes the following options: pv_path The block device path name of a physical volume. -v For each physical volume, display the logical volumes that have extents allocated on the physical volume and the usage of all the physical extents. -b BlockList For each block in BlockList , display information about the block. BlockList is a comma separated list of blocks in DEV_BSIZE units. Display Without − v Option If you omit the -v option, pvdisplay displays the characteristics of each physical volume specified by pv_path : --- Physical volumes --The block device path name of the physical volume PV Name VG Name The path name of the volume group PV Status State of the physical volume (NOTE : spare physical volumes are only relevant if you have installed HP MirrorDisk/UX software): available The physical volume is available and is not a spare physical volume. available/data spared The physical volume is available. However, its data still resides on an active spare. p available/active spare The physical volume is available and is an active spare physical volume. (An active spare is a spare that has taken over for a failed physical volume.) available/standby spare The physical volume is a spare, "standing by" in case of a failure on any other physical volume in this volume group. It can only be used to capture data from a failed physical volume. unavailable The physical volume is unavailable and is not a spare physical volume. unavailable/data spared The physical volume is unavailable. However, its data now resides on an active spare, and its data is available if the active spare is available. unavailable/active spare The physical volume is unavailable and it’s an active spare. Thus, the data on this physical volume in unavailable. unavailable/standby spare The physical volume is a spare, "standing by" that is not currently available to capture data from a failed physical volume. HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −1− Section 1M− 659 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ pvdisplay(1M) pvdisplay(1M) Allocatable Allocation permission for the physical volume VGDA Number of volume group descriptors on the physical volume Cur LV Number of logical volumes using the physical volume PE Size (Mbytes) Size of physical extents on the volume, in megabytes (MB) Total PE Free PE Allocated PE Total number of physical extents on the physical volume Stale PE IO Timeout Number of physical extents on the physical volume that are not current Number of free physical extents on the physical volume Number of physical extents on the physical volume that are allocated to logical volumes The IO timeout used by the disk driver when accessing the physical volume. A value of default , indicates that the driver default IO timeout is being used. Spared from PV If the physical volume represents an active spare, this field will show the name of the failed physical volume whose data now resides on this spare. This information can be used to manually move the data back to the original physical volume, once it has been repaired. (See pvmove (1M)). If it cannot be determined which physical volume that the data came from, this field will instead display Missing PV. A missing PV would indicate that when the volume group was last activated or reactivated (see vgchange (1M)), the "failed" physical volume was not able to attach to the volume group. Spared to PV If the physical volume represents a failed physical volume, this field will show the name of the active spare physical volume that now contains the data that originally resided on this volume. This information can be used to manually move the data back to the original physical volume (see pvmove (1M)) once it has been repaired. Display With − v Option If -v is specified, pvdisplay lists additional information for each logical volume and for each physical extent on the physical volume: p --- Distribution of physical volume --The logical volumes that have extents allocated on pv_path , displayed in column format: LV Name The block device path name of the logical volume which has extents allocated on pv_path . LE of LV Number of logical extents within the logical volume that are contained on this physical volume PE for LV Number of physical extents within the logical volume that are contained on this physical volume --- Physical extents --The following information for each physical extent, displayed in column format: PE Status LV LE Physical extent number Current state of the physical extent: free , used , or stale The block device path name of the logical volume to which the extent is allocated Index of the logical extent to which the physical extent is allocated Display With − b Option If -b is specified, pvdisplay lists additional information for each block specified in BlockList . --- Block Mapping --The use of blocks on pv_path , displayed in column format: Section 1M− 660 __ −2− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ pvdisplay(1M) Block Status pvdisplay(1M) The block number relative to the physical volume. The current status of the block: free , used , structure , spared , or unknown Offset LV Name The offset of the block relative to the logical volume. The block device path name of the logical volume to which the block is allocated. EXTERNAL INFLUENCES Environment Variables LANG determines the language in which messages are displayed. If LANG is not specified or is null, it defaults to "C" (see lang (5)). If any internationalization variable contains an invalid setting, all internationalization variables default to "C" (see environ (5)). EXAMPLES Display the status and characteristics of a physical volume: pvdisplay /dev/dsk/c1t0d0 Display the status, characteristics, and allocation map of a physical volume: pvdisplay -v /dev/dsk/c2t0d0 SEE ALSO lvdisplay(1M), pvchange(1M), vgdisplay(1M). p HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −3− Section 1M− 661 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ pvmove(1M) pvmove(1M) NAME pvmove - move allocated physical extents from one LVM physical volume to other physical volumes SYNOPSIS /usr/sbin/pvmove [-A autobackup] [-n lv_path ] source_pv_path [dest_pv_path ... dest_pvg_name ...] Remarks pvmove cannot be performed if the volume group is activated in shared mode. DESCRIPTION The pvmove command moves allocated physical extents and the data they contain from a source physical volume, source_pv_path , to one or more other physical volumes in the same volume group. If a destination physical volume or physical volume group is not specified, all physical volumes in the volume group are available as destination volumes for the transfer. pvmove selects the proper physical volumes to be used in order to preserve the allocation policies of the logical volume involved. To limit the transfer to specific physical volumes, specify the name of each physical volume directly with a dest_pv_path argument. Optionally, if physical volume groups are defined for the volume group, specify the physical volumes indirectly with one or more dest_pvg_name arguments. source_pv_path must not appear as a dest_pv_path . If source_pv_path is a member of a dest_pv_path , it is automatically excluded from being a destination physical volume. pvmove succeeds only if there is enough space on the destination physical volumes to hold all the allocated extents of the source physical volume. If you have installed HP MirrorDisk/UX on your system and source_pv_path is an "active spare" physical volume within a mirrored logical volume, once all of the data has been moved to dest_pv_path , the source_pv_path physical volume will be returned to a "stand-by" spare physical volume. This is how to "unspare" data once the original failed physical volume has been repaired and is available to receive data. Options pvmove recognizes the following options: dest_pv_path The block device path name of a physical volume. It cannot be the source physical volume. It must be in the same volume group as source_pv_path . dest_pvg_name p The name of a physical volume group. It must be in the same volume group as source_pv_path . source_pv_path The block device path name of a physical volume. -A autobackup Set automatic backup for this invocation of this command. autobackup can have one of the following values: y Automatically back up configuration changes made to the physical volume. This is the default. After this command executes, the vgcfgbackup command (see vgcfgbackup (1M)) is executed for the volume group to which the physical volume belongs. n -n lv_path Do not back up configuration changes this time. Move only the physical extents allocated to the logical volume specified by lv_path that are located on the source physical volume specified by source_pv_path . EXTERNAL INFLUENCES Environment Variables LANG determines the language in which messages are displayed. If LANG is not specified or is null, it defaults to "C" (see lang (5)). If any internationalization variable contains an invalid setting, all internationalization variables default to "C" (see environ (5)). Section 1M− 662 __ −1− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ pvmove(1M) pvmove(1M) EXAMPLES Move physical extents from /dev/dsk/c1t0d0 to /dev/dsk/c2t0d0 and /dev/dsk/c3t0d0: pvmove /dev/dsk/c1t0d0 /dev/dsk/c2t0d0 /dev/dsk/c3t0d0 If physical volumes /dev/dsk/c2t0d0 and /dev/dsk/c3t0d0 are the only ones that belong to physical volume group PVG0 , the same result can be achieved with the following command: pvmove /dev/dsk/c1t0d0 PVG0 Move only the physical extents for logical volume /dev/vg01/lvol2 that are currently on /dev/dsk/c1t0d0 to /dev/dsk/c2t0d0: pvmove -n /dev/vg01/lvol2 /dev/dsk/c1t0d0 /dev/dsk/c2t0d0 SEE ALSO pvdisplay(1M), vgcfgbackup(1M). p HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −2− Section 1M− 663 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ pvremove(1M) pvremove(1M) NAME pvremove - remove LVM data structure from a physical volume SYNOPSIS /sbin/pvremove pv_path DESCRIPTION The pvremove command clears the LVM data structure on a disk, so that it is no longer an LVM physical volume. The device may then be used by the file system or by other Volume Manager. The operation is denied if pv_path is assigned to a volume group. The pvremove command only clears the LVM data structure on a disk if the disk does not belong to a volume group. This avoids accidentally removing a valid physical volume under a volume group. If the physical volume to be removed belongs to a volume group, use the vgremove command to first remove the volume group associated with the physical volume. Arguments pvremove recognizes the following arguments: pv_path The character (raw) device path name of a physical volume. EXTERNAL INFLUENCES Environment Variables LANG determines the language in which messages are displayed. If LANG is not specified or is null, it defaults to "C" (see lang (5)). If any internationalization variable contains an invalid setting, all internationalization variables default to "C" (see environ (5)). EXAMPLES Remove LVM data structure on the physical volume /dev/rdsk/c1t0d0: pvremove /dev/rdsk/c1t0d0 SEE ALSO lvremove(1M), vgremove(1M). p Section 1M− 664 __ −1− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ pwck(1M) pwck(1M) NAME pwck, grpck - password/group file checkers SYNOPSIS /usr/sbin/pwck [-s] [-l] [file ] /usr/sbin/grpck [ file ] DESCRIPTION pwck scans the default password file or file and reports any inconsistencies to standard error. The checks include validation of the number of fields, login name, user ID, group ID, and whether the login directory and optional program exist. In addition, if the root entry shows a program, it can only be one of: /sbin/sh , /usr/bin/csh , /usr/bin/ksh , or /usr/bin/sh . The criteria for validation is in passwd (4) and is described in the Managing Systems and Workgroups manual. The default password file is /etc/passwd . grpck verifies all entries in the group file and reports any inconsistencies to standard error. This verification includes a check of the number of fields, group name, group ID, and whether all login names appear in the password file. The default group file is /etc/group . Options pwck recognizes the following options: -s -l Check inconsistencies with the Protected Password database. It calls authck -p. Check encrypted password lengths that are greater than 8 characters. If NIS+ is running with Trusted mode, password lengths must not be longer than 8 characters. DIAGNOSTICS Group entries in /etc/group with no login names are flagged. WARNINGS Successful password file validation is not sufficient for proper system operation. To help maintain consistency with other system databases, editing of the password file with vipw is generally discouraged. Please use sam , useradd , usermod , userdel , chfn , chsh or passwd to edit /etc/passwd . DEPENDENCIES NFS : pwck and grpck check only the local password and group files. The Network Information Service database for password and group files is not checked. p AUTHOR pwck was developed by AT&T and HP. FILES /etc/group /etc/passwd SEE ALSO authck(1M), vipw(1M), group(4), passwd(4). STANDARDS CONFORMANCE pwck : SVID2, SVID3 grpck : SVID2, SVID3 HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −1− Section 1M− 665 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ pwconv(1M) pwconv(1M) NAME pwconv - update secure password facility SYNOPSIS pwconv DESCRIPTION If the secured password facility is already installed, pwconv updates the facility to reflect any changes made in the /etc/passwd file. FILES /etc/passwd /tcb/files/auth/*/* SEE ALSO vipw(1M), pwck(1M). p Section 1M− 666 __ −1− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ pwgr_stat(1M) pwgr_stat(1M) NAME pwgr_stat - Password and Group Hashing and Caching Statistics SYNOPSIS /usr/sbin/pwgr_stat DESCRIPTION pwgr_stat displays the current status of the pwgrd daemon process running on the system. It includes whether or not the daemon is running, how much activity is occurring, as well as statistics for each kind of request serviced by pwgrd . Request specific statistics include the number of request and the percent of requests handled by the cache and the hashtables used to service that request. A request may not have both a cache and a hashtable. Such requests will have a - for the corresponding hit rate. Requests where no answer was found are not counted in the hit rate. The display is updated every 2 seconds. Use the q key to exit pwgr_stat . pwgr_stat verifies that pwgrd is accessible by issuing a NULL request to pwgrd , therefore the NULL request count will be increased as long as pwgr_stat is running. FILES /var/spool/pwgr/daemon /var/spool/pwgr/status Daemon Unix domain socket. Daemon process status file. AUTHOR pwgr_stat was developed by the Hewlett-Packard Company. SEE ALSO pwgrd(1M). p HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −1− Section 1M− 667 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ pwgrd(1M) pwgrd(1M) NAME pwgrd - Password and Group Hashing and Caching daemon SYNOPSIS /usr/sbin/pwgrd [-d] [-l logfile ] DESCRIPTION pwgrd provides accelerated lookup of password and group information for libc routines like getpwuid and getgrname . pwgrd implements per request type caches and hashtables as appropriate. When the corresponding routine in libc is called, a request is issued to pwgrd via a Unix domain socket connection. pwgrd determines whether it can satisfy the request, returning the appropriate results to the requesting process. Options pwgrd recognizes the following options and command-line arguments: -d Debug mode. Do not become a daemon. Issue additional diagnostic messages. Instead of logging message via syslog , issue messages to stderr. -l logfile Logfile. In addition to logging via syslog , pwgrd will write log messages to logfile . pwgrd modifies its behavior depending on whether or not the local machine is using some form of NIS for password or group information. When NIS or NIS+ is being used, the hashtables corresponding to that service are not generated or consulted. Therefore only caching is provided for those requests. FILES /etc/rc.config.d/pwgr /var/spool/pwgr/* /var/spool/sockets/pwgr/* Start up configuration variable. Set PWGR to 1 if you want pwgrd to start on reboot. Hash files, status file and daemon Unix domain socket. Client Unix domain sockets. AUTHOR pwgrd was developed by the Hewlett-Packard Company. p SEE ALSO pwgr_stat(1M). Section 1M− 668 __ −1− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ quot(1M) quot(1M) NAME quot - summarize file system ownership SYNOPSIS /usr/sbin/quot [-F FStype ] [-V] [-cfhnv ] [-o FSspecific-options ] filesystem ... /usr/sbin/quot [-F FStype ] [-V] [-cfhnv ] -a DESCRIPTION The quot command displays the number of 1024-byte blocks in the named filesystem that are currently owned by each user. filesystem is either the name of the directory on which the file system is mounted or the name of the device containing the file system. Options quot recognizes the following options: -F FStype Specify the file system type on which to operate (see fstyp (1M) and fs_wrapper (5)). If this option is not included on the command line, the file system type is determined from the file /etc/fstab by matching filesystem with an entry in that file. If there is no entry in /etc/fstab , then the file system type is determined from the file /etc/default/fs. -V Echo the completed command line, but perform no other action. The command line is generated by incorporating the user-specified options and other information derived from /etc/fstab . This option allows the user to verify the command line. -o FSspecific-options Specify any options specific to the file system. -a -c Generate a report for all mounted file systems. Report size rather than user statistics. Generates histogram statistics in 3-column format: Column 1: File size in blocks. Sizes are listed in ascending order up to 499 blocks per file. Files occupying 499 or more blocks are counted together on a single line as 499-block files (but column 3 is based on actual number of blocks occupied). Column 2: Number of files of size indicated in column 1. Column 3: Cumulative total blocks occupied by files counted in current plus all preceding lines. q Use of this option overrides the -f and -v options. -f -h Display number of files and space occupied by each user. -n Accept data from the ncheck command (see ncheck (1M)) as input. Run the pipeline: Calculate the number of blocks in the file based on file size rather than actual blocks allocated. This option does not account for sparse files (files with holes in them). ncheck device | sort +0n | quot -n filesystem to produce a list of all files and their owners. -v Display three columns containing the number of blocks not accessed in the last 30, 60, and 90 days. AUTHOR quot was developed by the University of California, Berkeley, Sun Microsystems, Inc., and HP. FILES /etc/default/fs /etc/fstab /etc/mnttab /etc/passwd Specifies the default file system type Static information about the file systems Mounted file system table Password file (contains user names) HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −1− Section 1M− 669 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ quot(1M) quot(1M) SEE ALSO quot_hfs(1M), quot_vxfs(1M), du(1), find(1), ls(1), fstyp(1M), mount(1M), ncheck(1M), repquota(1M), fs_wrapper(5), quota(5). q Section 1M− 670 __ −2− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ quot_hfs(1M) quot_hfs(1M) NAME quot - summarize ownership on an HFS file system SYNOPSIS /usr/sbin/quot [-F hfs ] [-V] [-cfhnv ] filesystem ... /usr/sbin/quot [-F hfs ] [-V] [-cfhnv ] -a DESCRIPTION The quot command displays the number of 1024-byte blocks in the named HFS filesystem that are currently owned by each user. filesystem is either the name of the directory on which the file system is mounted or the name of the device containing the file system. Options quot recognizes the following options: -F hfs Specify the file system type hfs . -V Echo the completed command line, but perform no other action. The command line is generated by incorporating the user-specified options and other information derived from /etc/fstab. This option allows the user to verify the command line. If the options specified are valid, the completed command line is echoed. If the options specified are not valid, an error message is printed. -a -c Generate a report for all mounted HFS file systems. Report size rather than user statistics. Generates histogram statistics in 3-column format: Column 1: File size in blocks. Sizes are listed in ascending order up to 499 blocks per file. Files occupying 499 or more blocks are counted together on a single line as 499-block files (but column 3 is based on actual number of blocks occupied). Column 2: Number of files of size indicated in column 1. Column 3: Cumulative total blocks occupied by files counted in current plus all preceding lines. Use of this option overrides the -f and -v options. -f -h Display number of files and space occupied by each user. -n Accept data from the ncheck command (see ncheck (1M)) as input. Run the pipeline: Calculate the number of blocks in the file based on file size rather than actual blocks allocated. This option does not account for sparse files (files with holes in them). q ncheck device | sort +0n | quot -n filesystem to produce a list of all files and their owners. -v Display three columns containing the number of blocks not accessed in the last 30, 60, and 90 days. AUTHOR quot , a disk quota command, was developed by the University of California, Berkeley, Sun Microsystems, Inc., and HP. FILES /etc/fstab /etc/mnttab /etc/passwd Static information about the file systems Mounted file system table Password file (contains user names). SEE ALSO quot(1M), du(1), find(1), ls(1), fstyp(1M), mount(1M), ncheck(1M), repquota(1M), quota(5). HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −1− Section 1M− 671 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ quot_vxfs(1M) quot_vxfs(1M) NAME quot - summarize ownership on a VxFS file system SYNOPSIS /usr/sbin/quot [-F vxfs ] [-cfhnv ] [-V] filesystem ... /usr/sbin/quot [-F vxfs ] [-cfhnv ] [-V] -a DESCRIPTION quot displays the number of 1024-byte blocks in the specified VxFS filesystem that are currently owned by each user. filesystem is either the name of the directory on which the file system is mounted or the name of the device containing the file system. Options quot recognizes the following options: -F vxfs Specifies file system type vxfs -a -c Generate a report for all mounted file systems. Report file system size instead of user statistics. The -c option generates histogram statistics in 3-column format: Column 1: File size in blocks. Sizes are listed in ascending order up to 499 blocks per file. Files occupying 499 or more blocks are counted together on a single line as 499-block files, but column 3 is based on actual number of blocks occupied. Column 2: Number of files of size indicated in column 1. Column 3: Cumulative total blocks occupied by files counted in current plus all preceding lines. The -c option overrides the -f and -v options. -f -h -n Accept ncheck (1M) data as input. The following pipeline will produce a list of all files and their owners: -v Display three columns containing the number of blocks not accessed in the last 30, 60, and 90 days. -V q Display the number of files and space occupied by each user. Validate the command line options, but do not execute the command. If the options specified are valid, quot -V echoes the complete command line. If the options specified are not valid, it prints an error message. Calculate the number of blocks in the file based on file size rather than actual blocks allocated. The -h option does not account for sparse files (files with holes in them). ncheck device | sort +0n | quot -n filesystem EXAMPLES The following examples show the output of quot using various options. # quot /tstmnt /dev/dsk/c0t1d0 (/tstmnt): 109 auser 10 root # quot -v /tstmnt /dev/dsk/c0t1d0 (/tstmnt): 109 auser 0 0 0 10 root 0 0 0 # quot -c /tstmnt /dev/dsk/c0t1d0 (/tstmnt1): 020 144 Section 1M− 672 __ −1− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ quot_vxfs(1M) quot_vxfs(1M) 2 4 12 3 5 27 4 1 31 7 1 38 10 2 58 12 1 70 15 1 85 16 1 101 18 1 119 2047 0 119 AUTHOR Disk Quotas were developed by the University of California, Berkeley, Sun Microsystems, Inc., and HP. FILES /etc/mnttab /etc/passwd Mounted file system table Password file (contains user names). SEE ALSO quot(1M), du(1), find(1), fstyp(1M), ls(1), mount(1M), ncheck(1M), repquota(1M), quota(5). q HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −2− Section 1M− 673 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ quotacheck(1M) quotacheck(1M) NAME quotacheck - file system quota consistency checker SYNOPSIS /usr/sbin/quotacheck [-F FStype ] [-V] [-o specific-options ] filesystem ... /usr/sbin/quotacheck [-F FStype ] [-V] [-o specific-options ] -a DESCRIPTION The quotacheck command examines each file system, builds a table of current disk usage, and compares this table against that stored in the disk quota file for the file system. If any inconsistencies are detected, both the quota file and the current system copy of the incorrect quotas are updated. quotacheck expects each file system to be checked to have a file named quotas in the root directory. If none is present, quotacheck reports an error and ignores the file system. quotacheck is normally run at mount time from start-up scripts. filesystem represents a mount point or block special device such as /dev/dsk/c1t0d2. Options quotacheck recognizes the following options: -F Fstype Specify the file system type on which to operate (see fstyp (1M) and fs_wrapper (5)). If this option is not included on the command line, then the file system type is determined from the file /etc/fstab by matching filesystem with an entry in that file. If there is no entry in /etc/fstab , then the file system type is determined from the file /etc/default/fs. -V Echo the completed command line, but perform no other action. The command line is generated by incorporating the user-specified options and other information derived from /etc/fstab . This option allows the user to verify the command line. -o specific-options Specify options specific to each file system type. specific-options is a list of suboptions and/or keyword/attribute pairs intended for a FStype -specific module of the command. See the file system specific man pages for a description of the specific-options supported, if any. -a q Obtain list of file systems to check from /etc/fstab . Only mounted rw (or default ) type file systems with the quota option are checked. EXTERNAL INFLUENCES Environment Variables LC_MESSAGES determines the language in which messages are displayed. If LC_MESSAGES is not specified in the environment or is set to the empty string, the value of LANG is used as a default for each unspecified or empty variable. If LANG is not specified or is set to the empty string, a default of "C" (see lang (5)) is used instead of LANG . If any internationalization variable contains an invalid setting, quotacheck behaves as if all internationalization variables are set to "C". See environ (5). International Code Set Support Single- and multi-byte character code sets are supported. AUTHOR quotacheck was developed by HP and the University of California, Berkeley. FILES /etc/default/fs /etc/fstab /etc/mnttab directory /quotas Section 1M− 674 __ Specifies the default file system type Default list of file systems to check Mounted file system table Quota statistics static storage for file system where directory is the file system root as specified to the mount command (see mount (1M)). −1− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ quotacheck(1M) quotacheck(1M) SEE ALSO fs_wrapper(5), mount(1M), quota(5), quotacheck_hfs(1M), quotacheck_vxfs(1M). q HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −2− Section 1M− 675 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ quotacheck_hfs(1M) quotacheck_hfs(1M) NAME quotacheck - quota consistency checker for HFS file systems SYNOPSIS /usr/sbin/quotacheck [-F hfs ] [-V] [-pPv ] filesystem ... /usr/sbin/quotacheck [-F hfs ] [-V] [-pPv ] -a DESCRIPTION The quotacheck command examines each HFS file system, builds a table of current disk usage, and compares this table against that stored in the disk quota file for the file system. If any inconsistencies are detected, both the quota file and the current system copy of the incorrect quotas are updated. quotacheck expects each file system to be checked to have a file named quotas in the root directory. If none is present, quotacheck reports an error and ignores the file system. quotacheck is normally run at mount time from start up scripts. filesystem represents a mount point or block special device (e.g., /dev/dsk/c1t0d2). Options quotacheck recognizes the following options: -F hfs Specify the file system type hfs . -V Echo the completed command line, but perform no other action. The command line is generated by incorporating the user-specified options and other information derived from /etc/fstab. This option allows the user to verify the command line. -a -v Obtain list of file systems to check from /etc/fstab . Only mounted file systems of type hfs and rw (or default ) with the quota option are checked. Indicate the calculated disk quotas for each user on a particular file system. quota- check normally reports only those quotas that are modified. -p -P q Check file systems in parallel as allowed by equal values in the pass number field in /etc/fstab . Preen file systems, checking only those with invalid quota statistics (quotaoff and edquota commands can invalidate quota statistics as discussed in quota (5) — see quotaoff (1M) and edquota (1M)). Also checks in parallel as in -p above. AUTHOR quotacheck was developed by HP and the University of California, Berkeley. FILES /etc/fstab Static information about the file systems /etc/mnttab Mounted file system table directory /quotas Quota statistics static storage for filesystem where directory is the file system root as specified to the mount command (see mount (1M)). SEE ALSO mount(1M), quota(5), quotacheck(1M), quotaon(1M), quotaoff(1M). Section 1M− 676 __ −1− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ quotacheck_vxfs(1M) quotacheck_vxfs(1M) NAME quotacheck - VxFS file system quota consistency checker SYNOPSIS /usr/sbin/quotacheck [-F vxfs ] [-V] [-pPv ] filesystem... /usr/sbin/quotacheck [-F vxfs ] [-V] [-pPv ] -a DESCRIPTION Because VxFS maintains quota information in the kernel, quotacheck for VxFS synchronizes quotas from the current system copy to the disk quota file for the specified VxFS file system. quotacheck requires that each file system it checks has a file named quotas in the root directory. quotacheck is typically run at mount time from a start-up script. filesystem is a mount point or block special device (e.g., /dev/dsk/c0t0d0). Options quotacheck recognizes the following options: -a Check the file systems listed in the /etc/fstab file. Checks only mounted rw type file systems with the quota option. -F vxfs Specify the file-system type vxfs . -p This option does nothing, but exists for standards compatibility. -P This option does nothing, but exists for standards compatibility. -V Echo the completed command line, but do not execute the command. The command line is generated by incorporating the user-specified options and other information derived from /etc/fstab . This option allows the user to verify the command line. -v Report the file system name before synchronizing quotas from current system copy to the disk quota file. AUTHOR quotacheck was developed by HP and the University of California, Berkeley. FILES /etc/fstab Default file systems directory /quotas Quota statistics static storage for file system where directory is the file system root as specified to mount (see mount (1M)). q SEE ALSO quota(5), quotacheck(1M). HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −1− Section 1M− 677 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ quotaon(1M) quotaon(1M) NAME quotaon, quotaoff - turn HFS file system quotas on and off SYNOPSIS /usr/sbin/quotaon [-v] filesystem ... /usr/sbin/quotaon [-v] -a /usr/sbin/quotaoff [-v] filesystem ... /usr/sbin/quotaoff [-v] -a Remarks These commands are provided for compatibility only. Their use is neither required nor recommended because mount and umount enable and disable quotas cleanly (see mount (1M)). See WARNINGS below for more information. DESCRIPTION The quotaon command enables quotas on one or more HFS file systems. The quotaoff command disables quotas on one or more HFS file systems. filesystem is either the name of the mount point of the file system, or the name of the block device containing the file system. The file systems specified must be currently mounted in order to turn quotas on or off. Also, the file system quota file, quotas , must be present in the root directory of each specified file system. These commands will update the appropriate entries in /etc/mnttab to indicate that quotas are on or off for each file system. When enabling quotas interactively after boot time, the quotacheck command should be run immediately afterward (see WARNINGS below). Use mount (see mount (1M)) to determine whether quotas are enabled on mounted file systems. Options The following options affect the behavior described above. -a Obtain the filesystem list from /etc/fstab , using entries of type hfs and rw (or default ) with the quota option (see fstab (4)). -v Generate a message for each file system affected. q EXTERNAL INFLUENCES Environment Variables LC_MESSAGES determines the language in which messages are displayed. If LC_MESSAGES is not specified in the environment or is set to the empty string, the value of LANG is used as a default for each unspecified or empty variable. If LANG is not specified or is set to the empty string, a default of "C" (see lang (5)) is used instead of LANG . If any internationalization variable contains an invalid setting, quotaon behaves as if all internationalization variables are set to "C". See environ (5). International Code Set Support Single- and multi-byte character code sets are supported. WARNINGS Using quotaoff to disable quotas on a file system causes the system to discontinue tracking quotas for that file system, and marks the quota clean flag in the superblock NOT_OK (see fsclean (1M)). This in turn, forces a quotacheck the next time the system is booted. Since quotas are enabled and disabled cleanly by mount and umount anyway, the use of quotaon and quotaoff is generally discouraged. AUTHOR Disk quotas were developed by the University of California, Berkeley, Sun Microsystems, Inc., and HP. FILES /etc/fstab Section 1M− 678 __ Static information about the file systems −1− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ quotaon(1M) /etc/mnttab directory /quotas quotaon(1M) Mount file system table Quota statistics storage for the file system, where directory is the root of the file system as specified to the mount command (see mount (1M)). SEE ALSO fsclean(1M), quotacheck(1M), quotacheck_hfs(1M), quotacheck_vxfs(1M), mount(1M), quota(5). q HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −2− Section 1M− 679 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ rad(1M) rad(1M) NAME rad - perform OLA/R functions without any comprehensive checks SYNOPSIS /usr/bin/rad /usr/bin/rad /usr/bin/rad /usr/bin/rad /usr/bin/rad -q -n -f flag slot_id -a|c|d|h|i|o|r|s slot_id -C|D|N|R|S|V hw_path DESCRIPTION The rad command provides the ability to perform on-line addition and replacement of I/O cards. This command should be used while the system is in single-user state, when SAM is unavailable. This tool provides OLA/R capabilities, but is not as comprehensive as the SAM implementation. The command does not make extensive environmental or critical resource checks since it is expected to be executed when the system is in a minimal operating state with few, if any, applications running. This command is an administrative command and therefore will only allow root privileged users to perform the OLA/R functions. Options slot_id Slot ID of an OLA/R capable slot. A slot ID is a list of one or more numbers separated by dashes. Each number represents a component of the physical location of the slot. The user can use the slot ID to locate the slot. The sequence of numbers in the slot ID is platform dependent. On the N and L classes, the slot ID contains only the slot number. On all other platforms, including SuperDome, the format of the slot ID is: Cabinet# -Bay#-Chassis#-Slot# slot_hw_path Hardware path of an OLA/R capable slot device_hw_path Hardware path of a device as reported by ioscan . A single slot_hw_path can be a part of multiple device_hw_path s for a multi-function or a multi-port card. -a slot_id List the affected (same power-domain) slot IDs of the specified slot. -C device_hw_path Display the device information (Device_ID, Vendor_ID, Revision_ID, etc.) of the device at the indicated hardware path. -c slot_id r Display the device information (Device_ID, Vendor_ID, Revision_ID, etc.) of all the interface devices at the indicated slot. -d slot_id Reserved for future use. -D device_hw_path Reserved for future use. -f flag slot_id Set the attention indicator LED of the specified slot. The flag must be one of the following values: ON , ATTENTION , or OFF . -h slot_id List the hardware paths of the interface node(s) for the specified slot. -i slot_id Power ON the indicated slot. The other slots, if any, that are on the same powerdomain will have their power turned ON as well (potentially harmful to the system operations). -n Display the number of OLA/R capable slots in the system. -N slot_hw_path | device_hw_path Find the slot ID of the specified slot or device hardware path. -o slot_id -q -r slot_id Section 1M− 680 __ Power OFF the indicated slot. The other slots, if any, that are on the same powerdomain will have their power turned OFF as well (potentially harmful to the system operations). Display the status of all OLA/R slots on the system. Resume the operations of the indicated slot and its affected slots (same powerdomain). −1− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ rad(1M) rad(1M) -R device_hw_path Resume the instance of the driver at the specified hardware path. -s slot_id Suspend the operations of the indicated slot and its affected slots (same powerdomain) (potentially harmful to the system operations). -S device_hw_path Suspend the instance of the driver at the specified hardware path. -V device_hw_path Display the OLA/R driver information (current state, timeout values in seconds, etc.) for the driver at the specified hardware path. Note In some cases, administrators must initiate certain actions before hardware I/O controller cards are replaced or deleted; other cases require activity after cards are replaced or added. Pre- and Post-OLAR scripts will be used to perform these necessary activities. These scripts, named according to the driver name (if the driver is foodriver then the script is foodriver ), are located in /usr/sbin/olrad.d directory. These scripts has the following synopsis: /usr/sbin/olrad.d/driver action hardware_path action is one of: post_add pref_replace prep_replace post_replace pref_delete prep_delete post_delete Execute Execute Execute Execute Execute Execute Execute post add actions. preface to replace actions. prepare to replace actions. post replace actions. preface to delete actions. prepare to delete actions. post delete actions. hardware_path is the hardware path of the interface node. For a detailed description of what each script does, please view the individual scripts. EXAMPLES Adding a new card The command invocation sequence for adding a new card: 1. Get information about all the OLA/R capable slots. Make note of the slot_id field. 2. Set the attention indicator LED of the desired slot to make sure that the correct slot_id was used. 3. Get the affected slot_id s for this slot; that is, check to see if other slots will be powered down with this slot. If other slots are affected by this slot and if these slots are occupied, then you must suspend them by using the -s option to the rad command. 4. Turn off the power to the slot. Note that the power to the other slots in the same power-domain (if any), will be turned off as well. 5. Insert the new card into the slot. 6. Turn the power on to the slot. /usr/bin/rad -q /usr/bin/rad -f ATTENTION slot_id r /usr/bin/rad -a slot_id /usr/bin/rad -o slot_id /usr/bin/rad -i slot_id 7. Turn the attention indicator LED off. 8. Run the /usr/sbin/ioscan command with the appropriate options to configure the new card. /usr/bin/rad -f OFF slot_id Replacing a card The command invocation sequence for replacing a card: 1. Get information about all the OLA/R capable slots. Make note of the slot_id field. HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −2− Section 1M− 681 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ rad(1M) rad(1M) /usr/bin/rad -q 2. Set the attention indicator LED of the desired slot to make sure that the correct slot_id was used. 3. Get the affected slot_id s for this slot; that is, check to see if other slots will be powered down with this slot. /usr/bin/rad -f ATTENTION slot_id /usr/bin/rad -a slot_id 4. Suspend the software drivers of this slot as well as the other slots that are affected (-a option) by this slot. /usr/bin/rad -s slot_id 5. Turn off the power to this slot as well as the other slots that are affected (-a option) by this slot. 6. Replace the faulty card in the slot with a working card. The new card must be identical (same HP product number) as the card being replaced. 7. Turn the power on to this slot as well as the other slots that are affected (-a option) by this slot. 8. Resume the software drivers of this slot as well as the other slots that are affected (-a option) by this slot. 9. Turn the attention indicator LED off. /usr/bin/rad -o slot_id /usr/bin/rad -i slot_id /usr/bin/rad -r slot_id /usr/bin/rad -f OFF slot_id RETURN VALUE rad returns 0 on success. On failure, rad returns -1 and prints an appropriate error message to standard error. SEE ALSO ioscan(1M), sam(1M). r Section 1M− 682 __ −3− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ rarpc(1M) rarpc(1M) NAME rarpc - Reverse Address Resolution Protocol client SYNOPSIS rarpc [-d] [-e|-s] [-n count ] interface_name DESCRIPTION rarpc , the Reverse Address Resolution Protocol client, implements the client portion of the Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (see SEE ALSO ). It sends RARP requests for the specified interface’s hardware address and waits for the response from the RARP server. rarpc can be used during boottime initialization to find the IP address of an interface. To do so, set the IP_ADDRESS [i ] variable of interface i with IP_ADDRESS[ i ]=RARP in /etc/rc.config.d/netconf. Options are: -d -e -s -n count Print debugging information. interface_name Identifies the interface to request information about. Use ethernet encapsulation only. Use SNAP encapsulation only. Transmits count requests and waits for each one to time out before giving up. If a response is received, it prints the IP address to its standard output. This information can be used to configure the interface as seen in /sbin/init.d/net. If a response is not received, the client will retransmit after 2 seconds, and then after 4 seconds. After that, retransmissions occur every 8 seconds. RETURN VALUE Exit status is 1 if the command fails or no RARP response is received. Exit status is 0 and the IP address is printed to standard output if a response is received. LIMITATIONS 1. The rarpc client cannot be run at the same time a rarpd daemon is running on the same interface. 2. The rarpc client supports only ethernet, 100VG and FDDI network interfaces. AUTHOR rarpc was developed by HP. SEE ALSO rarpd(1M). r R. Finlayson, T. Mann, J.C. Mogul, M. Theimer, "Reverse Address Resolution Protocol", RFC 903. HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −1− Section 1M− 683 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ rarpd(1M) rarpd(1M) NAME rarpd - Reverse Address Resolution Protocol daemon SYNOPSIS rarpd [-d] [-f config_file ] [interface_name ] DESCRIPTION rarpd , the Reverse Address Resolution Protocol daemon, implements the server portion of the Reverse Address Resolution Protocol [1]. It responds to RARP requests providing the requested client IP address. Rarpd can be started during boot-time initialization. To do so, set the RARPD variable with RARPD=1 in /etc/rc.config.d/netconf. Options are: -d Print debugging information. -f config_file Use the specified config_file database instead of /etc/rarpd.conf. interface_name Respond to requests over just this interface. The configuration file database contains hardware address to IP address mappings. Other than comment lines (which begin with a ’#’) and blank lines, all lines are considered client entries. A client entry is of the form: hardware_address WHITE_SPACE ip_address where hardware_address consists of (:) colon-separated hexadecimal bytes, and ip_address consists of (.) dot-seperated decimal bytes. For example: # # hardware addr IP addr # # ethernet clients 08:00:09:26:ec:19 15.13.136.68 08:00:09:17:0a:93 15.13.136.74 # # 100VG clients 08:00:09:63:5d:f5 190.20.30.103 # # FDDI clients 08:00:09:09:53:4c 192.20.30.98 There must be exactly 6 hardware address bytes. There must be exactly 4 protocol address bytes. r The following signals have the specified effect when sent to the rarpd process using the kill (1) command: SIGHUP Causes server to read the config file and reload database. SIGINT Dumps current data base and cache to /var/tmp/rarpd.db. RETURN VALUE Exit status is 1 if the command fails, and error messages are written to stderr and/or syslog. Typically, the daemon will continue answering requests until externally interrupted. LIMITATIONS 1. The rarpd daemon supports only ethernet, 100VG and FDDI network interfaces. 2. The rarpd daemon supports only 4 byte Internet Protocol addresses. 3. The rarpd and rarpc programs cannot be run on the same interface at the same time. AUTHOR rarpd was developed by HP. SEE ALSO rarpc(1M). [1] R. Finlayson, T. Mann, J.C. Mogul, M. Theimer, "Reverse Address Resolution Protocol", RFC 903. Section 1M− 684 __ −1− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ rbootd(1M) rbootd(1M) NAME rbootd - remote boot server for RMP clients SYNOPSIS /usr/sbin/rbootd [-a] [-l loglevel ] [-L logfile ] [-t minutes ] [ landevs ] DESCRIPTION rbootd services initial boot-up requests from RMP clients over a local area network. Early s700 workstations and all Datacommunications and Terminal Controllers (DTC/9000) use this RMP protocol and can only communicate with rbootd during boot-up. Later s700 workstations (starting with the s712) use the industry standard BOOTP protocol and communicate with bootpd (1M). Future s700 workstations will use the BOOTP protocol. See the listings below. rbootd now acts as a forwarding agent for s700 RMP clients, receiving their RMP boot requests and reformulating them into BOOTP boot requests that are sent to the local bootpd daemon. If bootpd replies to this boot request, rbootd receives the BOOTP reply and produces an RMP reply which is sent to the client. rbootd continues to act as the intermediary in this transaction until the client is successfully booted. rbootd only responds to DTC clients if they are listed in the map802 file. The map802 file (a binary file) is created when a DTC is configured by dtcconfig (1M) on the host machine. In order to boot a s700 RMP client run rbootd and bootpd on the server machine, on the same subnet as the client. If the local bootpd daemon is acting as a relay agent, there must also be a remote NFS Diskless server with the necessary boot files and NFS or tftp access to those files. Options rbootd supports the following options: -a Append to the rbootd log file. By default, starting up rbootd truncates the log file. -l loglevel Set the amount of information that will be logged in the log file. rbootd supports the following logging levels: 0 1 2 3 -L logfile -t minutes landevs Log only rbootd startup and termination messages. Log all errors. This is the default logging level. Log rejected boot requests from machines not found in /etc/bootptab or /etc/opt/dtcmgr/map802. Log all boot requests. Specify an alternate file that rbootd should use to log status and error messages. Grace period before removing inactive temporary files. Meaningful only in the tftp remote configuration. Default is 10 minutes. Specify the only devices that rbootd should use to listen for boot requests. The default is all LAN devices. The device names must be of the form lan0 or lan1 etc, where the device name matches what is reported by lanscan r New Functionality Beginning with HP-UX 10.0 rbootd has the following behavior: • bootpd/bootptab Dependency : rbootd now relies on bootpd (1M) to verify the identity of cluster clients and locate the bootable images (from /etc/bootptab). RMP clients are thus administered in exactly the same way as new BOOTP clients. The old methods for administering RMP clients (/etc/clusterconf, context-dependent files, /usr/boot/* ) are obsolete and no longer work. See bootpd (1M) and sam (1M) for details on configuring cluster clients. It is necessary to have the bootpd daemon running on the same machine as the rbootd daemon. • Auto-Discovery: To aid the system administrator, rbootd now discovers working ethernet interfaces at startup time and monitors them for boot requests. Alternatively, the system administrator may put a list of up to ten ethernet devices on the command line. Putting device names on the command line means "monitor these devices ONLY". If device names are included on the command line, they must be ethernet interfaces (not X.25, token-ring, etc) and they must be up and running at the time rbootd is started. See HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −1− Section 1M− 685 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ rbootd(1M) rbootd(1M) lanscan (1M) and ifconfig (1M) to determine the state of system devices. Attempting to have rbootd monitor non-ethernet devices will not succeed. The device names must always be of the form lan0 or lan1 etc, where the device name matches what is reported by lanscan . • Multiple LAN Coverage : rbootd can monitor up to 10 lan devices (depending on hardware) and can boot clients from all of them. Clients are still restricted to booting from their own builtin lan devices. • Gateway Booting : RMP clients can now be booted from servers that are not on the same subnet as the client. The RMP boot requests and replies cannot cross gateways, but the repackaged BOOTP requests and replies can. The BOOTP requests and replies are relayed across gateways by bootpd . This is known as the remote configuration. rbootd uses the NFS or tftp mechanism to transfer the necessary files from the remote server to the rbootd machine, and then transfers the bootable images to the client in a succession of RMP packets. Thus the remote server must make the necessary files accessible by NFS or tftp . In the remote- tftp case, the boot files are temporarily stored in /var/rbootd/C0809*, and are removed after a period of inactivity, controlled by the -t option. The default is 10 minutes. • S800 Servers : S800 machines can now be used as cluster servers, booting s700 clients and DTCs. S800 machines are not supported as cluster clients. • Network Install : rbootd now forwards install requests to instl_bootd (1M). If there is no appropriate response, rbootd will deny the request. • S300/400 Not Supported : S300/400 machines are not supported as diskless clients. • Performance Recommendations : Boot from a local server for the fastest boot times. Run the rbootd daemon and the bootpd server daemon on the same machine, and avoid transferring the boot files by NFS or tftp . This is strongly recommended. If booting from remote bootpd servers (across gateways), use NFS mounts to make the boot files available to the rbootd server. See mount (1M) for more information. The system administrator can configure local and remote diskless clients in any mix, but it is strongly recommended that the number of remote diskless clients be minimized. r If booting from remote servers using the tftp method, there must also be temporary file space available on the rbootd server machine. Generally 6-8 MBytes per diskless client must be available under /var , but this number could be larger when booting customized kernels. These temporary files are removed automatically after some period of inactivity, controlled by the -t option. The default is 10 minutes. • RMP/BOOTP : The RMP clients are the older s700 workstations and all DTCs: workstations: 705, 710, 715/33, 715/50, 715/75, 720, 725/50, 725/75, 730, 735, 750, 755 The BOOTP clients are the s712, s715/64, s715/100, B-Class, C-Class, D-Class and future workstations. WARNINGS It is necessary to stop rbootd before running bootpquery because they use the same reserved port (67/udp). The rbootd daemon binds to port 1067 for cold-install clients through instl_bootd . Because this is not a reserved port, sometimes rbootd will be unable to start when another process is holding this port. Use netstat -an to find the other process and kill it. Rebooting is also an option. AUTHOR rbootd was developed by HP. Section 1M− 686 __ −2− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ rbootd(1M) rbootd(1M) FILES /var/adm/rbootd.log /etc/boottab /etc/opt/dtcmgr/map802 /var/rbootd/C0809* Default rbootd log file. Bootstrap configuration file. DTC/9000 configuration file. Temporary boot files. Obsoleted Files /etc/clusterconf /usr/boot/* SEE ALSO bootpd(1M), instl_bootd(1M), tftpd(1M), mount(1M), sam(1M), dcnodes(1), dtcconfig(1M), dtcnmd(1M), dtcnmp(1M). r HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −3− Section 1M− 687 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ rc(1M) rc(1M) NAME rc - general purpose sequencer invoked upon entering new run level SYNOPSIS /sbin/rc DESCRIPTION The rc shell script is the general sequencer invoked upon entering a new run level via the init N command (where N equals 0-6). The script /sbin/rc is typically invoked by the corresponding entry in the file /etc/inittab as follows: sqnc:123456:wait:/sbin/rc </dev/console >/dev/console 2>&1 /sbin/rc is the startup and shutdown sequencer script. There is only one sequencer script and it handles all of the sequencer directories. This script sequences the scripts in the appropriate sequencer directories in alphabetical order as defined by the shell and invokes them as either startup or kill scripts. If a transition from a lower to a higher run level (i.e., init state) occurs, the start scripts for the new run level and all intermediate levels between the old and new level are executed. If a transition from a higher to a lower run level occurs, the kill scripts for the new run level and all intermediate levels between the old and new level are executed. If a start script link (e.g., /sbin/rc N .d/S123test ) in sequencer N has a stop action, the corresponding kill script should be placed in sequencer N -1 (e.g., /sbin/rc N -1.d/K200test). Actions started in level N should be stopped in level N -1 . This way, a system shutdown (e.g., transition from level 3 directly to level 0) will result in all subsystems being stopped. Start and Kill Scripts In many cases, a startup script will have both a start and a kill action. For example, the inetd script starts the Internet daemon in the start case, and kills that process in the stop case. Instead of two separate scripts, only one exists, which accepts both the start and stop arguments and executes the correct code. In some cases, only a start action will be applicable. If this is the case, and if the stop action is specified, the script should produce a usage message and exit with an error. In general, scripts should look at their arguments and produce error messages if bad arguments are present. When a script executes properly, it must exit with a return value of zero. If an error condition exists, the return value must be nonzero. r Naming Conventions The startup and shutdown scripts (referred to as startup scripts hereafter) exist in the /sbin/init.d directory, named after the subsystem they control. For example, the /sbin/init.d/cron script controls starting up the cron daemon. The contents of sequencer directories consist of symbolic links to startup scripts in /sbin/init.d . These symbolic links must follow a strict naming convention, as noted in the various fields of this example: /sbin/rc2.d/S060cron where the fields are defined as follows: rc2.d The sequencer directory is numbered to reflect the run level for which its contents will be executed. In this case, start scripts in this directory will be executed upon entering run level 2 from run level 1, and kill scripts will be executed upon entering run level 2 from run level 3. S The first character of a sequencer link name determines whether the script is executed as a start script (if the character is S), or as a kill script (if the character is K). 060 A three digit number is used for sequencing scripts within the sequencer directory. Scripts are executed by type (start or kill) in alphabetical order as defined by the shell. Although it is not recommended, two scripts may share the same sequence number. cron The name of the startup script follows the sequence number. The startup script name must be the same name as the script to which this sequencer entry is linked. In this example, the link points to /sbin/init.d/cron. Note that short file name systems require file names of 14 or less characters. This means that the fourth field is limited to 10 or fewer characters. Scripts are executed in alphabetical order. The entire file name of the script is used for alphabetical ordering purposes. Section 1M− 688 __ −1− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ rc(1M) rc(1M) When ordering start and kill script links, note that subsystems started in any given order should be stopped in the reverse order to eliminate any dependencies between subsystems. This means that kill scripts will generally not have the same numbers as their start script counterparts. For example, if two subsystems must be started in a given order due to dependencies (e.g., S111house followed by S222uses_house), the kill counterparts to these scripts must be numbered so that the subsystems are stopped in the opposite order in which they were started (e.g., K555uses_house followed by K777house ). Also keep in mind that kill scripts for a start script in directory /sbin/rc N .d will reside in /sbin/rc( N -1).d . For example, /sbin/rc3.d/S123homer and /sbin/rc2.d/K654homer might be start/kill counterparts. Arguments The startup/shutdown scripts should be able to recognize the following four arguments (where applicable): start The start argument is passed to scripts whose names start with S. Upon receiving the start argument, the script should perform its start actions. stop The stop argument is passed to scripts whose names start with K. Upon receiving the stop argument, the script should perform its stop actions. start_msg The start_msg argument is passed to scripts whose names start with S so that the script can report back a short message indicating what the start action will do. For instance, when the lp spooler script is invoked with a start_msg argument, it echoes Starting the LP subsystem This string is used by the startup routines. Scripts given just the start_msg argument will only print a message and not perform any actions. stop_msg The stop_msg argument is passed to scripts whose names start with K so that the script can report back a short message indicating what the stop action will do. For instance, when the lp spooler script is invoked with a stop_msg argument, it echoes Stopping the LP subsystem This string is used by the shutdown checklist. Scripts given just the stop_msg argument will only print a message and not perform any actions. Script Output To ensure proper reporting of startup events, startup scripts are required to comply with the following guidelines for script output. • r Status messages, such as starting house daemon must be directed to stdout. All error messages must be directed to stderr. • Script output, both stdout and stderr, is redirected to log file /etc/rc.log , unless the startup checklist mode is set to the raw mode. In this case, all output goes to the console. All error messages should be echoed to stdout or stderr. • Startup scripts are not allowed to send messages directly to the console, or to start any daemons that immediately write to the console. This restriction exists because these scripts are now started by the /sbin/rc checklist wrapper. All script output should go to either stdout or stderr, and thus be captured in a log file. Any console output will be garbled. RETURN VALUE The return values for startup scripts are as follows: 0 1 2 3 Script exited without error. Script encountered errors. Script was skipped due to overriding control variables from /etc/rc.config.d files, or for other reasons, and did not actually do anything. Script will automatically reboot the system. HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −2− Section 1M− 689 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ rc(1M) rc(1M) 4 Script exited without error and started a process in background mode. >4 For return values greater than 4 the action is same as return value 1, script encountered errors. SEE ALSO init(1M), shutdown(1M), inittab(4), rc.config(4). r Section 1M− 690 __ −3− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ rcancel(1M) rcancel(1M) NAME rcancel - remove requests from a remote line printer spooling queue SYNOPSIS /usr/sbin/rcancel [id ... ] [printer ] [-a] [-e] [-u user ] DESCRIPTION The rcancel command removes a request, or requests, from the spool queue of a remote printer. rcancel is invoked by the cancel command (see cancel (1)). At least one id or the name of a printer must be specified. This command is intended to be used only by the spool system in response to the cancel command (see lp (1)), and should not be invoked directly. Options The rcancel command recognizes the following options: id Specifying a request ID (as returned by lp (see lp (1)) cancels the associated request (if the request is owned by the user), even if it is currently printing. printer Name of the printer (for a complete list, use lpstat (see lpstat (1)). Specifying a printer cancels the request which is currently printing on that printer, if the request is owned by the user. If the -a , -e , or the -u option is specified, this option only specifies the printer on which to perform the cancel operation. -a Remove all requests owned by the user on the specified printer (see printer ). The owner is determined by the user’s login name and host name on the machine where the lp command was invoked. -e Empty the spool queue of all requests for the specified printer . This form of invoking rcancel is useful only to users with appropriate privileges. -u user Remove any requests queued belonging to that user (or users). This form of invoking rcancel is available only to users with appropriate privileges. AUTHOR rcancel was developed by the University of California, Berkeley, and HP. FILES /var/spool/lp/* /var/adm/lp/* /etc/lp/* /usr/lib/lp/* r SEE ALSO enable(1), lp(1), lpstat(1), accept(1M), lpadmin(1M), lpsched(1M), rlp(1M), rlpdaemon(1M), rlpstat(1M). HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −1− Section 1M− 691 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ rdpd(1M) rdpd(1M) NAME rdpd - router discovery protocol daemon (OBSOLESCENT) SYNOPSIS rdpd [ -r | -t | -v ] DESCRIPTION rdpd , the router discover protocol daemon, implements the host portion of the router discovery protocol (see SEE ALSO ). More specifically rdpd : • solicits router advertisements when it is first started so as to populate the kernel table as soon as possible. • listens on all ethernet interfaces (that are up) for ICMP router advertisement datagrams. • adds a default router to the kernel table based on whether the router is a neighbor and has the highest preference among all advertisements received. • ages the default router entry applied to the kernel table based on the lifetime value found in the advertisement message. rdpd can be started during boot-time initialization. To do so, see /etc/rc.config.d/netconf. (But see WARNINGS below.) Options rdpd supports the following options: -r Display the version of rdpd . -t Enable tracing of the following events: • • • • • • • setting of expiration timer for advertised entry. expiration of a router advertisement entry (only the active entry has a timer running). add/update of an advertised router to the kernel. removal from kernel table of an advertised router. reception of a router advertisement from the link. transmission of a router solicitation message. failure while attempting to transmit a solicitation. -v Enable verbose tracing, which in addition to the above, traces: • • r contents of the router advertisement message received. contents of rdpd internal statics which includes: 1. total number of icmp messages received, 2. total number advertisements received, 3. total number of advertisements with invalid number of addresses field, 4. total number of advertisements with invalid address size field, 5. total number of advertisements with invalid message lengths, 6. total number of advertisements with invalid lifetime fields, 7. total number of icmp messages with number of bytes received <> header length field. LIMITATIONS 1. The maximum number of default routes retained is 10. Only one of which is applied to the kernel routing tables (the one with the highest preference). In the event that the advertised router with the highest preference expires the retained advertised router list will be searched for the highest preference, still current entry and that entry will be applied to the kernel table. This allows for quick recovery from aged advertisements. 2. rdpd only becomes aware of link state changes when either a new Router Advertisement message is received or a timer pops to age a currently active default router added by rdpd . This may cause a delay between an interface state change (e.g., ifconfig down) and any necessary change to the kernel routing table. 3. The "all hosts on subnet" broadcast address is used for sending solicitations instead of either the allrouters multicast or limited-broadcast IP addresses. 4. The limited-broadcast address for inbound Advertisements is assumed. Section 1M− 692 __ −1− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ rdpd(1M) rdpd(1M) 5. Default routers added via the route command can be altered due to Router Advertisements for the same router. 6. Adding default routes via the route command can cause unpredictable results and should be avoided. OBSOLESCENCE The functionality of rdpd has been subsumed in gated . See the routerdiscovery statements described in gated.conf (4). Consequently, rdpd may be obsoleted in a future release of HP-UX. WARNINGS rdpd should not be used if routerdiscovery client is enabled when running gated . AUTHOR rdpd was developed by HP. SEE ALSO gated(1M), gated.conf(4). [1] Deering, S., "ICMP Router Discovery Messages", RFC 1256 r HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −2− Section 1M− 693 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ reboot(1M) reboot(1M) NAME reboot - reboot the system SYNOPSIS /usr/sbin/reboot [-h-r] [-n-s] [-q] [-t time ] [-m message ] /usr/sbin/reboot -R [-H] [-n-s] [-q] [-t time ] [-m message ] DESCRIPTION The reboot command terminates all currently executing processes except those essential to the system, then reboots the system, or halts, or makes the partition ready for reconfig. When invoked without arguments, reboot syncs all disks before rebooting the system. Options The reboot command recognizes the following options: -h -r -R -H Shut down the system to a ready to reconfig state and do not reboot. This option can be used only in combination with the -R option. This option is available only on systems that support hardware partitions. -n -s Do not sync the file systems before shutdown. -q Quick and quiet. Suppress broadcast of warning messages, terminate processes by brute force (with SIGKILL ) and immediately call reboot with arguments as indicated by the other options (see reboot (2)). No logging is performed. The -t and -m options are ignored with this option. -t time Specify what time reboot will bring the system down. time can be the word now (indicating immediate shutdown) or a future time in one of two formats: +number and hour :min. The first form brings the system down in number minutes; the second brings the system down at the time of day indicated (based on a 24-hour clock). -m message r Shut down the system and halt. Display message at the terminals of all users on the system at decreasing intervals as reboot time approaches. The message must not contain any embedded double quotes. Shut down the system and reboot automatically (default). Shut down the system to a ready to reconfig state and reboot automatically. This option is available only on systems that support hardware partitions. Sync the file systems before shutdown; for file systems that were cleanly mounted, modify the fs_clean flag from FS_OK to FS_CLEAN (default). At shutdown time a message is written in the file /etc/shutdownlog (if it exists), containing the time of shutdown, who ran reboot , and the reason. Only users with appropriate privileges can execute the shutdown command. WARNINGS reboot does not invoke the shutdown scripts associated with subsystems to bring them down in a cautious manner. See shutdown (1M). AUTHOR reboot was developed by HP and the University of California, Berkeley. FILES /etc/shutdownlog Shutdown log SEE ALSO reboot(2). Section 1M− 694 __ −1− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ remshd(1M) remshd(1M) NAME remshd - remote shell server SYNOPSIS /usr/lbin/remshd [-lns] DESCRIPTION The remshd command is the server for the rcp , rdist and remsh commands, and the rcmd() function (see rcp (1), rdist (1), remsh (1), and rcmd (3N)). The server provides remote execution facilities with authentication based on privileged port numbers. The inetd daemon calls remshd when a service request is received at the port indicated for the shell (or cmd ) service specified in /etc/services (see inetd (1M) and services (4)). When called, inetd creates a connection to the service on the client’s host. To run remshd , the following line should be present in the /etc/inetd.conf file: shell stream tcp nowait root /usr/lbin/remshd remshd See inetd.conf (4) for more information. Options remshd recognizes the following options. -l Disallow authentication based on the user’s .rhosts file unless the user is a superuser. -n Disable transport-level keep-alive messages. Otherwise, the messages are enabled. The keepalive messages allow sessions to be timed out if the client crashes or becomes unreachable. -s This option is used in multi-homed NIS systems. It disables remshd from doing a reverse lookup, of the client’s IP address; see gethostbyname (3N). It can be used to circumvent an NIS limitation with multihomed hosts. Operation When remshd receives a service request, it responds with the following protocol: 1. The server checks the client’s source port. If the port is not in the range 512 through 1023, the server aborts the connection. 2. The server reads characters from the connection up to a null (\0 ) byte. It interprets the resulting string as an ASCII number, base 10. 3. If the number is non-zero, it is interpreted as the port number of a secondary stream to be used for standard error. A second connection is then created to the specified port on the client’s host. (The source port of this second connection must be also in the range 512 through 1023.) If the first character sent is a null (\0 ), no secondary connection is made, and the standard error from the command is sent to the primary stream. If the secondary connection has been made, remshd interprets bytes it receives on that socket as signal numbers and passes them to the command as signals. See signal (2). 4. The server checks the client’s source address and requests the corresponding host name (see named (1M), gethostbyaddr (3N), and hosts (4)). If it cannot determine the hostname, it uses the dot-notation representation of the host address. 5. The server reads the client’s host account name from the first connection. This is a nullterminated sequence not exceeding 16 characters. 6. The server reads the server’s host account name from the first connection. This is a nullterminated sequence not exceeding 16 characters. 7. The server reads a command to be passed to the shell from the first connection. The command length is limited by the maximum size of the system’s argument list. 8. remshd then validates the user as follows (all actions take place on the host remshd runs on): a. It looks up the user account name (retrieved in step 6) in the password file. If it finds it, it performs a chdir() to either the user’s home directory, if there is one, or to "/." b. If either the lookup or chdir() fails, the connection is terminated (see chdir (2)). c. The connection is also terminated if HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ r −1− Section 1M− 695 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ remshd(1M) remshd(1M) • the account accessed is administratively locked. The account can be locked by entering a character in the password field that is not part of the set of digits (such as *). The characters used to represent "digits" are . for 0, / for 1, 0 through 9 for 2 through 11, A through Z for 12 through 37, and a through z for 38 through 63. (See also passwd (4)). • the account accessed is protected by a password and, either the password expired or the account on the client’s host is not equivalent to the account accessed; • remshd runs on a secure system and the account accessed is not protected by a password. For more information on equivalent accounts, see hosts.equiv (4). 9. A null byte is returned on the primary connection and the command line is passed to the normal login shell of the user with that shell’s -c option. The shell inherits the network connections established by remshd and assumes the normal user and group permissions of the user. remshd uses the following path when executing the specified command: /usr/bin:/usr/ccs/bin:/usr/bin/X11:/usr/contrib/bin:/usr/local/bin 10. If a secondary socket has been set up, remshd normally exits when command standard error and secondary socket standard error have both been closed. If no secondary socket was set up, remshd has called an exec (2) function, launched the command process, and is no longer present. DIAGNOSTICS All diagnostic messages are returned on the connection associated with standard error after which any network connections are closed. An error is indicated by a leading byte with a value of 1 (0 is returned in step 9 above upon successful completion of all the steps before the command execution). Malformed from address The first socket connection does not use a reserved port or the client’s host address is not an Internet address. Can’t get stderr port Unable to complete the connection of the secondary socket used for error communication. Second port not reserved The secondary socket connection does not use a reserved port. Locuser too long The name of the user account on the client’s host is longer than 16 characters. r Remuser too long The name of the user on the server’s host is longer than 16 characters. Command too long The command line passed exceeds the size of the argument list (as configured into the system). Login incorrect No password file entry existed for the user name on the server’s host, or the authentication procedure described above in step 8 failed. No remote directory The chdir command to the home directory or "/" on the server’s host failed. Can’t make pipe The pipe needed for the standard error output wasn’t created. No more processes The server was unable to fork a process to handle the incoming connection. Next step : Wait a period of time and try again. If this message persists, the server’s host may have runaway processes that are using all the entries in the process table. system call : message Section 1M− 696 __ −2− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ remshd(1M) remshd(1M) Error in executing the named system call. The message specifies the cause of the failure. shellname : ... The user’s login shell could not be started. This message is returned on the connection associated with the standard error, and is not preceded by a leading byte with a value of 1. Other messages can be returned by the remote command when it executes. WARNINGS The "privileged port" authentication procedure used here assumes the integrity of each host and the connecting medium. This is insecure, but is useful in an "open" environment. remshd ignores SIGHUP , SIGINT , SIGQUIT , and SIGTERM , so these signal numbers can safely be sent to remote commands via the secondary socket provided by remshd . Other signal numbers may cause remshd to kill itself. AUTHOR remshd was developed by the University of California, Berkeley. FILES $HOME/.rhosts /etc/hosts.equiv User’s private equivalence list List of equivalent hosts SEE ALSO remsh(1), inetd(1M), named(1M), rcmd(3N), hosts(4), hosts.equiv(4), inetd.conf(4), inetd.sec(4), services(4). r HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −3− Section 1M− 697 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ remshd(1M) remshd(1M) Kerberos NAME remshd - remote shell server SYNOPSIS /usr/lbin/remshd [-ln] In Kerberos V5 Network Authentication environments: /usr/lbin/remshd [-clnKkRr ] DESCRIPTION The remshd command is the server for the rcp , rdist and remsh commands, and the rcmd() function (see rcp (1), rdist (1), remsh (1), and rcmd (3N)). remshd allows two kinds of authentication methods: 1. Authentication based on privileged port numbers where the client’s source port must be in the range 512 through 1023. In this case remshd assumes it is operating in normal or non-secure environment. 2. Authentication based on Kerberos V5. In this case remshd assumes it is operating in a Kerberos V5 Network Authentication, i.e., secure environment. The inetd daemon invokes remshd if a service request is received at ports indicated by shell or kshell services specified in /etc/services (see inetd (1M) and services (4)). Service requests arriving at the kshell port assume a secure environment and expect Kerberos authentication to take place. To start remshd from the inetd daemon in a non-secure environment, the configuration file /etc/inetd.conf must contain an entry as follows: shell stream tcp nowait root /usr/lbin/remshd remshd In a secure environment, /etc/inetd.conf must contain an entry: kshell stream tcp nowait root /usr/lbin/remshd remshd -K See inetd.conf (4) for more information. To prevent non-secure access, the entry for shell should be commented out in /etc/inetd.conf. Any non-Kerberos access will be denied since the entry for the port indicated by shell has now been removed or commented out. In a such a situation, a generic error message, rcmd: connect <hostname> : Connection refused is displayed. See DIAGNOSTICS for more details. Note: by commenting out the entry for the port, access by other clients such as rdist will also be prevented. r Options remshd recognizes the following options. -c Ignore checksum verification. This option is used to achieve interoperability between clients and servers using different checksum calculation methods. For example, the checksum calculation in a application developed with Kerberos V5 Beta 4 API is different from the calculation in a Kerberos V5-1.0 application. -l Disallow authentication based on the user’s .rhosts file unless the user is a superuser. -n Disable transport-level keep-alive messages. Otherwise, the messages are enabled. The keepalive messages allow sessions to be timed out if the client crashes or becomes unreachable. In a secure environment, remshd will recognize the following additional options: -K Authorization based on Kerberos V5 must succeed or access will be rejected. (see sis (5) for details on authorization). -R Authentication based on privileged port numbers and authorization of the remote user through equivalent accounts must succeed. hosts.equiv(4). For more information on equivalent accounts, see -r Either one of the following must succeed. The order in which the authorization checks are done is as specified below. 1. Section 1M− 698 __ Authentication based on privileged port numbers and authorization of the remote user through equivalent accounts (see hosts.equiv (4)). −1− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ remshd(1M) 2. Kerberos remshd(1M) Authorization based on Kerberos V5. -k Either one of the following must succeed. The order in which the authorization checks are done is as specified below. 1. Authorization based on Kerberos V5. 2. Authentication based on privileged port numbers and authorization of the remote user through equivalent accounts. Note: The -k option is ignored when used with -K , and the -r option is ignored when used with R. Also, if no options are specified, the default option is -K. Operation When remshd receives a service request, it responds with the following protocol: 1. The server checks the client’s source port. If the port is not a privileged port, i.e., in the range 512 through 1023, and remshd is operating in a non-secure environment, the connection is terminated. In a secure environment, the action taken depends on the command line options: -R The source port must be a privileged port otherwise the connection is terminated. -r If the source port is not a privileged port then authorization based on Kerberos must succeed or the connection is terminated. 2. -k The source port must be a privileged port if Kerberos authorization fails. -K No action is taken. The server reads characters from the connection up to a null (\0 ) byte. It interprets the resulting string as an ASCII number, base 10. 3. If the number is non-zero, it is interpreted as the port number of a secondary stream to be used for standard error. A second connection is then created to the specified port on the client’s host. (The source port of this second connection will also be checked as specified in item 1.) If the first character sent is a null (\0 ), no secondary connection is made, and the standard error from the command is sent to the primary stream. If the secondary connection has been made, remshd interprets bytes it receives on that socket as signal numbers and passes them to the command as signals. See signal (2). 4. The server checks the client’s source address and requests the corresponding host name (see named (1M), gethostbyaddr (3N), and hosts (4)). If it cannot determine the hostname, it uses the dot-notation representation of the host address. 5. In a secure environment, remshd performs authentication based on Kerberos V5. See sis (5) for details. 6. The server reads the client’s host account name from the first connection. This is a nullterminated sequence not exceeding 16 characters. 7. The server reads the server’s host account name from the first connection. This is a nullterminated sequence not exceeding 16 characters. 8. The server reads a command to be passed to the shell from the first connection. The command length is limited by the maximum size of the system’s argument list. 9. remshd then validates the user as follows (all actions take place on the host remshd runs on): a. It looks up the user account name (retrieved in step 6) in the password file. If it finds it, it performs a chdir () to either the user’s home directory, if there is one, or to "/." b. If either the lookup or chdir () fails, the connection is terminated (see chdir (2)). c. The connection is also terminated if • the account accessed is administratively locked. The account can be locked by entering a character in the password field that is not part of the set of digits (such as *). The characters used to represent "digits" are . for 0, / for 1, 0 through 9 for 2 through 11, A through Z for 12 through 37, and a through z for 38 through 63. (See also passwd (4)). • in a non-secure environment, the account accessed is protected by a password and, either the password expired or the account on the client’s host is not equivalent to the account accessed. HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ r −2− Section 1M− 699 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ remshd(1M) remshd(1M) Kerberos • in a secure environment, the command line options decide whether connection is to be terminated. -K if Kerberos authorization does not succeed the connection is terminated (see sis (5) for details on authorization). -R if the client’s host is not equivalent to the account accessed, the connection is terminated. -r if the account is not equivalent to the account accessed, then Kerberos authorization has to succeed or the connection is terminated. -k if Kerberos authorization fails, then the account has to be equivalent or the connection is terminated. hosts.equiv (4). 10. For more information on equivalent accounts, see A null byte is returned on the primary connection and the command line is passed to the normal login shell of the user with that shell’s -c option. The shell inherits the network connections established by remshd and assumes the normal user and group permissions of the user. remshd uses the following path when executing the specified command: /usr/bin:/usr/ccs/bin:/usr/bin/X11:/usr/contrib/bin:/usr/local/bin 11. If a secondary socket has been set up, remshd normally exits when command standard error and secondary socket standard error have both been closed. If no secondary socket was set up, remshd has called an exec (2) function, launched the command process, and is no longer present. DIAGNOSTICS All diagnostic messages are returned on the connection associated with standard error after which any network connections are closed. An error is indicated by a leading byte with a value of 1 (0 is returned in step 9 above upon successful completion of all the steps before the command execution). Malformed from address The first socket connection does not use a reserved port or the client’s host address is not an Internet address. Can’t get stderr port Unable to complete the connection of the secondary socket used for error communication. Second port not reserved The secondary socket connection does not use a reserved port. r Locuser too long The name of the user account on the client’s host is longer than 16 characters. Remuser too long The name of the user on the server’s host is longer than 16 characters. Command too long The command line passed exceeds the size of the argument list (as configured into the system). Login incorrect No password file entry existed for the user name on the server’s host, or the authentication procedure described above in step 8 failed. No remote directory The chdir command to the home directory or "/" on the server’s host failed. Can’t make pipe The pipe needed for the standard error output wasn’t created. No more processes The server was unable to fork a process to handle the incoming connection. Next step : Wait a period of time and try again. If this message persists, the server’s host may have runaway processes that are using all the entries in the process table. Section 1M− 700 __ −3− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ remshd(1M) Kerberos remshd(1M) system call : message Error in executing the named system call. The message specifies the cause of the failure. shellname : ... The user’s login shell could not be started. This message is returned on the connection associated with the standard error, and is not preceded by a leading byte with a value of 1. Other messages can be returned by the remote command when it executes. rcmd: connect : <hostname>: Connection refused. This generic message could be due to a number of reasons. One of the reasons could be because the entry for shell service is not present in /etc/inetd.conf. This entry may have been removed or commented out to prevent non-secure access. Kerberos specific errors are listed in sis (5). WARNINGS The integrity of each host and the connecting medium is assumed if the "privileged port" authentication procedure is used in a non-secure environment or if the command line options -R or -r are used in a secure environment. Although both these methods provide insecure access, they are useful in an "open" environment. Note also that all information, including any passwords, are passed unencrypted between the two hosts when remshd is invoked in a non-secure environment. remshd ignores SIGHUP , SIGINT , SIGQUIT , and SIGTERM , so these signal numbers can safely be sent to remote commands via the secondary socket provided by remshd . Other signal numbers may cause remshd to kill itself. AUTHOR remshd was developed by the University of California, Berkeley. FILES $HOME/.rhosts /etc/hosts.equiv User’s private equivalence list List of equivalent hosts SEE ALSO remsh(1), inetd(1M), named(1M), rcmd(3N), hosts(4), hosts.equiv(4), inetd.conf(4), inetd.sec(4), services(4), sis(5). r HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −4− Section 1M− 701 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ renice(1M) renice(1M) NAME renice - alter priority of running processes SYNOPSIS renice [-n newoffset ] [-g-p-u] id ... DESCRIPTION The renice command alters the system nice value (used in the system scheduling priority) of one or more running processes specified by id .... The new system nice value is set to 20 + newoffset , and is limited to the range 0 to 39. However if the UNIX95 environment variable is set, the new system nice value is set to current nice value + newoffset. Processes with lower system nice values run at higher system priorities than processes with higher system nice values. The -l option of the ps command shows the current priority (PRI ) and nice value (NI) for processes. See also nice (1). To reduce the system nice value of a process, or to set it to a value less than 20 (with a negative newoffset ), a user must have appropriate privileges. Otherwise, users cannot decrease the system nice value of a process and can only increase it within the range 20 to 39, to prevent overriding any current administrative restrictions. To alter the system nice value of another user’s process, a user must have appropriate privileges. Otherwise, users can only affect processes that they own. Options renice recognizes the following options. If no -g, -p, or -u option is specified, the default is -p. -g id ... Interpret each id as a process group ID. All processes in each process group have their system nice value altered. Only users with appropriate privileges can use this option. -n newoffset Change the system nice value of each affected process to 20 + newoffset . If the UNIX95 environment variable is set, the system nice value of each affected process is changed to current nice value + newoffset. If newoffset is negative, the system nice value is set to 20 minus the absolute value of newoffset . If the UNIX95 environment variable is set and the newoffset is negative, the system nice value is set to current nice value minus the absolute value of newoffset. Only users with appropriate privileges can reduce the system nice value or set it to less than 20. If this option is omitted, newoffset defaults to 10. -p id ... Interpret each id as a process ID. This is the default. Note: id is a process ID as reported by the ps command, not a job number (e.g., %1 ), as used by some shells. r -u id ... Interpret each id as a user name or user ID number. All processes owned by each specified user have their system nice values altered. Only users with appropriate privileges can use this option for user names and IDs other than their own. RETURN VALUES renice returns a 0 when successful, and a non-zero value when unsuccessful. EXTERNAL INFLUENCES Single-byte character code sets are supported. DIAGNOSTICS renice reports the old and new newoffset values (system nice value − 20) of the affected processes if the operation requested completes successfully. Otherwise, an error message is displayed to indicate the reason for failure. However, if the UNIX95 environment variable is set, no reporting is done unless the command fails. EXAMPLES Use renice default values to decrease the priority of process 923 . The id type defaults to -p , and newoffset defaults to 10, setting the process to a system nice value of 30. renice 923 Change the system nice value for all processes owned by user john and user 123 to 33 (newoffset =13). (Affecting other users processes requires appropriate privileges.) Section 1M− 702 __ −1− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ renice(1M) renice(1M) renice -n 13 -u john 123 Change the system nice value of all processes in process group 20 to 10 . (Lowering the system nice value of a process group requires appropriate privileges.) renice -n -10 -g 20 WARNINGS Users who do not have appropriate privileges cannot reduce the system nice values of their own processes, even if they increased them in the first place. FILES /etc/passwd Maps user names to user ID’s SEE ALSO nice(1), ps(1), getpriority(2), nice(2). STANDARDS CONFORMANCE renice : XPG4 r HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −2− Section 1M− 703 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ repquota(1M) repquota(1M) NAME repquota - summarize file system quotas SYNOPSIS /usr/sbin/repquota [-v] filesystem ... /usr/sbin/repquota [-v] -a DESCRIPTION The repquota command prints a summary of disk usage and quotas for each specified filesystem . filesystem is either the name of the directory on which the file system is mounted or the name of the device containing the file system. For each user, the current number of files and amount of space (in Kbytes) is printed, along with any quotas created with edquota (see edquota (1M)). Options repquota recognizes the following options: -a Report on all appropriate file systems in /etc/fstab . -v Report all quotas, even if there is no usage. EXTERNAL INFLUENCES Environment Variables LC_MESSAGES determines the language in which messages are displayed. If LC_MESSAGES is not specified in the environment or is set to the empty string, the value of LANG is used as a default for each unspecified or empty variable. If LANG is not specified or is set to the empty string, a default of "C" (see lang (5)) is used instead of LANG . If any internationalization variable contains an invalid setting, repquota behaves as if all internationalization variables are set to "C". See environ (5). International Code Set Support Single- and multi-byte character code sets are supported. AUTHOR Disk Quotas were developed by the University of California, Berkeley, Sun Microsystems, and HP. FILES r /etc/fstab /etc/mnttab directory /quotas Static information about the file systems Mounted file system table Quota statistics static storage for the file system, where directory is the root of the file system as interpreted by mount (see mount (1M)). SEE ALSO edquota(1M), mount(1M), quota(5). Section 1M− 704 __ −1− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ restore(1M) restore(1M) NAME restore, rrestore - restore file system incrementally, local or across network SYNOPSIS /usr/sbin/restore key [ name ... ] /usr/sbin/rrestore key [ name ... ] DESCRIPTION The restore and rrestore commands read tapes previously dumped by the dump or rdump command (see dump (1M) and rdump (1M)). Actions taken are controlled by the key argument where key is a string of characters containing not more than one function letter and possibly one or more function modifiers. One or more name arguments, if present, are file or directory names specifying the files that are to be restored. Unless the h modifier is specified (see below), the appearance of a directory name refers to the files and (recursively) subdirectories of that directory. Function Portion of key The function portion of the key is specified by one of the following letters: r Read the tape and load into the current directory. r should be used only after careful consideration, and only to restore a complete dump tape onto a clear file system, or to restore an incremental dump tape after a full level zero restore. Thus, /usr/sbin/newfs -F hfs /dev/rdsk/c0t0d0 /usr/sbin/mount /dev/dsk/c0t0d0 /mnt cd /mnt restore r is a typical sequence to restore a complete dump. Another restore or rrestore can then be performed to restore an incremental dump on top of this. Note that restore and rrestore leave a file restoresymtab in the root directory of the file system to pass information between incremental restore passes. This file should be removed when the last incremental tape has been restored. A dump or rdump followed by a newfs and a restore or rrestore is used to change the size of a file system (see newfs (1M)). R restore and rrestore request a particular tape of a multivolume set on which to restart a full restore (see r above). This provides a means for interrupting and restarting restore and rrestore . x Extract the named files from the tape. If the named file matches a directory whose contents had been written onto the tape, and the h modifier is not specified, the directory is recursively extracted. The owner, modification time, and mode are restored (if possible). If no file argument is given, the root directory is extracted, which results in the entire contents of the tape being extracted, unless h has been specified. t Names of the specified files are listed if they occur on the tape. If no file argument is given, the root directory is listed, which results in the entire content of the tape being listed, unless h has been specified. s The next argument to restore is used as the dump file number to recover. This is useful if there is more than one dump file on a tape. i r This mode allows interactive restoration of files from a dump tape. After reading in the directory information from the tape, restore and rrestore provide a shell-like interface that allows the user to move around the directory tree selecting files to be extracted. The available commands are given below; for those commands that require an argument, the default is the current directory. add [arg] The current directory or specified argument is added to the list of files to be extracted. If a directory is specified, it and all its descendents are added to the extraction list (unless the h key is specified on the command line). File names on the extraction list are displayed with a leading * when listed by ls . cd [arg] Change the current working directory to the specified argument. delete [arg] The current directory or specified argument is deleted from the list of files to be extracted. If a directory is specified, it and all its descendents are HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −1− Section 1M− 705 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ restore(1M) restore(1M) deleted from the extraction list (unless h is specified on the command line). The most expedient way to extract files from a directory is to add the directory to the extraction list, then delete unnecessary files. extract help ls [arg] pwd quit All files named on the extraction list are extracted from the dump tape. restore and rrestore ask which volume the user wants to mount. The fastest way to extract a few files is to start with the last volume, then work toward the first volume. List a summary of the available commands. List the current or specified directory. Entries that are directories are displayed with a trailing /. Entries marked for extraction are displayed with a leading *. If the verbose key is set, the inode number of each entry is also listed. Print the full path name of the current working directory. restore and rrestore immediately exit, even if the extraction list is not empty. set-modes Set the owner, modes, and times of all directories that are added to the extraction list. Nothing is extracted from the tape. This setting is useful for cleaning up after a restore aborts prematurely. verbose The sense of the v modifier is toggled. When set, the verbose key causes the ls command to list the inode numbers of all entries. It also causes restore and rrestore to print out information about each file as it is extracted. Function Modifiers The following function modifier characters can be used in addition to the letter that selects the function desired: b Specify the block size of the tape in kilobytes. If the -b option is not specified, restore and rrestore try to determine the tape block size dynamically. f Specify the name of the archive instead of /dev/rmt/0m . If the name of the file is -, restore reads from standard input. Thus, dump and restore can be used in a pipeline to dump and restore a file system with the command dump 0f - /usr | (cd /mnt; restore xf -) r When using rrestore , this key should be specified, and the next argument supplied should be of the form machine :device. h Extract the actual directory, rather than the files to which it refers. This prevents hierarchical restoration of complete subtrees from the tape, rather than the files to which it refers. m Extract by inode numbers rather than by file name. This is useful if only a few files are being extracted and one wants to avoid regenerating the complete path name to the file. v Type the name of each file restore and rrestore treat, preceded by its file type. Normally restore and rrestore do their work silently; the v modifier specifies verbose output. y Do not ask whether to abort the operation if restore and rrestore encounters a tape error. restore and rrestore attempt to skip over the bad tape block(s) and continue. rrestore creates a server, either /usr/sbin/rmt or /etc/rmt, on the remote machine to access the tape device. DIAGNOSTICS restore and rrestore complain about bad key characters. restore and rrestore complain if a read error is encountered. If the y modifier has been specified, or the user responds y, restore and rrestore attempt to continue the restore. If the dump extends over more than one tape, restore and rrestore ask the user to change tapes. If the x or i function has been specified, restore and rrestore also ask which volume the user wants to mount. The fastest way to extract a few files is to start with the last volume and work towards the first volume. Section 1M− 706 __ −2− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ restore(1M) restore(1M) There are numerous consistency checks that can be listed by restore and rrestore . Most checks are self-explanatory or can ‘‘never happen’’. Here are some common errors: filename : not found on tape The specified file name was listed in the tape directory but not found on the tape. This is caused by tape read errors while looking for the file, and from using a dump tape created on an active file system. expected next file inumber , got inumber A file not listed in the directory showed up. This can occur when using a dump tape created on an active file system. Incremental tape too low When doing an incremental restore, a tape that was written before the previous incremental tape, or that has too low an incremental level has been loaded. Incremental tape too high When doing an incremental restore, a tape that does not begin its coverage where the previous incremental tape left off, or that has too high an incremental level has been loaded. Tape read error while restoring filename Tape read error while skipping over inode inumber Tape read error while trying to resynchronize A tape read error has occurred. If a file name is specified, the contents of the restored files are probably partially wrong. If restore is skipping an inode or is trying to resynchronize the tape, no extracted files are corrupted, although files may not be found on the tape. Resync restore, skipped num blocks After a tape read error, restore and rrestore may have to resynchronize themselves. This message indicates the number of blocks skipped over. WARNINGS restore and rrestore can get confused when doing incremental restores from dump tapes that were made on active file systems. A level zero dump (see dump (1M)) must be done after a full restore. Since restore runs in user code, it has no control over inode allocation; thus a full dump must be done to get a new set of directories reflecting the new inode numbering, even though the contents of the files are unchanged. AUTHOR restore and rrestore were developed by the University of California, Berkeley. FILES /dev/rmt/0m /tmp/rstdr* /tmp/rstmd* ./restoresymtab r Default tape drive. File containing directories on the tape. Owner, mode, and time stamps for directories. Information passed between incremental restores. SEE ALSO dump(1M), mkfs(1M), mount(1M), newfs(1M), rmt(1M). HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −3− Section 1M− 707 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ revck(1M) revck(1M) NAME revck - check internal revision numbers of HP-UX files SYNOPSIS /usr/old/usr/bin/revck ref_files DESCRIPTION revck checks the internal revision numbers of lists of files against reference lists. Each ref_file must contain a list of absolute path names (each beginning with /) and whatstrings (revision information strings from what — see what (1)). Path names begin in column 1 of a line, and have a colon appended to them. Each path name is followed by zero or more lines of whatstrings , one per line, each indented by at least one tab (this is the same format in which what outputs its results). For each path name, revck checks that the file exists, and that executing what on the current path name produces results identical to the whatstrings in the reference file. Only the first 1024 bytes of whatstrings are checked. ref_files are usually the absolute path names of the revlist files shipped with HP-UX. Each HP-UX software (for example, product includes a file named /system/ product/ revlist /system/97070A/revlist). The revlist file for each product is a reference list for the ordinary files shipped with the product, plus any empty directories on which the product depends. FILES /system/ product /revlist lists of HP-UX files and revision numbers DIAGNOSTICS revck is silent except for reporting missing files or mismatches. WARNINGS revck produces unpredictable results if a ref_file is not in the right format. SEE ALSO what(1). r Section 1M− 708 __ −1− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ rexd(1M) rexd(1M) NAME rexd - RPC-based remote execution server SYNOPSIS /usr/sbin/rpc.rexd [-l log_file ] [-m mountdir ] [-r] DESCRIPTION rexd is the RPC server for remote command execution. A rexd is started by inetd when a remote execution request is received (see inetd (1M)). rexd exits when command execution has completed. If the user ID (uid) in the remote execution request is assigned to a user on the server, rexd executes the command as that user. If no user on the server is assigned to the uid, rexd does not execute the command. The -r option and inetd.sec security file allow for better access control (see inetd.sec (4)). For noninteractive commands, standard output and error file descriptors are connected to sockets. Interactive commands use pseudo terminals for standard input, output, and error (see pty (7)). If the file system specified in the remote execution request is not already mounted on the server, rexd uses NFS to mount the file system for the duration of the command execution (see nfs (7)). rexd mounts file systems with the nosuid and soft options. For more details on mount options see mount (1M). If the server cannot mount the file system, an error message is returned to the client. By default, any mount points required by rexd are created below /var/spool/rexd. To change the default location, use the -m option. Options rexd recognizes the following options and command-line arguments: -l log_file Log any diagnostic, warning, and error messages to log_file . If log_file exists, rexd appends messages to the file. If log_file does not exist, rexd creates it. Messages are not logged if the -l option is not specified. Information logged to the file includes date and time of the error, host name, process ID and name of the function generating the error, and the error message. Note that different RPC services can share a single log file because enough information is included to uniquely identify each error. -m mountdir Create temporary mount points below directory mountdir . By default, rexd creates temporary mount points below /var/spool/rexd. The directory mountdir should have read and execute permission for all users (mode 555). Otherwise, rexd denies execution for users that do not have read and execute permission. -r Use increased security checking. When started with the -r option, rexd denies execution access to a client unless one of the following conditions is met: • • r The name of the client host is in /etc/hosts.equiv file on the server. The user on the server that is associated with the uid sent by the client has an entry in $HOME/.rhosts specifying the client name on a line or the client name followed by at least one blank and the user’s name. For example, assume a user whose login name is mjk is assigned to uid 7 on NODE1 and executes the following on command: on NODE2 pwd User mjk on NODE2 must have one of the following entries in $HOME/.rhosts : NODE1 NODE1 mjk DIAGNOSTICS The following is a subset of the messages that could appear in the log file if the -l option is used. Some of these messages are also returned to the client. rexd: could not umount: dir rexd was unable to umount() the user’s current working file system. HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −1− See Section 1M− 709 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ rexd(1M) rexd(1M) WARNINGS for more details. rexd: mountdir (mountdir ) is not a directory The path name mountdir , under which temporary mount points are created, is not a directory or does not exist. rexd: command : Command not found rexd could not find command . rexd: command : Permission denied rexd was denied permission to execute command . rexd: command : Text file busy The executable file is currently open for writing. rexd: command : Can’t execute rexd was unable to execute command . rexd: root execution not allowed rexd does not allow execution as user root . rexd: User id uid not valid The uid uid is not assigned to a user on the server. rexd: User id uid denied access rexd was started with the -r option and the remote execution request did not meet either of the conditions required by the -r option. rexd: host is not running a mount daemon The host host on which the user’s current working directory is located is not running mountd . Therefore, rexd is unable to mount the required file system (see mountd (1M)). rexd: not in export list for file_system The host on which the client’s current working directory is located does not have the server on the export list for file system file_system containing the client’s current working directory. Therefore, rexd is unable to mount the required file system. WARNINGS The client’s environment is simulated by rexd , but not completely recreated. The simulation of the client’s environment consists of mounting the file system containing the client’s current working directory (if it is not already mounted) and setting the user’s environment variables on the server to be the same as the user’s environment variables on the client. Therefore a command run by rexd does not always have the same effect as a command run locally on the client. r The rex protocol only identifies the client user by sending the uid of the client process and the host name of the client. Therefore, it is very difficult for rexd to perform user authentication. If a user on the server is assigned to the uid sent by the client, rexd executes the requested command as that user. If no user on the client is assigned to the uid sent by the client, rexd returns an error. The -r option has been added to provide increased user authentication. However, the authentication provided is not foolproof, and is limited by the information passed by the rex protocol. In order to simulate the client’s environment, rexd mounts the file system containing the client’s current working directory (if it is not already mounted). This mount is intended to be temporary for the duration of the command. If rexd mounts a file system, it attempts to umount() the file system after the command has completed executing. However, if rexd receives a SIGKILL signal (see signal (2)), the file system is not unmounted. The file system remains mounted until the superuser executes the appropriate umount command or the server is rebooted. rexd ’s attempt to umount the file system can also fail if the file system is busy. The file system is busy if it contains an open file or a user’s current working directory. The file system remains mounted until the superuser executes the appropriate umount command or the server is rebooted. For more information on rexd security issues, see Using and Administering NFS Services . Security issues and their consequences should be considered before configuring rexd to run on a system. Section 1M− 710 __ −2− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ rexd(1M) rexd(1M) FILES /dev/pty [pqr ]* /dev/tty [pqr ]* /dev/ptym/pty[pqr ]* /dev/pty/tty [pqr ]* /etc/inetd.conf /etc/hosts.equiv $HOME/.rhosts /var/spool/rexd/rexdxxxxx Master pseudo terminals. Slave pseudo terminals. Master pseudo terminals. Slave pseudo terminals. Configuration file for inetd (1M). List of equivalent hosts. User’s private equivalence list. Temporary mount points for remote file systems where xxxxx is a string of alpha numeric characters. AUTHOR rexd was developed by Sun Microsystems, Inc. SEE ALSO on(1), inetd(1M), mount(1M), exports(4), inetd.conf(4), inetd.sec(4). Using and Administering NFS Services r HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −3− Section 1M− 711 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ rexecd(1M) rexecd(1M) NAME rexecd - remote execution server SYNOPSIS /usr/lbin/rexecd [ -n ] [ -s ] DESCRIPTION rexecd is the server for the rexec (3N) routine; it expects to be started by the internet daemon (see inetd (1M)). rexecd provides remote execution facilities with authentication based on user account names and unencrypted passwords. inetd (1M) calls rexecd when a service request is received at the port indicated for the ‘‘exec’’ service specification in /etc/services; see services (4). To run rexecd , the following line should be present in /etc/inetd.conf: exec stream tcp nowait root /usr/lbin/rexecd rexecd See inetd.conf (4) for more information. Options: rexecd recognizes the following options. -n Disable transport-level keep-alive messages. By default, the messages are enabled. The keepalive messages allow sessions to time out if the client crashes or becomes unreachable. -s This option is used in multi-homed NIS systems. It disables remshd from doing a reverse lookup of the client’s IP address; see gethostbyname (3N) for more information. It can be used to circumvent an NIS limitation with multi-homed hosts. When a service request is received, the following protocol is initiated: 1. 2. If the number received in step 1 is non-zero, it is interpreted as the port number of a secondary stream to be used for the stderr . A second connection is then created to the specified port on the client’s host. If the first character sent is a null (\0 ), no secondary connection is made and the stderr of the command is sent to the primary stream. If the secondary connection has been made, rexecd interprets bytes it receives on that socket as signal numbers and passes them to the command as signals (see signal (2)). 3. A null-terminated user name of not more than 16 characters is retrieved on the initial socket. 4. A null-terminated, unencrypted, password of not more than 16 characters is retrieved on the initial socket. 5. A null-terminated command to be passed to a shell is retrieved on the initial socket. The length of the command is limited by the upper bound on the size of the system’s argument list. 6. rexecd then validates the user as is done by login (see login (1)). But it does not use any PAM modules of login for authentication. If the authentication succeeds, rexecd changes to the user’s home directory and establishes the user and group protections of the user. If any of these steps fail, rexecd returns a diagnostic message through the connection, then closes the connection. 7. r The server reads characters from the socket up to a null (\0 ) byte. The resultant string is interpreted as an ASCII number, base 10. A null byte is returned on the connection associated with stderr and the command line is passed to the normal login shell of the user with that shell’s -c option. The shell inherits the network connections established by rexecd . rexecd uses the following path when executing the specified command: /usr/bin:/usr/ccs/bin:/usr/bin/X11:/usr/contrib/bin:/usr/local/bin Transport-level keepalive messages are enabled unless the -n option is present. The use of keepalive messages allows sessions to be timed out if the client crashes or becomes unreachable. DIAGNOSTICS All diagnostic messages are returned on the connection associated with the stderr , after which any network connections are closed. An error is indicated by a leading byte with a value of 1 (0 is returned in step 7 above upon successful completion of all the steps prior to the command execution). Section 1M− 712 __ −1− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ rexecd(1M) rexecd(1M) Username too long The user name is longer than 16 characters. Password too long The password is longer than 16 characters. Command too long The command line passed exceeds the size of the argument list (as configured into the system). Login incorrect No password file entry for the user name existed or the wrong password was supplied. No remote directory The chdir command to the home directory failed. No more processes The server was unable to fork a process to handle the incoming connection. Next step : Wait a period of time and try again. If the message persists, then the server’s host may have a runaway process that is using all the entries in the process table. shellname : ... The user’s login shell could not be started via exec (2) for the given reason. WARNINGS The password is sent unencrypted through the socket connection. AUTHOR rexecd was developed by the University of California, Berkeley. SEE ALSO remsh(1), inetd(1M), rexec(3N), inetd.conf(4), inetd.sec(4), services(4). r HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −2− Section 1M− 713 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ ripquery(1M) ripquery(1M) NAME ripquery - query RIP gateways SYNOPSIS ripquery [-1] [-2] [-[a5] authkey ] [-n] [-N dest [/mask] ] [-p] [-r] [-v] [-w time ] gateway ... DESCRIPTION ripquery is used to request all routes known by a RIP gateway by sending a RIP request or POLL command. The routing information in any routing packets returned is displayed numerically and symbolically. ripquery is intended to be used as a tool for debugging gateways, not for network management. SNMP is the preferred protocol for network management. ripquery by default uses the RIP POLL command, which is an undocumented extension to the RIP specification supported by routed on SunOS 3.x and later and by gated 1.4 and later. The RIP POLL command is preferred over the RIP REQUEST command because it is not subject to Split Horizon and/or Poisoned Reverse. See the RIP RFC for more information. Options -1 Send the query as a version 1 packet. -2 Send the query as a version 2 packet (default). -[a5]authkey Specifies the authentication password to use for queries. If -a specified, an authentication type of SIMPLE will be used, if -5 is specified, an authentication type of MD5 will be used; otherwise the default is an authentication type of NONE. Authentication fields in incoming packets will be displayed, but not validated. -n Prevents the address of the responding host from being looked up to determine the symbolic name. -N dest [/mask] Specifies that the query should be for the specified dest /mask instead of complete routing table. The specification of the optional mask implies a version 2 query. Up to 23 requests about specific destinations may be include in one packet. -p Uses the RIP POLL command to request information from the routing table. This is the default, but is an undocumented extension supported only by some versions of unOS 3.x and later versions of gated . If there is no response to the RIP POLL command, the RIP REQUEST command is tried. gated responds to a POLL command with all the routes learned via RIP. -r Used the RIP REQUEST command to request information from the gateway’s routing table. Unlike the RIP POLL command, all gateways should support the RIP REQUEST. If there is no response to the RIP REQUEST command, the RIP POLL command is tried. gated responds to a REQUEST command with all the routes he announces out the specified interface. Due to limitations in the UDP interface, on systems based on BSD 4.3 Reno or earlier, REQUESTs respond about the interface used to route packets back to the sender. This can be avoided by running ripquery on the host being queried. -v -w time Version information about ripquery is displayed before querying the gateways. r Specifies the time in seconds to wait for the initial response from a gateway. The default value is 5 seconds. AUTHORS Jeffrey C Honig. SEE ALSO gated(1M), gdc(1M), ospf_monitor(1M), GateD Documentation , GateD Configuration Guide . BUGS Some versions of Unix do not allow looking up the symbolic name of a subnet. Section 1M− 714 __ −1− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ rlogind(1M) rlogind(1M) NAME rlogind - remote login server SYNOPSIS /usr/lbin/rlogind [ -lns ] [-B bannerfile ] DESCRIPTION rlogind is the server for the rlogin (1) program. It provides a remote login facility with authentication based on privileged port numbers. rlogind expects to be executed by the Internet daemon (inetd (1M)) when it receives a service request at the port indicated in the services database for login using the tcp protocol (see services (4)). When a service request is received, the following protocol is initiated by rlogind : 1. rlogind checks the client’s source port. If the port is not in the range 512 through 1023 (a ‘‘privileged port’’), the server aborts the connection. 2. rlogind checks the client’s source address and requests the corresponding host name (see gethostent (3N), hosts (4), and named (1M)). If it cannot determine the hostname, it uses the Internet dot-notation representation of the host address. Once the source port and address have been checked, rlogind proceeds with the authentication process described in hosts.equiv (4). rlogind then allocates a STREAMS based pseudo-terminal (see ptm (7), pts (7)), and manipulates file descriptors so that the slave half of the pseudo-terminal becomes stdin , stdout , and stderr for a login process. The login process is an instance of login (1) invoked with the -f option if authentication has succeeded. If automatic authentication fails, login (1) prompts the user with the normal login sequence. Options The rlogind command supports the following options: -l This option is used to prevent any authentication based on the user’s .rhosts file unless the user is logging in as super-user. -s This option is used in multi-homed NIS systems. It disables rlogind from doing a reverse lookup, of the client’s IP address; see gethostbyname (3N). It can be used to circumvent an NIS limitation with multihomed hosts. -n This option is used to disable transport-level keepalive messages. -B bannerfile This option is used to display the file bannerfile to incoming rlogin requests. The rlogind process manipulates the master side of the pseudo-terminal, operating as an intermediary between the login process and the client instance of the rlogin program. The protocol described in ptm (7) and pts (7) is used to enable and disable flow control via Ctrl-S/Ctrl-Q under the direction of the program running on the slave side of the pseudo-terminal, and to flush terminal output in response to interrupt signals. The login process sets the baud rate and TERM environment variable to correspond to the client’s baud rate and terminal type (see environ (5)). r Transport-level keepalive messages are enabled unless the -n option is present. The use of keepalive messages allows sessions to be timed out if the client crashes or becomes unreachable. To start rlogind from the Internet daemon, the configuration file /etc/inetd.conf must contain an entry as follows: login stream tcp nowait root /usr/lbin/rlogind rlogind EXTERNAL INFLUENCES International Code Set Support Single- and multibyte character code sets are supported. DIAGNOSTICS Errors in establishing a connection cause an error message to be returned with a leading byte of 1 through the socket connection, after which the network connection is closed. Any errors generated by the login process or its descendents are passed through by the server as normal communication. fork: No more processes The server was unable to fork a process to handle the incoming connection. HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −1− Section 1M− 715 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ rlogind(1M) rlogind(1M) Next step : Wait a period of time and try again. If this message persists, the server’s host may have runaway processes that are using all the entries in the process table. Cannot allocate pty on remote host The server was unable to obtain a pseudo-terminal for use with the login process. Either all pseudo-terminals were in use, or the pty driver has not been properly set up. Note, the number of slave devices that can be allocated depends on NSTRPTY, a kernel tunable parameter. This can be changed via SAM (see ptm (7), pts (7)). Next step : Check the pty configuration of the host where rlogind executes. Permission denied The server denied access because the client was not using a reserved port. This should only happen to interlopers trying to break into the system. /usr/bin/login: ... The login program could not be started via exec (2) for the reason indicated. Next step : Try to correct the condition causing the problem. If this message persists, contact your system administrator. WARNINGS The ‘‘privileged port’’ authentication procedure used here assumes the integrity of each host and the connecting medium. This is insecure, but is useful in an ‘‘open’’ environment. Note that any passwords are sent unencrypted through the socket connection. AUTHOR rlogind was developed by the University of California, Berkeley. FILES /etc/hosts.equiv $HOME /.rhosts List of equivalent hosts User’s private equivalence list SEE ALSO login(1), rlogin(1), inetd(1M), named(1M), inetd.conf(4), services(4), environ(5), pty(7). gethostent(3N), Section 1M− 716 −2− ruserok(3N), hosts(4), hosts.equiv(4), r __ HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ rlogind(1M) Kerberos rlogind(1M) NAME rlogind - remote login server SYNOPSIS /usr/lbin/rlogind [-ln] [-B bannerfile ] Kerberos V5 Network Authentication environments: /usr/lbin/rlogind [-clnKkRr ] [-B bannerfile ] DESCRIPTION rlogind is the server for the rlogin (1) program. It provides a remote login facility with two kinds of authentication methods: 1. Authentication based on privileged port numbers where the client’s source port must be in the range 512 through 1023. In this case rlogind assumes it is operating in normal or non-secure environment. 2. Authentication based on Kerberos V5. In this case rlogind assumes it is operating in a Kerberos V5 Network Authentication, i.e., secure environment. The inetd daemon invokes rlogind if a service request is received at ports indicated by the login or klogin services specified in /etc/services (see inetd (1M) and services (4)). Service requests arriving at the klogin port assume a secure environment and expect Kerberos authentication to take place. To start rlogind from the inetd daemon in a non-secure environment, the configuration file /etc/inetd.conf must contain an entry as follows: login stream tcp nowait root /usr/lbin/rlogind rlogind In a secure environment, /etc/inetd.conf must contain an entry: klogin stream tcp nowait root /usr/lbin/rlogind rlogind -K See inetd.conf (4) for more information. To prevent non-secure access, the entry for login should be commented out in /etc/inetd.conf. Any non-Kerberos access will be denied since the entry for the port indicated by login has now been removed or commented out. In a such a situation, a generic error message, rcmd: connect <hostname > : Connection refused is displayed. See DIAGNOSTICS for more details. Options rlogind recognizes the following options: -c Ignore checksum verification. This option is used to achieve interoperability between clients and r servers using different checksum calculation methods. For example, the checksum calculation in a application developed with Kerberos V5 Beta 4 API is different from the calculation in a Kerberos V5-1.0 application. -l Prevents any authentication based on the user’s .rhosts file unless the user is logging in as super-user. -Bbannerfile Causes the file, bannerfile , to be displayed to incoming rlogin requests. In a secure environment, rlogind will recognize the following additional options: -K Authorization based on Kerberos V5 must succeed or access will be rejected (see sis (5) for details on authorization). -R Authentication based on privileged port numbers and authorization of the remote user through equivalent accounts must succeed. hosts.equiv (4). For more information on equivalent accounts, see -r Either one of the following must succeed. The order in which the authorization checks are done is as specified below. 1. Authentication based on privileged port numbers and authorization of the remote user through equivalent accounts (see hosts.equiv (4)). HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −1− Section 1M− 717 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ rlogind(1M) 2. rlogind(1M) Kerberos Authorization based on Kerberos V5. -k Either one of the following must succeed. The order in which the authorization checks are done is as specified below. 1. Authorization based on Kerberos V5. 2. Authentication based on privileged port numbers and authorization of the remote user through equivalent accounts. Note: The -k option is ignored when used with -K , and the -r option is ignored when used with R. Also, if no options are specified, the default option is -K. Operation When a service request is received, the following protocol is initiated by rlogind : 1. rlogind checks the client’s source port. If the port is not in a privileged port, i.e., in the range 512 through 1023, and rlogind is operating in a non-secure environment, the connection is terminated. In a secure environment, the action taken depends on the command line options: -R The source port must be a privileged port otherwise rlogind terminates the connection. -r If the source port is not a privileged port then Kerberos authorization must succeed or the connection is terminated. 2. -k The source port must be a privileged port if Kerberos authorization fails. -K No action is taken. rlogind checks the client’s source address and requests the corresponding host name (see gethostent (3N), hosts (4), and named (1M)). If it cannot determine the hostname, it uses the Internet dot-notation representation of the host address. 3. rlogind , in a secure environment, proceeds with the Kerberos authentication process described in sis (5). If authentication succeeds, then the authorization selected by the command line option -K , -R, -k, or -r is performed. The authorization selected could be as specified in hosts.equiv (4) or Kerberos authorization as specified in sis (5). 4. 5. r rlogind then allocates a STREAMS based pseudo-terminal (see ptm (7), pts (7)), and manipulates file descriptors so that the slave half of the pseudo-terminal becomes stdin , stdout , and stderr for a login process. This login process is an instance of login (1) invoked with the -f option if authentication has succeeded. In a non-secure environment, if automatic authentication fails, login (1) prompts the user with the normal login sequence. In a secure environment, if authentication fails, rlogind generates an error message and quits. The rlogind process manipulates the master side of the pseudo-terminal, operating as an intermediary between the login process and the client instance of the rlogin program. The protocol described in ptm (7) and pts (7) is used to enable and disable flow control via Ctrl-S/Ctrl-Q under the direction of the program running on the slave side of the pseudo-terminal, and to flush terminal output in response to interrupt signals. The login process sets the baud rate and TERM environment variable to correspond to the client’s baud rate and terminal type (see environ (5)). Transport-level keepalive messages are enabled unless the -n option is present. The use of keepalive messages allows sessions to be timed out if the client crashes or becomes unreachable. EXTERNAL INFLUENCES International Code Set Support Single- and multibyte character code sets are supported. DIAGNOSTICS Errors in establishing a connection cause an error message to be returned with a leading byte of 1 through the socket connection, after which the network connection is closed. Any errors generated by the login process or its descendents are passed through by the server as normal communication. fork: No more processes The server was unable to fork a process to handle the incoming connection. Next step : Wait a period of time and try again. If this message persists, the server’s host may have runaway processes that are using all the entries in the process table. Section 1M− 718 __ −2− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ rlogind(1M) rlogind(1M) Kerberos Cannot allocate pty on remote host The server was unable to obtain a pseudo-terminal for use with the login process. Either all pseudo-terminals were in use, or the pty driver has not been properly set up. Note, the number of slave devices that can be allocated depends on NSTRPTY, a kernel tunable parameter. This can be changed via SAM ( see ptm (7), pts (7)). Next step : Check the pty configuration of the host where rlogind executes. Permission denied The server denied access because the client was not using a reserved port. This should only happen to interlopers trying to break into the system. /usr/bin/login: ... The login program could not be started via exec (2) for the reason indicated. Next step : Try to correct the condition causing the problem. If this message persists, contact your system administrator. rcmd: connect : <hostname>: Connection refused. This generic message could be due to a number of reasons. One of the reasons could be because the entry for login service is not present in /etc/inetd.conf. This entry may have been removed or commented out to prevent non-secure access. Kerberos specific errors are listed in sis (5). WARNINGS The integrity of each host and the connecting medium is assumed if the "privileged port" authentication procedure is used in a non-secure environment or if the command line options -R or -r are used in a secure environment. Although both these methods provide insecure access, they are useful in an "open" environment. This is insecure, but is useful in an ‘‘open’’ environment. Note also that all information, including any passwords, are passed unencrypted between the two hosts when rlogind is invoked in a non-secure environment. AUTHOR rlogind was developed by the University of California, Berkeley. FILES /etc/hosts.equiv $HOME /.rhosts List of equivalent hosts User’s private equivalence list SEE ALSO login(1), rlogin(1), inetd(1M), named(1M), gethostent(3N), inetd.conf(4), services(4), environ(5), pty(7), sis(5). HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −3− ruserok(3N), hosts(4), hosts.equiv(4), r Section 1M− 719 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ rlp(1M) rlp(1M) NAME rlp - send LP line printer request to a remote system SYNOPSIS /usr/sbin/rlp -I id [-C class ] [-J job ] [-T title ] [-i[ numcols ] ] [-k font ] [-w num ] [-cdfghlnptv ] file DESCRIPTION rlp transfers a spooling request to a remote system to be printed. rlp communicates with a spooling daemon on a remote system to transfer the spooling request. Options can be set only on the original system. Transfers of a remote request use only the -I option and the file. This command is intended to be used only by the spool system in response to the lp command and should not be invoked directly (see lp (1)). Options rlp recognizes the following options and command-line arguments: -Iid -C class -J job The argument id is the request ID. -T title Use the title argument as the title used by pr instead of the file name (see pr (1)). -T is ignored unless the -p option is specified. -h -i[numcols] Suppress the printing of the banner page. -kfont -wnum Specify a font to be mounted on font position k , where k is from 1 through 4. Take the class argument as a job classification for use on the banner page. Take the job argument as the job name to print on the banner page. Normally, the first file’s name is used. Cause the output to be indented. If the next argument is numeric, it is used as the number of blanks to be printed before each line; otherwise, 8 characters are printed. Use the num argument number as the page width for pr . The following single-letter options are used to notify the line printer spooler that the files are not standard text files. The spooling system uses the appropriate filters (if the option is supported) to print the data accordingly. These options are mutually exclusive. -c -d -f The files are assumed to contain data produced by cifplot . -g -l -n -p -t -v The files are assumed to contain standard plot data as produced by the plot routines. r The files are assumed to contain data from tex (DVI format). Use a filter that interprets the first character of each line as a standard FORTRAN carriage control character. Use a filter that suppresses page breaks. The files are assumed to contain data from ditroff (device-independent troff ). Use pr to format the files. The files are assumed to contain data from troff (cat phototypesetter commands). The files are assumed to contain a raster image for devices such as the Benson Varian. WARNINGS Some remote line printer models may not support all of these options. Options not supported are silently ignored. When rlp is transferring a request that originated on another system, only the -I option and the file is used. This saves rlp from having to set the various options multiple times. Specifying unused options does not produce an error. AUTHOR rlp was developed by the University of California, Berkeley and HP. Section 1M− 720 __ −1− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ rlp(1M) rlp(1M) FILES /etc/passwd /usr/sbin/rlpdaemon /var/spool/lp/* /var/adm/lp/* /etc/lp/* /usr/lib/lp/* SEE ALSO accept(1M), enable(1), lp(1), lpadmin(1M), lpsched(1M), lpstat(1), rcancel(1M), rlpdaemon(1M), rlpstat(1M). r HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −2− Section 1M− 721 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ rlpdaemon(1M) rlpdaemon(1M) NAME rlpdaemon - remote spooling line printer daemon, message write daemon SYNOPSIS /usr/sbin/rlpdaemon [ -i ] [ -l ] [ -L logfile ] DESCRIPTION rlpdaemon is a line printer daemon (spool area handler) for remote spool requests. rlpdaemon is normally invoked at boot time from the /sbin/rc file or started by inetd (1M), when necessary. rlpdaemon runs on a system that receives requests to be printed. rlpdaemon transfers files to the spooling area, displays the queue, or removes jobs from the queue. rlpdaemon is also used as a server process to write a message on the user’s terminal, upon receiving a request from a remote system. Options -i Prevent rlpdaemon from remaining after a request is processed. This is required if rlpdaemon is started from inetd (1M). -l Cause rlpdaemon to log error messages and valid requests received from the network to the file /var/adm/lp/lpd.log. This can be useful for debugging. -L logfile Change the file used for writing error conditions from the file /var/adm/lp/lpd.log to logfile . When rlpdaemon is started by inetd (1M), access control is provided via the file /var/adm/inetd.sec to allow or prevent a host from making requests. When rlpdaemon is not started by inetd (1M), all requests must come from one of the machines listed in the file /etc/hosts.equiv or /var/spool/lp/.rhosts. When /var/spool/lp/.rhosts is used for access, the user name should be lp . The following entry should exist in /etc/services for remote spooling: printer 515/tcp spooler EXAMPLES To start rlpdaemon from /sbin/rc , invoke the command: /usr/sbin/rlpdaemon To start rlpdaemon from inetd , the following line should be included in the file /etc/inetd.conf: printer stream tcp nowait root /usr/sbin/rlpdaemon rlpdaemon -i r WARNINGS If the remote system is the same as the local system and rlpdaemon was not started by inetd (1M), the local system name must be included in file /etc/hosts.equiv. AUTHOR rlpdaemon was developed by the University of California, Berkeley and HP. FILES /etc/hosts.equiv /etc/services /var/spool/lp/* /var/adm/lp/* /etc/lp/* /usr/lib/lp/* /var/adm/inetd.sec SEE ALSO accept(1M), enable(1), lp(1), inetd(1M), lpadmin(1M), lpsched(1M), lpstat(1), rcancel(1M), rlp(1M), rlpdaemon(1M), rlpstat(1M). hosts.equiv(4), inetd.conf(4), inetd.sec(4), services(4). HP-UX System Administrator manuals. Section 1M− 722 __ −1− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ rlpstat(1M) rlpstat(1M) NAME rlpstat - print status of LP spooler requests on a remote system SYNOPSIS /usr/sbin/rlpstat [-d printer ] [-u user ] [ id ... ] DESCRIPTION rlpstat reports the status of the specified jobs or all requests associated with a user. If no arguments are specified, rlpstat reports on any requests currently in the queue. For each request submitted (i.e., each invocation of lp — see lp (1)) rlpstat reports the request ID, user’s name, total size of the request, date of the request, and, if it is being transferred, the device. This command is intended to be used only by the spool system in response to the lpstat command and should not be invoked directly (see lpstat (1M)). Options rlpstat recognizes the following options and command-line arguments: -d printer Specify a particular printer. Otherwise, the default line printer is used (or the value of the LPDEST environment variable). -u user Status is requested on all requests for the user who executed the rlpstat command on the specified printer (see the -d option). id Status is requested on the specified request IDs (as returned by lp ). All the request IDs must be for the same printer. AUTHOR rlpstat was developed by the University of California, Berkeley, and HP. FILES /var/spool/lp/* /var/adm/lp/* /etc/lp/* /usr/lib/lp/* SEE ALSO enable(1), lp(1), lpadmin(1M), lpsched(1M), lpstat(1), rcancel(1M), rlp(1M), rlpdaemon(1M). r HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −1− Section 1M− 723 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ rmsf(1M) rmsf(1M) NAME rmsf - remove a special (device) file SYNOPSIS /sbin/rmsf [-a-k] [-D directory ] [-q-v] special_file ... /sbin/rmsf [-C class -d driver ] [-D directory ] -H hw_path [-k] [-q-v] DESCRIPTION The rmsf command removes one or more special files from the /dev directory and potentially removes information about the associated device or devices with H/W type "DEVICE" (see ioscan (1M)) from the system. If no options are specified, rmsf removes only the special_files specified on the command line. The -k option causes rmsf to remove the definition of the device from the system without removing any special files. The -a option causes rmsf to remove the device definition, and all special files that map to it from the /dev directory (or the directory specified with the -D option). By default, rmsf only removes special_file as given on the command line, however, when the -a option is used and special_file is an absolute path name special_file will be removed even if it does not reside in the /dev directory (or the directory specified with the -D option). Note that if special_file belongs to a node for which H/W type is not "DEVICE", the device definition will not be removed from the system and the special_file will be removed if it is a leaf node. If a -H hw_path is specified, special files are removed as follows: • If hw_path belongs to a node with H/W type "DEVICE," all special files mapping to devices at that hardware path and the system definition of those devices are removed. • If hw_path belongs to a node for which H/W type is not "DEVICE," then, a special file is removed as follows: • If it is a leaf node, only special files for that node will be removed. • If the node has children, then a warning message will be issued and system definition of all the children devices and their special files are removed. The -C and -d options remove only those special files that are associated with the given device driver or that belong to the given device class, respectively. This is useful when there is more than one type of special file mapped to a single hardware path. If the -k option is specified, the definition of all devices at that hardware path are removed from the system, again without removing any special files. r Normally, rmsf displays a message as the special files are deleted for each driver. The -q (quiet) option suppresses the deletion message. The -v (verbose) option displays the deletion message and the name of each special file as it is deleted. Note that most drivers do not support the ability to be removed from the system. If the device being removed from the system uses a dynamically assigned major number, that number will be freed up for future allocation. Options rmsf recognizes the following options: -a Remove the definition of the device from the system along with all special files that refer to the device. This option cannot be used with -k. -C class Match devices that belong to a given device class, class . Device classes can be listed with the lsdev command (see lsdev (1M)). They are defined in files in the directory /usr/conf/master.d. This option cannot be used with -d. -d driver Match devices that are controlled by the specified device driver, driver . Device drivers can be listed with the lsdev command (see lsdev (1M)). They are defined in files in the directory /usr/conf/master.d. This option cannot be used with -C. -D directory Override the default device installation directory /dev and remove the special files from directory instead. directory must exist; otherwise, rmsf displays an error message and exits. See WARNINGS. Section 1M− 724 __ −1− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ rmsf(1M) rmsf(1M) -H hw_path Match devices at a given hardware path, hw-path . Hardware paths can be listed with the ioscan command (see ioscan (1M)). A hardware path specifies the addresses of the hardware components leading to a device. It consists of a string of numbers separated by periods (.), such as 52 (a card), 52.3 (a target address), and 52.3.0 (a device). If a hardware component is a bus converter, the following period, if any, is replaced by a slash (/) as in 2, 2/3 , and 2/3.0 . -k Remove the definition of the device from the system, but not any special files. This option cannot be used with -a. -q Quiet option. Normally, rmsf displays a message as each driver is removed. This option suppresses the driver message, but not error messages. See the -v option. -v Verbose option. In addition to the normal processing message, display the name of each special file as it is removed. See the -q option. Print the names of the files as rmsf is removing them. RETURN VALUE rmsf exits with one of the following values: 0 1 Successful completion, including warning diagnostics. Failure. An error occurred. DIAGNOSTICS Most of the diagnostic messages from rmsf are self-explanatory. Listed below are some messages deserving further clarification. Errors cause rmsf to halt immediately. Warnings allow the program to continue. Errors No such device in the system No device in the system matched the options specified. Use ioscan to list the devices in the system (see ioscan (1M)). special_file is not a special file The file is not associated with an I/O device. Warnings WARNING: The specified hardware path is BUS_NEXUS/INTERFACE type. This will remove all the devices connected to it. The H/W type of the node specified by hw_path is BUS_NEXUS/INTERFACE. All the devices under this path will be removed. r Cannot remove driver at hw_path The definition of the device located at hw_path and controlled by driver cannot be removed from the kernel. That is driver does not support the unbind function. No device associated with special_file The special file does not map to a device in the system; the file is removed unless the -k option was specified. EXAMPLES Remove the special file mux0 from the current directory: rmsf ./mux0 Remove the system definition of the device associated with /dev/lp0 along with all special files that refer to the device: rmsf -a /dev/lp0 Remove the system definitions for all devices associated with hardware path 52.6.0: rmsf -k -H 52.6.0 WARNINGS Most commands and subsystems assume their device files are in /dev , therefore the use of the -D option is discouraged. HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −2− Section 1M− 725 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ rmsf(1M) rmsf(1M) Most device drivers do not support the unbind operation necessary to remove the device from the system. AUTHOR rmsf was developed by HP. FILES /dev/config /etc/ioconfig /usr/conf/master.d/* SEE ALSO rm(1), insf(1M), ioscan(1M), lsdev(1M), lssf(1M), mksf(1M), ioconfig(4). r Section 1M− 726 __ −3− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ rmt(1M) rmt(1M) NAME rmt - remote magnetic-tape protocol module SYNOPSIS /usr/sbin/rmt DESCRIPTION rmt is a program used by the remote dump and restore programs for manipulating a magnetic tape drive through an interprocess communication (IPC) connection. The fbackup and frecover commands also use rmt to achieve remote backup capability (see fbackup(1M) and frecover (1M)). rmt is normally started up with an rexec() or rcmd() call (see rexec (3N) and rcmd (3N)). rmt accepts requests specific to the manipulation of magnetic tapes, performs the commands, then responds with a status indication. DDS devices that emulate magnetic tapes are also supported. All responses are in ASCII and in one of two forms. Successful commands have responses of Anumber \n where number is an ASCII representation of a decimal number. Unsuccessful commands are responded to with Eerror-number \nerror-message \n where error-number is one of the possible error numbers described in errno (2) and error-message is the corresponding error string as printed from a call to perror() (see perror (3C)). The protocol is comprised of the following commands: Odevice \nmode \n Open the specified device using the indicated mode . device is a full pathname and mode is an ASCII representation of a decimal number suitable for passing to open() (see open (2)). If a device is already open, it is closed before a new open is performed. odevice \nmode \n Open the specified device using the indicated mode . device is a full pathname and mode is an ASCII representation of an octal number suitable for passing to open() . If a device is already open, it is closed before a new open is performed. Cdevice \n Close the currently open device. The device specified is ignored. Lwhence \noffset \n Perform an lseek() operation using the specified parameters (see lseek (2)). The response value is that returned from by lseek() . Wcount \n Write data onto the open device. rmt reads count bytes from the connection, aborting if a premature end-of-file is encountered. The response value is that returned from by write() (see write (2)). Rcount \n Read count bytes of data from the open device. If count exceeds the size of the data buffer (10 Kbytes), it is truncated to the data buffer size. rmt then performs the requested read() and responds with Acount-read \n if the read was successful. Otherwise an error is returned in the standard format. If the read was successful, the data read is then sent. r Ioperation \ncount \n Perform a MTIOCOP ioctl() command using the specified parameters. Parameters are interpreted as ASCII representations of the decimal values to be placed in the mt_op and mt_count fields of the structure used in the ioctl() call. The return value is the count parameter when the operation is successful. S Return the status of the open device, as obtained with a MTIOCGET ioctl() call. If the operation was successful, an ACK is sent with the size of the status buffer, then the status buffer is sent (in binary). s Return the status of the open device, as obtained with a fstat() call. If the operation was successful, an ACK is sent with the size of the status buffer, then the status buffer is sent (in binary). f Return the status of the open device, as obtained with a fstat() call. If the operation was successful, an ACK is sent with the size of the status buffer, then the status buffer is sent in the following ASCII format: HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −1− Section 1M− 727 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ rmt(1M) rmt(1M) machine <blank>value <newline> stat_struct_member_name <blank>value <newline> The end of the data is indicated by an ASCII NULL character. See /usr/include/sys/stat.h for the struct stat definition. In addition to the struct stat information, there is an entry in the buffer describing the machine type as returned from a uname() call (see uname (2)). In the above format ‘‘machine’’ is a key word. All fields except st_spare4 of the struct stat are returned. m Return the status of the open device, as obtained with a MTIOCGET ioctl() call. If the operation was successful, an ack is sent with the size of the status buffer, then the status buffer is sent in the following ASCII format: machine <blank>value <newline> mtget_struct_member_name <blank>value <newline> The end of the data is indicated by an ASCII NULL character. See /usr/include/sys/mtio.h for the struct mtget definition. In addition to the struct mtget information there is an entry in the buffer describing the machine type as returned from a uname() call. In the above format ‘‘machine’’ is a keyword. Any other command causes rmt to exit. RETURN VALUE Device status is returned in the field mt_gstat . macros for checking the status bits. /usr/include/sys/mtio.h contains defined DIAGNOSTICS All responses are of the form described above. AUTHOR rmt was developed by the University of California, Berkeley. SEE ALSO ftio(1), fbackup(1M), frecover(1M), dump(1M), restore(1M), rcmd(3N), rexec(3N). WARNINGS Use of this command for remote file access protocol is discouraged. r Section 1M− 728 __ −2− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ route(1M) route(1M) NAME route - manually manipulate the routing tables SYNOPSIS /usr/sbin/route [-f] [-n] [-p pmtu ] add [net host ] destination [netmask mask ] gateway [count ] /usr/sbin/route [-f] [-n] delete [net host ] destination [netmask mask ] gateway [count ] /usr/sbin/route -f [-n] DESCRIPTION The route command manipulates the network routing tables manually. You must have appropriate privileges. Subcommands The following subcommands are supported. add Add the specified host or network route to the network routing table. If the route already exists, a message is printed and nothing changes. delete Delete the specified host or network route from the network routing table. Options and Arguments route recognizes the following options and arguments. -f Delete all route table entries that specify a remote host for a gateway. If this is used with one of the subcommands, the entries are deleted before the subcommand is processed. -n Print any host and network addresses in Internet dot notation, except for the default network address, which is printed as default . -p pmtu Specifies a path maximum transmission unit (MTU) value for a static route. The minimum value allowed is 68 bytes; the maximum is the MTU of the outgoing interface for this route. This option can be applied to both host and network routes. net The type of destination address. If this argument is omitted, routes to a particular host are distinguished from those to a network by interpreting the Internet address associated with destination . If the destination has a local address part of INADDR_ANY(0) , the route is assumed to be to a network; otherwise, it is treated as a route to a host. or host destination The destination host system where the packets will be routed. destination can be one of the following: • • • • r A host name (the official name or an alias, see gethostent (3N)). A network name (the official name or an alias, see getnetent (3N)). An Internet address in dot notation (see inet (3N)). The keyword default , which signifies the wildcard gateway route (see routing (7)). netmask mask The mask that will be bit-wise ANDed with destination to yield a net address where the packets will be routed. mask can be specified as a single hexadecimal number with a leading 0x , with a dot-notation Internet address, or with a pseudo-network name listed in the network table (see networks (4)). The length of the mask, which is the number of contiguous 1’s starting from the leftmost bit position of the 32-bit field, can be shorter than the default network mask for the destination address. (see routing (7)). If the netmask option is not given, mask for the route will be derived from the netmasks associated with the local interfaces. (see ifconfig (1M)). mask will be defaulted to the longest netmask of those local interfaces that have the same network address. If there is not any local interface that has the same network address, then mask will be defaulted to the default network mask of destination. gateway The gateway through which the destination is reached. gateway can be one of the following: HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −1− Section 1M− 729 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ route(1M) route(1M) • • count A host name (the official name or an alias, see gethostent (3N)). An Internet address in dot notation (see inet (3N)). An integer that indicates whether the gateway is a remote host or the local host. If the route leads to a destination through a remote gateway, count should be a number greater than 0. If the route leads to destination and the gateway is the local host, count should be 0. The default for count is zero. The result is not defined if count is negative. Operation All symbolic names specified for a destination or gateway are looked up first as a host name using gethostbyname(); if the host name is not found, the destination is searched for as a network name using getnetbyname(). destination and gateway can be in dot notation (see inet (3N)). If the -n option is not specified, any host and network addresses are displayed symbolically according to the name returned by gethostbyaddr() and getnetbyaddr(), respectively, except for the default network address (printed as default ) and addresses that have unknown names. Addresses with unknown names are printed in Internet dot notation (see inet (3N)). If the -n option is specified, any host and network addresses are printed in Internet dot notation except for the default network address which is printed as default . If the -f option is specified, route deletes all route table entries that specify a remote host for a gateway. If it is used with one of the subcommands described above, the entries are deleted before the subcommand is processed. Path MTU Discovery is a technique for discovering the maximum size of an IP datagram that can be sent on an internet path without causing datagram fragmentation in the intermediate routers. In essence, a source host that utilizes this technique initially sends out datagrams up to the the size of the outgoing interface. The Don’t Fragment (DF) bit in the IP datagram header is set. As an intermediate router that supports Path MTU Discovery receives a datagram that is too large to be forwarded in one piece to the next-hop router and the DF bit is set, the router will discard the datagram and send an ICMP Destination Unreachable message with a code meaning "fragmentation needed and DF set". The ICMP message will also contain the MTU of the next-hop router. When the source host receives the ICMP message, it reduces the path MTU of the route to the MTU in the ICMP message. With this technique, the host route in the source host for this path will contain the proper MTU. The -p pmtu option is useful only if you know the network environment well enough to enter an appropriate pmtu for a host or network route. IP will fragment a datagram to the pmtu specified for the route on the local host before sending the datagram out to the remote. It will avoid fragmentation by routers along the path, if the pmtu specified in the route command is correct. r ping can be used to find the pmtu information for the route to a remote host. The pmtu information in the routing table can be displayed with the netstat -r command (see netstat (1)). The loopback interface (lo0) is automatically configured when the system boots with the TCP/IP software. The default IP address and netmask of the loopback interface are 127.0.0.1 and 255.0.0.0, respectively. The 127.0.0.0 loopback route is set up automatically when lo0 is configured so that packets for any 127.*.*.* address will loop back to the local host. Users cannot add or delete any 127.*.*.* loopback routes. Output add destination : gateway gateway The specified route is being added to the tables. delete destination : gateway gateway The specified route is being deleted from the tables. Flags The values of the count and destination type fields in the route command determine the presence of the G and H flags in the netstat -r display and thus the route type, as shown in the following table. Section 1M− 730 __ −2− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ route(1M) Count =0 >0 =0 >0 =0 >0 route(1M) Destination Type network network host host default default Flags U UG UH UGH U UG Route Type Route to a network directly from the local host Route to a network through a remote host gateway Route to a remote host directly from the local host Route to a remote host through a remote host gateway Wildcard route directly from the local host Wildcard route through a remote host gateway DIAGNOSTICS The following error diagnostics can be displayed: add a route that already exists The specified entry is already in the routing table. delete a route that does not exist The specified route was not in the routing table. cannot update loopback route Routes for any 127.*.*.* loopback destination cannot be added or deleted. WARNINGS Reciprocal route commands must be executed on the local host, the destination host, and all intermediate hosts if routing is to succeed in the cases of virtual circuit connections or bidirectional datagram transfers. The HP-UX implementation of route does not presently support a change subcommand. AUTHOR route was developed by the University of California, Berkeley. FILES /etc/networks /etc/hosts SEE ALSO netstat(1), ifconfig(1M), ping(1M), ndd(1M), getsockopt(2), recv(2), send(2), gethostent(3N), getnetent(3N), inet(3N), routing(7). r HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −3− Section 1M− 731 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ rpc.nisd(1M) rpc.nisd(1M) NAME rpc.nisd, rpc.nisd_resolv, nisd, nisd_resolv - NIS+ service daemon SYNOPSIS /usr/sbin/rpc.nisd [ -ACDFhlv ] [ -Y [ -B [ -t netid ]]] [ -d dictionary ] [ -L load ] [ -S level ] rpc.nisd_resolv DESCRIPTION The rpc.nisd daemon is an RPC service that implements the NIS+ service. This daemon must be running on all machines that serve a portion of the NIS+ namespace. rpc.nisd is usually started from a system startup script. rpc.nisd_resolv is an auxillary process that is started by rpc.nisd when it is invoked with -B option. Note that rpc.nisd_resolv should not be started independently. Options -A Authentication verbose mode. The daemon logs all the authentication related activities to syslogd (1M) with LOG_INFO priority. -B Provide ypserv compatible DNS forwarding for NIS host requests. The DNS resolving process, rpc.nisd_resolv, is started and controlled by rpc.nisd . This option requires that the /etc/resolv.conf file be set up for communication with a DNS nameserver. The nslookup utility can be used to verify communication with a DNS nameserver. See resolver (4) and nslookup (1). -C -D -F Open diagnostic channel on /dev/console . Debug mode (don’t fork). Force the server to do a checkpoint of the database when it starts up. Forced checkpoints may be required when the server is low on disk space. This option removes updates from the transaction log that have propagated to all of the replicas. -L number Specify the ‘‘load’’ the NIS+ service is allowed to place on the server. The load is specified in terms of the number of child processes that the server may spawn. This number must be at least 1 for the callback functions to work correctly. The default is 128. -S level Set the authorization security level of the service. The argument is a number between 0 and 2. By default, the daemon runs at security level 2. 0 At security level 1, the daemon accepts both AUTH_SYS and AUTH_DES credentials for authenticating clients and authorizing them to perform NIS+ operations. This is not a secure mode of operation since AUTH_SYS credentials are easily forged. It should not be used on networks in which any untrusted users may potentially have access. 2 -Y Security level 0 is designed to be used for testing and initial setup of the NIS+ namespace. When running at level 0, the daemon does not enforce any access controls. Any client is allowed to perform any operation, including updates and deletions. 1 r At security level 2, the daemon accepts only AUTH_DES credentials for authentication and authorization. This is the highest level of security currently provided by the NIS+ service. This is the default security level if the -S option is not used. Put the server into NIS (YP) compatibility mode. When operating in this mode, the NIS+ server will respond to NIS Version 2 requests using the version 2 protocol. Because the YP protocol is not authenticated, only those items that have read access to nobody (the unauthenticated request) will be visible through the V2 protocol. It supports only the standard Version 2 maps in this mode (see -B option and NOTES in ypfiles (4)). -d dictionary Specify an alternate dictionary for the NIS+ database. The primary use of this option is for testing. Note that the string is not interpreted, rather it is simply passed to the db_initialize function. See nis_db (3N). -h Print list of options. Section 1M− 732 __ −1− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ rpc.nisd(1M) rpc.nisd(1M) -t netid Use netid as the transport for communication between rpc.nisd and rpc.nisd_resolv. The default transport is tcp . -v Verbose. With this option, the daemon sends a running narration of what it is doing to the syslog daemon (see syslogd (1M)) at LOG_INFO priority. This option is most useful for debugging problems with the service (see also -A option). EXAMPLES The following example sets up the NIS+ service. rpc.nisd The following example sets up the NIS+ service, emulating YP with DNS forwarding. rpc.nisd -YB EXTERNAL INFLUENCES Environment Variables NETPATH The transports that the NIS+ service will use can be limited by setting this environment variable (see netconfig (4)). FILES /var/nis/parent.object This file contains an XDR encoded NIS+ object that describes the namespace above a root server. This parent namespace may be another NIS+ namespace or a foreign namespace such as one served by the Domain Name Service. It is only present on servers that are serving the root of the namespace. /var/nis/root.object This file contains an XDR encoded NIS+ object that describes the root of the namespace. It is only present on servers that are serving the root of the namespace. /etc/rc.config.d/namesvrs initialization script for NIS+ AUTHOR rpc.nisd and rpc.nisd_resolv were developed by Sun Microsystems, Inc. SEE ALSO nis_cachemgr(1M), nisinit(1M), nissetup(1M), nslookup(1), syslogd(1M), nis_db(3N), netconfig(4), nisfiles(4), resolver(4), ypfiles(4). r HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −2− Section 1M− 733 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ rpc.nispasswdd(1M) rpc.nispasswdd(1M) NAME rpc.nispasswdd, nispasswdd - NIS+ password update daemon SYNOPSIS /usr/sbin/rpc.nispasswdd [ -a attempts ] [ -c minutes ] [ -D ] [ -g ] [ -v ] DESCRIPTION rpc.nispasswdd daemon is an ONC+ RPC service that services password update requests from nispasswd (1) and yppasswd (1). It updates password entries in the NIS+ passwd table. rpc.nispasswdd is normally started from a system startup script after the NIS+ server (rpc.nisd (1M)) has been started. rpc.nispasswdd will determine whether it is running on a machine that is a master server for one or more NIS+ directories. If it discovers that the host is not a master server, then it will promptly exit. It will also determine if rpc.nisd (1M) is running in NIS(YP) compatibility mode (the -Y option) and will register as yppasswdd for NIS(YP) clients as well. rpc.nispasswdd will send to syslog all failed password update attempts, which will allow an administrator to determine whether someone was trying to "crack" the passwords. rpc.nispasswdd has to be run by a superuser. Options -a attempts Set the maximum number of attempts allowed to authenticate the caller within a password update request session. Failed attempts are processed by syslogd (1M) and the request is cached by the daemon. After the maximum number of allowed attempts the daemon severs the connection to the client. The default value is set to 3. -c minutes -D -g Debug. Run in debugging mode. -v r Set the number of minutes a failed password update request should be cached by the daemon. This is the time during which if the daemon receives further password update requests for the same user and authentication of the caller fails, then the daemon will simply not respond. The default value is set to 30 minutes. Verbose. With this option, the daemon sends a running narration of what it is doing to the syslog daemon. This option is useful for debugging problems. Generate DES credential. By default the DES credential is not generated for the user if they do not have one. By specifying this option, if the user does not have a credential, then one will be generated for them and stored in the NIS+ cred table. RETURN VALUE 0 Success. 1 An error has occurred. FILES /etc/rc.config.d/namesvrs Initialization script for NIS+. SEE ALSO nispasswd(1), passwd(1), yppasswd(1), rpc.nisd(1M), syslogd(1M), nsswitch.conf(4). Section 1M− 734 __ −1− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ rpcbind(1M) rpcbind(1M) NAME rpcbind - universal addresses to RPC program number mapper SYNOPSIS rpcbind [-d] [-w] DESCRIPTION rpcbind is a server that converts RPC program numbers into universal addresses. It must be running on the host to be able to make RPC calls on a server on that machine. When an RPC service is started, it tells rpcbind the address at which it is listening, and the RPC program numbers it is prepared to serve. When a client wishes to make an RPC call to a given program number, it first contacts rpcbind on the server machine to determine the address where RPC requests should be sent. rpcbind should be started before any other RPC service. Normally, standard RPC servers are started by port monitors, so rpcbind must be started before port monitors are invoked. When rpcbind is started, it checks that certain name-to-address translation calls function correctly. If they fail, the network configuration databases may be corrupt. Since RPC services cannot function correctly in this situation, rpcbind reports the condition and terminates. rpcbind can only be started by the super-user. Options rpcbind recognizes the following options: -d Run in debug mode. In this mode, rpcbind will not fork when it starts, will print additional information during operation, and will abort on certain errors. With this option, the name-to-address translation consistency checks are shown in detail. -w Do a warm start. If rpcbind aborts or terminates on SIGINT or SIGTERM , it will write /tmp/portmap.file and the current list of registered services to /tmp/rpcbind.file. Starting rpcbind with the -w option instructs it to look for these files and start operation with the registrations found in them. This allows rpcbind to resume operation without requiring all RPC services to be restarted. WARNINGS Terminating rpcbind with SIGKILL will prevent the warm-start files from being written. All RPC servers must be restarted if the following occurs: rpcbind crashes (or is killed with SIGKILL ) and is unable to to write the warm-start files; rpcbind is started without the -w option after a graceful termination; or, the warm-start files are not found by rpcbind . AUTHOR r rpcbind was developed by Sun Microsystems, Inc. FILES /tmp/portmap.file /tmp/rpcbind.file SEE ALSO rpcinfo(1M), rpcbind(3N). HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −1− Section 1M− 735 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ rpcinfo(1M) rpcinfo(1M) NAME rpcinfo - report RPC information SYNOPSIS rpcinfo rpcinfo rpcinfo rpcinfo rpcinfo rpcinfo rpcinfo rpcinfo rpcinfo [ -m ] [ -s ] [ host ] -p [ host ] -T transport host prognum [ versnum ] -l [ -T transport ] host prognum [ versnum ] [ -n portnum ] -u host prognum [ versnum ] [ -n portnum ] -t host prognum [ versnum ] -a serv_address -T transport prognum [ versnum ] -b [ -T transport ] prognum versnum -d [ -T transport ] prognum versnum DESCRIPTION rpcinfo makes an RPC call to an RPC server and reports what it finds. In the first synopsis, rpcinfo lists all the registered RPC services with rpcbind on host . If host is not specified, the local host is the default. If -s is used, the information is displayed in a concise format. In the second synopsis, rpcinfo lists all the RPC services registered with rpcbind , version 2. Also note that the format of the information is different in the first and the second synopsis. This is because the second synopsis is an older protocol used to collect the information displayed (version 2 of the rpcbind protocol). The third synopsis makes an RPC call to procedure 0 of prognum and versnum on the specified host and reports whether a response was received. transport is the transport which has to be used for contacting the given service. The remote address of the service is obtained by making a call to the remote rpcbind . The prognum argument is a number that represents an RPC program number (see rpc (4)). If a versnum is specified, rpcinfo attempts to call that version of the specified prognum . Otherwise, rpcinfo attempts to find all the registered version numbers for the specified prognum by calling version 0, which is presumed not to exist; if it does exist, rpcinfo attempts to obtain this information by calling an extremely high version number instead, and attempts to call each registered version. Note that the version number is required for -b and -d options. The other ways of using rpcinfo are described in the EXAMPLES section. r Options -T transport Specify the transport on which the service is required. If this option is not specified, rpcinfo uses the transport specified in the NETPATH environment variable, or if that is unset or null, the transport in the netconfig (4) database is used. This is a generic option, and can be used in conjunction with other options as shown in the SYNOPSIS . -a serv_address Use serv_address as the (universal) address for the service on transport to ping procedure 0 of the specified prognum and report whether a response was received. The -T option is required with the -a option. If versnum is not specified, rpcinfo tries to ping all available version numbers for that program number. This option avoids calls to remote rpcbind to find the address of the service. The serv_address is specified in universal address format of the given transport. -b Section 1M− 736 __ Make an RPC broadcast to procedure 0 of the specified prognum and versnum and report all hosts that respond. If transport is specified, it broadcasts its request only on the specified transport. If broadcasting is not supported by any transport, an error message is printed. Use of broadcasting should be limited because of the potential for adverse effect on other systems. −1− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ rpcinfo(1M) rpcinfo(1M) -d Delete registration for the RPC service of the specified prognum and versnum . If transport is specified, unregister the service on only that transport, otherwise unregister the service on all the transports on which it was registered. Only the owner of a service can delete a registration, except the super-user who can delete any service. -l Display a list of entries with a given prognum and versnum on the specified host . Entries are returned for all transports in the same protocol family as that used to contact the remote rpcbind . -m Display a table of statistics of rpcbind operations on the given host . The table shows statistics for each version of rpcbind (versions 2, 3 and 4), giving the number of times each procedure was requested and successfully serviced, the number and type of remote call requests that were made, and information about RPC address lookups that were handled. This is useful for monitoring RPC activities on host . -n portnum Use portnum as the port number for the -t and -u options instead of the port number given by rpcbind . Use of this option avoids a call to the remote rpcbind to find out the address of the service. This option is made obsolete by the -a option. -p Probe rpcbind on host using version 2 of the rpcbind protocol, and display a list of all registered RPC programs. If host is not specified, it defaults to the local host. Note that version 2 of the rpcbind protocol was previously known as the portmapper protocol. -s Display a concise list of all registered RPC programs on host . If host is not specified, it defaults to the local host. -t Make an RPC call to procedure 0 of prognum on the specified host using TCP, and report whether a response was received. This option is made obsolete by the -T option as shown in the third synopsis. -u Make an RPC call to procedure 0 of prognum on the specified host using UDP, and report whether a response was received. This option is made obsolete by the -T option as shown in the third synopsis. EXAMPLES To show all of the RPC services registered on the local machine use: example% rpcinfo To show all of the RPC services registered with rpcbind on the machine named klaxon use: example% rpcinfo klaxon To show whether the RPC service with program number prognum and version versnum is registered on the machine named klaxon for the transport TCP use: example% rpcinfo -T tcp klaxon prognum versnum To show all RPC services registered with version 2 of the rpcbind protocol on the local machine use: example% rpcinfo -p To delete the registration for version 1 of the walld (program number 100008 ) service for all transports r use: example# rpcinfo -d 100008 1 or example# rpcinfo -d walld 1 AUTHOR rpcinfo was developed by Sun Microsystems, Inc. SEE ALSO rpcbind(1M), rpc(3N), netconfig(4), rpc(4). HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −2− Section 1M− 737 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ rpr(1M) rpr(1M) NAME rpr - repair parity information in an HP SCSI disk array LUN SYNOPSIS rpr -b block device_file DESCRIPTION rpr repairs the data parity information on a LUN in an HP SCSI disk array when the LUN is configured in a data redundant RAID-level (RAID_1, RAID_3, or RAID_5). block is the logical address of the data block corresponding to the parity block needing repair. block is specified using the -b parameter. device_file is the name of the device file for the LUN. Use scn (see scn (1M)) to identify data blocks that do not have correct parity blocks. RETURN VALUE rpr returns the following values: 0 -1 Successful completion. Command failed (an error occurred). DIAGNOSTICS AND ERRORS Errors can originate from problems with: • rpr • SCSI (device level) communications • system calls Error messages generated by rpr: usage: rpr -b block> <special> rpr encountered an error in command syntax. Re-enter the command with all required arguments, in the order shown. rpr: LUN does not exist The addressed LUN is not configured, and is not known to the array controller. rpr: LUN # too big The LUN number, derived from the device file name, is out of range. rpr: Not a raw file rpr must be able to open the device file for raw access. rpr: Transfer length error r The amount of data actually sent to or received from the device was not the expected amount. rpr: Not an HP SCSI disk array The device being addressed is not an HP SCSI disk array. SCSI (device level) communication errors: Sense data associated with the failed operation is printed. Error messages generated by system calls: rpr uses the following system calls: malloc() , free() , stat() , open() , close() , fopen() , fclose() , read() , write() , unlink() , and ioctl() . Documentation for these HP-UX system calls contains information about the specific error conditions associated with each call. rpr does not alter the value of errno . The interpretation of errno for printing purposes is performed by the system utility strerror() . EXAMPLES To repair block 12345 of the LUN /dev/rdsk/c2t6d0 on a series 800: rpr -b 12345 /dev/rdsk/c2t6d0 DEPENDENCIES The HP C2425 and HP C2427 disk arrays are only supported on Series 700 systems running HP-UX version 9.0X. Section 1M− 738 __ −1− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ rpr(1M) rpr(1M) The HP C2430 disk array is supported on Series 700 and 800 systems running HP-UX versions 9.0X and 10.0X. AUTHOR rpr was developed by HP. SEE ALSO scn(1M). r HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −2− Section 1M− 739 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ rquotad(1M) rquotad(1M) NAME rquotad - remote quota server SYNOPSIS /usr/sbin/rpc.rquotad DESCRIPTION rquotad is an RPC server that returns quotas for a user of a local file system currently mounted by a remote machine by means of NFS (see rpc (3C)). The results are used by quota to display user quotas for remote file systems (see quota (1)). rquotad is normally invoked by inetd (see inetd (1M)). AUTHOR Disk Quotas were developed by the University of California, Berkeley, Sun Microsystems, Inc., and HP. FILES directory /quotas Quota statistics static storage for a file system, where directory is the root of the file system. SEE ALSO inetd(1M), rpc(3C), services(4), quota(5), nfs(7). r Section 1M− 740 __ −1− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ rstatd(1M) rstatd(1M) NAME rstatd - kernel statistics server SYNOPSIS /usr/lib/netsvc/rstat/rpc.rstatd [-l log_file ] [-e-n] DESCRIPTION rstatd is an RPC server that returns performance statistics obtained from the kernel. The rup utility prints this information (see rup (1)). inetd invokes rstatd through /etc/inetd.conf (see inetd (1M)). Options rstatd recognizes the following options and command-line arguments: -l log_file Log any errors to the named log file, log_file . Errors are not logged if the -l option is not specified. Information logged to the file includes date and time of the error, the host name, process ID and name of the function generating the error, and the error message. Note that different services can share a single log file because enough information is included to uniquely identify each error. -e Exit after serving each RPC request. Using the -e option, the inetd security file /var/adm/inetd.sec can control access to RPC services. -n Exit only if • portmap dies (see portmap (1M)), another rpc.rstatd registers with portmap , or • rpc.rstatd becomes unregistered with portmap . The -n option is more efficient since a new process is not launched for each RPC • request. Note, this option is the default. AUTHOR rstatd was developed by Sun Microsystems, Inc. SEE ALSO rup(1), inetd(1M), portmap(1M), inetd.conf(4), inetd.sec(4), services(4). r HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −1− Section 1M− 741 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ runacct(1M) runacct(1M) NAME runacct - run daily accounting SYNOPSIS /usr/sbin/acct/runacct [ mmdd [ state ] ] DESCRIPTION runacct is the main daily accounting shell procedure. It is normally initiated via cron (1M). runacct processes connect, fee, disk, and process accounting files. It also prepares summary files for prdaily or billing purposes. runacct takes care not to damage active accounting files or summary files in the event of errors. It records its progress by writing descriptive diagnostic messages into active . When an error is detected, a message is written to /dev/console , mail (see mail (1), mailx (1), or elm (1)) is sent to root and adm , and runacct terminates. runacct uses a series of lock files to protect against re-invocation. The files lock and lock1 are used to prevent simultaneous invocation, and lastdate is used to prevent more than one invocation per day. runacct breaks its processing into separate, restartable states using statefile to remember the last state completed. It accomplishes this by writing the state name into statefile . runacct then looks in statefile to see what it has done and to determine what to process next. states are executed in the following order: SETUP Move active accounting files into working files. WTMPFIX Verify integrity of wtmp file, correcting date changes if necessary. CONNECT Convert process accounting records into tacct.h format. MERGE Merge the connect and process accounting records. FEES Convert output of chargefee into tacct.h format and merge with connect and process accounting records. DISK Merge disk accounting records with connect, process, and fee accounting records. MERGETACCT Merge the daily total accounting records in daytacct with the summary total accounting records in /var/adm/acct/sum/tacct. CMS Produce command summaries. USEREXIT r Produce connect session records in tacct.h format. PROCESS Any installation-dependent accounting programs can be included here. CLEANUP Cleanup temporary files and exit. To restart runacct after a failure, first check the active file for diagnostics, then fix up any corrupted data files such as pacct or wtmp . The lock files and lastdate file must be removed before runacct can be restarted. The argument mmdd is necessary if runacct is being restarted, and specifies the month and day for which runacct will rerun the accounting. Entry point for processing is based on the contents of statefile ; to override this, include the desired state on the command line to designate where processing should begin. EXAMPLES To start runacct . nohup runacct 2> /var/adm/acct/nite/fd2log & To restart runacct . nohup runacct 0601 2>> /var/adm/acct/nite/fd2log & To restart runacct at a specific state . nohup runacct 0601 MERGE 2>> /var/adm/acct/nite/fd2log & WARNINGS Normally it is not a good idea to restart runacct in its SETUP state . Run SETUP manually, then restart via: runacct mmdd WTMPFIX Section 1M− 742 __ −1− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ runacct(1M) runacct(1M) If runacct failed in its PROCESS state , remove the last ptacct file because it will not be complete. FILES /var/adm/acct/nite/active /var/adm/acct/nite/daytacct /var/adm/acct/nite/lastdate /var/adm/acct/nite/lock /var/adm/acct/nite/lock1 /var/adm/pacct∗ /var/adm/acct/nite/ptacct∗ .mmdd /var/adm/acct/nite/statefile /var/adm/wtmp SEE ALSO mail(1), acct(1M), acctcms(1M), acctcom(1M), acctcon(1M), acctmerg(1M), acctprc(1M), acctsh(1M), cron(1M), fwtmp(1M), acct(2), acct(4), utmp(4). STANDARDS CONFORMANCE runacct : SVID2, SVID3 r HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −2− Section 1M− 743 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ rusersd(1M) rusersd(1M) NAME rusersd - network username server SYNOPSIS /usr/lib/netsvc/rusers/rpc.rusersd [-l log_file ] [-e-n] DESCRIPTION rusersd is an RPC server that returns a list of users on the network. The rusers command prints this information (see rusers (1)). inetd invokes rusersd through /etc/inetd.conf (see inetd (1M)). Options rusersd recognizes the following options and command-line arguments: -l log_file Log any errors to the named log file, log_file . Errors are not logged if the -l option is not specified. Information logged to the file includes date and time of the error, the host name, process ID and name of the function generating the error, and the error message. Note that different services can share a single log file since enough information is included to uniquely identify each error. -e Exit after serving each RPC request. Using the -e option, the inetd security file /var/adm/inetd.sec can control access to RPC services. -n Exit only if • portmap dies (see portmap (1M)), another rpc.rusersd registers with portmap , or • rpc.rusersd becomes unregistered with portmap . The -n option is more efficient because a new process is not launched for each RPC • request. This option is the default. AUTHOR rusersd was developed by Sun Microsystems, Inc. SEE ALSO rusers(1), inetd(1M), portmap(1M), inetd.conf(4), inetd.sec(4), services(4). r Section 1M− 744 __ −1− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ rwall(1M) rwall(1M) NAME rwall - write to all users over a network SYNOPSIS /usr/sbin/rwall hostname ... /usr/sbin/rwall -n netgroup ... /usr/sbin/rwall -h host -n netgroup DESCRIPTION rwall reads a message from standard input until EOF, then sends the message, preceded by the line Broadcast Message ... , to all users logged in on the specified host machines. With the -n option, rwall sends the message to the specified network hosts defined in /etc/netgroup (see netgroup (4)). A machine can only receive such a message if it is running rwalld , which is normally started from /etc/inetd.conf by the inetd daemon (see inetd (1M)). WARNINGS The timeout is kept fairly short so that the message can be sent to a large group of machines (some of which may be down) in a reasonable amount of time. Thus, the message may not get through to a heavily loaded machine. AUTHOR rwall was developed by Sun Microsystems, Inc. FILES /etc/inetd.conf SEE ALSO rwalld(1M), shutdown(1M), wall(1M), netgroup(4). r HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −1− Section 1M− 745 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ rwalld(1M) rwalld(1M) NAME rwalld - network rwall server SYNOPSIS /usr/lib/netsvc/rwall/rpc.rwalld [-l log_file ] [-e-n] DESCRIPTION rwalld is an RPC server that handles rwall requests (see rwall (1)). rwalld calls wall to send a message to all users logged into the host on which rwalld is running (see wall (1)). inetd invokes rwalld through /etc/inetd.conf (see inetd (1M)). Options rwalld recognizes the following options and command-line options: -l log_file Log any errors to log_file . Errors are not logged if the -l option is not specified. Information logged to the log file includes date and time of the error, the host name, process ID and name of the function generating the error, and the error message. Note that different services can share a single log file because enough information is included to uniquely identify each error. -e Exit after serving each RPC request. Using the -e option, the inetd security file /var/adm/inetd.sec can control access to RPC services. -n Exit only if: • portmap dies (see portmap (1M)), another rpc.rwalld registers with portmap , or • rpc.rwalld becomes unregistered with portmap . • The -n option is more efficient because a new process is not launched for each RPC request. Note, this option is the default. AUTHOR rwalld was developed by Sun Microsystems, Inc. SEE ALSO inetd(1M), portmap(1M), rwall(1M), wall(1M), inetd.conf(4), inetd.sec(4), services(4). r Section 1M− 746 __ −1− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ rwhod(1M) rwhod(1M) NAME rwhod - system status server SYNOPSIS /usr/lbin/rwhod [-s] [-r] DESCRIPTION rwhod is the server that maintains the database used by rwho and ruptime (see rwho (1) and ruptime (1)). rwhod sends status information to and receives status information from other nodes on the local network that are running rwhod . rwhod is started at system boot time if the RWHOD variable is set to 1 in the file /etc/rc.config.d/netdaemons. As an information sender, it periodically queries the state of the system and constructs status messages that are broadcast on a network. As an information receiver, it listens for other rwhod servers’ status messages, validates them, then records them in a collection of files located in the /var/spool/rwho directory. By default, rwhod both sends and receives information. -s -r rwhod also supports the following options: Configures server to be an information sender only. Configures server to be an information receiver only. Status messages are generated approximately once every three minutes. rwhod transmits and receives messages at the port indicated in the who service specification (see services (4)). The messages sent and received, are of the form: struct }; struct outmp { char out_line[8]; char out_name[8]; long out_time; /* tty name */ /* user id */ /* time on */ whod { char char char int int char int int struct wd_vers; wd_type; wd_fill[2]; wd_sendtime; wd_recvtime; wd_hostname[32]; wd_loadav[3]; wd_boottime; whoent { struct outmp we_utmp; int we_idle; } wd_we[1024 / sizeof (struct whoent)]; r }; All fields are converted to network byte order before transmission. System load averages are calculated from the number of jobs in the run queue over the last 1-, 5- and 15-minute intervals. The host name included is the one returned by the gethostname() system call (see gethostname (2)). The array at the end of the message contains information about the users logged in on the sending machine. This information includes the contents of the utmp entry for each non-idle terminal line and a value indicating the time since a character was last received on the terminal line (see utmp (4)). rwhod discards received messages if they did not originate at a rwho server’s port, or if the host’s name, as specified in the message, contains any unprintable ASCII characters. Valid messages received by rwhod are placed in files named whod. hostname in the /var/spool/rwho directory. These files contain only the most recent message in the format described above. WARNINGS rwhod does not relay status information between networks. Users often incorrectly interpret the server dying as a machine going down. HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −1− Section 1M− 747 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ rwhod(1M) rwhod(1M) AUTHOR rwhod was developed by the University of California, Berkeley. FILES /var/spool/rwho/whod.* Information about other machines. SEE ALSO rwho(1), ruptime(1). r Section 1M− 748 __ −2− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ sa1(1M) sa1(1M) NAME sa1, sa2, sadc - system activity report package SYNOPSIS /usr/lbin/sa/sa1 [ t n ] /usr/lbin/sa/sa2 [-ubdycwaqvmA ] [-s time ] [-e time ] [-i sec ] /usr/lbin/sa/sadc [ t n ] [ ofile ] DESCRIPTION System activity data can be accessed at the special request of a user (see sar (1)) and automatically on a routine basis as described here. The operating system contains a number of counters that are incremented as various system actions occur. These include CPU utilization counters, buffer usage counters, disk and tape I/O activity counters, tty device activity counters, switching and system-call counters, file-access counters, queue activity counters, and counters for inter-process communications. sadc and shell procedures sa1 and sa2 are used to sample, save, and process this data. sadc , the data collector, samples system data n times every t seconds and writes in binary format to ofile or to standard output. If t and n are omitted, a special record is written. This facility is used at system boot time to mark the time at which the counters restart from zero. Executing the following command in a system startup script: /usr/lbin/sa/sadc /var/adm/sa/sa‘date +%d‘ writes the special record to the daily data file to mark the system restart. Instructions for creating system startup scripts may be found in the 10.0 File System Layout White Paper, which is online in file /usr/share/doc/filesys.ps. The shell script sa1 , a variant of sadc , is used to collect and store data in binary file /var/adm/sa/sadd where dd is the current day. The arguments t and n cause records to be written n times at an interval of t seconds, or once if omitted. The following entries, if placed in crontab , produce records every 20 minutes during working hours and hourly otherwise (see cron (1M)): 0* * * 0,6 /usr/lbin/sa/sa1 0 8-17 * * 1-5 /usr/lbin/sa/sa1 1200 3 0 18-7 * * 1-5 /usr/lbin/sa/sa1 The shell script sa2 , a variant of sar , writes a daily report in file /var/adm/sa/sardd. The options are explained in sar (1). The following crontab entry reports important activities hourly during the working day: 5 18 * * 1-5 /usr/lbin/sa/sa2 -s 8:00 -e 18:01 -i 3600 -A The structure of the binary daily data file is: struct sa { struct sysinfo si; int sztext; int szinode; int szfile; int szproc; int msztext; int mszinode; int mszfile; int mszproc; long textovf; long inodeovf; long fileovf; long procovf; time_t ts; long devio[NDEVS][4]; #define IO_OPS 0 #define IO_BCNT 1 #define IO_ACT 2 #define IO_RESP 3 }; HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* see /usr/include/sys/sysinfo.h */ current entries of text table */ current entries of inode table */ current entries of file table */ current entries of proc table */ size of text table */ size of inode table */ size of file table */ size of proc table */ cumul. overflows of text table */ cumul. overflows of inode table */ cumul. overflows of file table */ cumul. overflows of proc table */ time stamp, seconds */ device info for up to NDEVS units */ cumul. I/O requests */ cumul. blocks transferred */ cumul. drive busy time in ticks */ cumul. I/O resp time in ticks */ −1− s Section 1M− 749 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ sa1(1M) sa1(1M) FILES /tmp/sa. adrfl /var/adm/sa/sadd /var/adm/sa/sardd address file daily data file daily report file SEE ALSO cron(1M), sar(1), timex(1). STANDARDS CONFORMANCE sa1 : SVID2, SVID3 sa2 : SVID2, SVID3 sadc : SVID2, SVID3 s Section 1M− 750 __ −2− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ sam(1M) sam(1M) NAME sam - system administration manager SYNOPSIS /usr/sbin/sam [-display display ] [-f login ] [-r] DESCRIPTION The sam command starts a menu-driven System Administration Manager program (SAM) for performing system administration tasks with only limited, specialized knowledge of the HP-UX operating system. SAM discovers most aspects of a system’s configuration through automated inquiries and tests. Help menus describe how to use SAM and perform the various management tasks. Press the F1 function key for help on a currently highlighted field and for more information not covered in this manpage. Status messages and a log file monitor keep the user informed of what SAM is doing. Running SAM SAM has been tuned to run in the Motif environment, but it can be run on text terminals as well. To run SAM in the Motif environment, be sure that Motif has been installed on your system, and that the DISPLAY environment variable is set to the system name on which the SAM screens should be displayed (or use the -display command line option). Generally, SAM requires superuser (user root ) privileges to execute successfully. However, SAM can be configured (through the use of "Restricted SAM"; see below) to allow subsets of its capabilities to be used by non-root users. When Restricted SAM is used, non-root users are promoted to root when necessary to enable them to execute successfully. Options SAM recognizes the following options. -display display Set the DISPLAY value for the duration of the SAM session. -f login Execute SAM with the privileges associated with the specified login . When used in conjunction with -r, the Restricted SAM Builder is invoked and initialized with the privileges associated with the specified login . You must be a superuser to use this option. See "Restricted SAM" below for more information. -r Invoke the Restricted SAM Builder. This enables the system administrator to provide limited non-superuser access to SAM functionality. You must be a superuser to use this option. See "Restricted SAM" below for more information. SAM Functional Areas SAM performs these system administration tasks: Auditing and Security (Trusted Systems) • Set global system security policies - Add, modify and remove commands from the list of Authenticated commands. • Turn the Auditing system on or off. • Set the parameters for the Audit Logs and Size Monitor. • View all or selected parts of the audit logs. • Modify (or view) which users, events, and/or system calls get audited. • Convert your system to a Trusted System. • Convert your system to a non-Trusted System. HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −1− s Section 1M− 751 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ sam(1M) sam(1M) Backup and Recovery • Interactively back up files to a valid backup device (cartridge tape, cartridge tape autochanger, magnetic tape, DAT, magneto-optical disk, or magneto-optical disk autochanger). The SAM interface is suspended so that you can read and/or respond to the interactive messages produced by fbackup (see fbackup(1M)). • Recover files online from a valid backup device. The SAM interface is suspended so that you can read/respond to the interactive messages produced by frecover (see frecover (1M)). • Add to, delete from, or view the automated backup schedule. • Obtain a list of files from a backup tape. • View various backup and recovery log files. Disk and File Systems Management • Add, configure, or unconfigure disk devices, including hard drives, floppy drives, CD-ROMs, magneto-optical devices and disk arrays. • Add, modify, or remove local file systems, or convert them to long file names. • Configure HFS or VxFS file systems. • Remote (NFS) file systems configuration, including: • Add, modify, or remove remote (NFS) file systems. • Allow or disallow access by remote systems to local file systems. • Modify RPC (Remote Procedure Call) services’ security. • Add, remove, or modify device or file system swap. • Change the primary swap device. • Add, modify, or remove dump devices. • Examine, create, extend, or reduce a volume-group pool of disks. • Create, extend or change number of mirrored copies of a logical volume and associated file system. • Remove a logical volume or increase its size. • Split or merge mirrored copies of a logical volume. • Share or unshare volume groups (only on ServiceGuard clusters running MC/LockManager distributed lock-manager software). Kernel and Device Configuration Add/remove static drivers and DLKM modules to/from a kernel. • Modify static and dynamic tunable parameter values in the kernel. • Modify dump device configuration in the kernel. • Add or remove optional subsystems such as NFS, LAN, NS, CD-ROM, etc. • s • Generate a new kernel. Networks/Communications • Configure one or more LAN cards. • Configure ARPA services. • Configure the Network File System (NFS). • Configure X.25 card or cards and PAD (Packet Assembler/Disassembler) services (if X.25 has been purchased). Peripheral Devices Management • Administer the LP spooler or Distributed Print Services and associated printers and plotters (see "Printer and Plotter Management" below). • Add, modify, or remove the configuration of disk devices. Section 1M− 752 __ −2− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ sam(1M) sam(1M) • Add or remove terminals and modems. • Configure terminal security policies (Trusted Systems only). • Lock and unlock terminals (Trusted Systems only). • Add or remove tape drives. • Add or remove hardware interface cards. • View current configuration of peripherals and disk space information. Printer and Plotter Management SAM supports two methods for managing printers and plotters: • LP Spooler - Manage local, remote, and networked printers and plotters. • HP Distributed Print Service (HPDPS) - Manage physical printers (parallel, serial, or network interface and remote printers), logical printers, print queues, spoolers, and supervisors. Process Management • Kill, stop or continue processes. • Change the nice priority of processes. • View the current status of processes. • Schedule periodic tasks via cron. • View current periodic (cron) tasks. • Run performance monitors. • Display system properties such as: machine model and ID; number of installed processors, their version and speed; operating-system release version; swap statistics, real, physical, and virtual memory statistics; network connection information. Remote Administration • Configure remote systems for remote administration. • Execute SAM on systems configured for remote administration. Routine Tasks • Shut down the system. • View and remove large files. Specify size and time-since-accessed of large files to display or remove. • View and remove unowned files. Specify size and time-since-accessed of unowned files to display or remove. • View and remove core files. • View and trim ASCII or non-ASCII log files. Add or remove files from the list of files to monitor. Set recommended size for trimming. s User and Group Account Management • Add, remove, view, and modify user accounts. • Modify a user account’s group membership. • Set up password aging for a user account. • Add, remove, view, and modify groups. • Deactivate and reactivate user accounts. • Manage trusted system security policies on a per-user basis. Adding New Functionality to SAM You can easily add stand-alone commands, programs, and scripts to SAM. SAM is suspended while the executable program is running. When it finishes, the SAM interface is restored. You can also write your own help screen for each menu item you create. To add functionality to SAM, select the "Add Custom Menu Item" or "Add Custom Menu Group" action items from the SAM Areas menu. (Note that the new item is HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −3− Section 1M− 753 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ sam(1M) sam(1M) added to the hierarchy that is currently displayed, so you need to navigate to the desired hierarchy before adding the item.) Restricted SAM SAM can be configured to provide a subset of its functionality to certain users or groups of users. It can also be used to build a template file for assigning SAM access restrictions on multiple systems. This is done through the Restricted SAM Builder. System administrators access the Restricted SAM Builder by invoking SAM with the -r option (see "Options" above). In the Builder, system administrators may assign subsets of SAM functionality on a per-user or per-group basis. Once set up, the -f option (see "Options" above) can then be used by system administrators to verify that the appropriate SAM functional areas, and only those areas, are available to the specified user. A nonroot user that has been given Restricted SAM privileges simply executes /usr/sbin/sam and sees only those areas the user is privileged to access. For security reasons, the "List" and "Shell Escape" choices are not provided. (Note that some SAM functional areas require the user to be promoted to root in order to execute successfully. SAM does this automatically as needed.) SAM provides a default set of SAM functional areas that the system administrator can assign to other users. Of course, system administrators are able to assign custom lists of SAM functional areas to users as necessary. SAM Logging All actions taken by SAM are logged into the SAM log file /var/sam/log/samlog. The log entries in this file can be viewed via the SAM utility samlog_viewer (see samlog_viewer (1)). samlog_viewer can filter the log file by user name, by time of log entry creation, and by level of detail. The "Options" menu in the SAM Areas Menu enables you to start a log file viewer and to control certain logging options. These options include whether or not SAM should automatically start a log file viewer whenever SAM is executed, whether or not SAM should trim the log file automatically, and what maximum log file size should be enforced if automatic log file trimming is selected. VT320 Terminal Support Because the VT320 terminal has predefined local functions for keys labeled as F1, F2, F3 and F4, users should use following mapping when they desire to use function keys: HP or Wyse60 s VT320 or HP 700/60 in VT320 mode F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 PF2 (1) PF1 (1) spacebar PF3 (1) F10, [EXIT], F5 (2) none F18, first unlabeled key to right of Pause/Break (2) F19, second unlabeled key to right of Pause/Break (2) (1) See the "Configuration: HP 700/60 in DEC mode, or DEC terminals with PC-AT-type keyboard" subsection below. (2) When using PC-AT keyboard with HP 700/60 in VT320 mode. Since DEC terminals do not support the softkey menu, that menu is not displayed on those terminals. Many applications use TAB for forward navigation (moving from one field to another) and shift-TAB for backward navigation. Users having DEC terminals or using terminals in DEC emulation modes such as VT100 or VT320 may note that these terminals/emulators may produce the same character for TAB and shift-TAB. As such, it is impossible for an application to distinguish between the two and both of them are treated as if the TAB key was pressed. This presents an inconvenience to users if they want to go backward. In most cases, they should complete rest of the input fields and get back to the desired field later. VT100 Terminal Support VT100 does not allow the F1−F8 function keys to be configured. Therefore, the following keyboard mappings apply to VT100 terminals: HP or Wyse60 VT100 or HP 700/60 in VT100 mode F1 PF2 (1) Section 1M− 754 __ −4− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ sam(1M) sam(1M) F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 PF1 (1) spacebar PF3, spacebar or PF3, = (1) Return none none none (1) See the "Configuration: HP 700/60 in DEC mode, or DEC terminals with PC-AT-type keyboard" subsection below. See the comments on softkeys and TAB keys in the "VT320 Terminal Support" subsection above. Configuration: HP 700/60 Terminal in DEC Mode, or DEC Terminal with PC-AT-Type Keyboard Customers using the following configuration may want to be aware of the following keyboard difference. It may be possible for a user with the "HP 700/60 terminal in DEC mode, or DEC terminal with PC-AT-type keyboard" configuration to be told to press function key F1 through F4 to achieve some desired result. For an HP 700/60 terminal in DEC mode or DEC terminals, these functions keys may be mapped onto PF1−PF4 keys. However, the PC-AT-type keyboard does not provide PF1−PF4 keys, as does the DEC/ANSI keyboard. Key Maps to Num Lock / * − PF1 PF2 PF3 PF4 These keys are above the number pad on the right side of the keyboard. Please note that although this keyboard is called a PC AT-type keyboard, it is supplied by HP. A PC AT-type keyboard can be recognized by location of Esc key at the left-top of the keyboard. Wyse60 Terminal Support On Wyse60, use the DEL key (located next to Backspace) to backspace. On an HP 700/60 with a PC ATtype keyboard in Wyse60 mode, the DEL key is located in the bottom row on the number pad. Wyse60 terminals provide a single line to display softkey labels unlike HP terminals which provide two lines. Sometimes this may result in truncated softkey labels. For example, the Help on Context label for F1 may appear as Help on C. Some standard labels for screen-oriented applications, such as SAM and swinstall are as follows: The SAM label: May appear on the Wyse60 as: Help On Context Select/Deselect Menubar on/off Help On C Select/D Menubar s DEPENDENCIES SAM runs in an X Window environment as well as on the following kinds of terminals or terminal emulators: • HP-compatible terminal with programmable function keys and on-screen display of function key labels. • VT-100 and VT-320 • WY30 and WY60 Depending on what other applications are running concurrently with SAM, more swap space may be required. SAM requires the following amounts of internal memory: 8 MB 16 MB If using terminal based version of SAM. If using Motif X Window version of SAM. For more detailed information about how to use SAM on a terminal, see the Managing Systems and Workgroups manual. HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −5− Section 1M− 755 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ sam(1M) sam(1M) AUTHOR sam was developed by HP. FILES /etc/sam/custom /etc/sam/rmfiles.excl Directory where SAM stores user privileges. /etc/sam/rmuser.excl /usr/sam/bin File containing a list of users that are excluded from removal by SAM. /usr/sam/help/$LANG /usr/sam/lbin Directory containing SAM language specific online help files. /usr/sam/lib /var/sam Directory for internal configuration files. /var/sam/log/samlog File containing unformatted SAM logging messages. This file should not be modified by users. Use samlog_viewer to view the contents of this file (see samlog_viewer (1)). /var/sam/log/samlog.old Previous SAM log file. File containing a list of files and directories that are excluded from removal by SAM. Directory containing executable files, which can be used outside of any SAM session. Directory containing SAM executables, which are intended only for use by SAM and are not supported in any other context. Directory for working space, including lock files (if a SAM session dies, it may leave behind a spurious lock file), preferences, logging, and temporary files. This file is created by SAM when /var/sam/log/samlog is larger than the user specified limit. Use samlog_viewer with its -f option to view the contents of this file (see samlog_viewer (1)). SEE ALSO samlog_viewer(1), parmgr(1M). These manuals are available on the Web at docs.hp.com : • Managing Systems and Workgroups • Installing and Administering Internet Services • Installing and Administering LAN/9000 • Installing and Administering NFS Services • X.25/9000 User’s Manual s Section 1M− 756 __ −6− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ sar(1M) sar(1M) NAME sar - system activity reporter SYNOPSIS sar [-ubdycwaqvmAMS] [-o file ] t [ n ] sar [-ubdycwaqvmAMS] [-s time ] [-e time ] [-i sec ] [-f file ] DESCRIPTION In the first form above, sar samples cumulative activity counters in the operating system at n intervals of t seconds. If the -o option is specified, it saves the samples in file in binary format. The default value of n is 1. In the second form, with no sampling interval specified, sar extracts data from a previously recorded file , either the one specified by -f option or, by default, the standard system activity daily data file /var/adm/sa/sadd for the current day dd . The starting and ending times of the report can be bounded via the -s and -e time arguments of the form hh [ :mm [ :ss ] ]. The -i option selects records at sec second intervals. Otherwise, all intervals found in the data file are reported. In either case, subsets of data to be printed are specified by option: -u Report CPU utilization (the default); portion of time running in one of several modes. On a multi-processor system, if the -M option is used together with the -u option, per-CPU utilization as well as the average CPU utilization of all the active processors are reported. If the -M option is not used, only the average CPU utilization of all the active processors is reported: cpu %usr %sys %wio %idle -b cpu number (only on a multi-processor system with the -M option); otherwise idle. user mode; system mode; idle with some process waiting for I/O (only block I/O, raw I/O, or VM pageins/swapins indicated); Report buffer activity: bread/s bwrit/s Number of physical writes per second from the buffer cache to the disk (or other block device); lread/s lwrit/s %rcache %wcache pread/s Number of reads per second from buffer cache; pwrit/s -d Number of physical reads per second from the disk (or other block devices) to the buffer cache; Number of writes per second to character device using the physio() (i.e., raw I/O) mechanism; mechanism. Number of writes per second to buffer cache; Buffer cache hit ratio for read requests e.g., 1 − bread/lread; Buffer cache hit ratio for write requests e.g., 1 − bwrit/lwrit; s Number of reads per second from character device using the physio() (raw I/O) mechanism; Report activity for each block device, e.g., disk or tape drive. One line is printed for each device that had activity during the last interval. If no devices were active, a blank line is printed. Each line contains the following data: device Logical name of the device and its corresponding instance. Devices are categorized into the following device types: disk3 − SCSI and NIO FL disks sdisk − SCSI disks; %busy avque r+w/s HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ Portion of time device was busy servicing a request; Average number of requests outstanding for the device; Number of data transfers per second (read and writes) from and to the device; −1− Section 1M− 757 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ sar(1M) sar(1M) blks/s avwait avserv -y Number of bytes transferred (in 512-byte units) from and to the device; Average time (in milliseconds) to service each transfer request (includes seek, rotational latency, and data transfer times) for the device. Report tty device activity: rawch/s canch/s outch/s rcvin/s xmtin/s mdmin/s -c Average time (in milliseconds) that transfer requests waited idly on queue for the device; Raw input characters per second; Input characters per second processed by canon() ; Output characters per second; Receive incoming character interrupts per second; Transmit outgoing character interrupts per second; Modem interrupt rate (not supported; always 0). Report system calls: scall/s sread/s swrit/s fork/s exec/s rchar/s wchar/s -w Number of system calls of all types per second; Number of characters transferred by write system calls (block devices only) per second. Number of write() and/or writev() system calls per second; Number of fork() and/or vfork() system calls per second; Number of exec() system calls per second; Number of characters transferred by read system calls block devices only) per second; Report system swapping and switching activity: swpin/s swpot/s bswin/s bswot/s pswch/s -a Number of read() and/or readv() system calls per second; Number of process swapins per second; Number of process swapouts per second; Number of 512-byte units transferred for swapins per second; Number of 512-byte units transferred for swapouts per second; Number of process context switches per second. Report use of file access system routines: s iget/s namei/s dirblk/s -q Number of file system iget() calls per second; Number of file system blocks read per second doing directory lookup. Number of file system lookuppn() (pathname translation) calls per second; Report average queue length while occupied, and percent of time occupied. On a multiprocessor machine, if the -M option is used together with the -q option, the per-CPU run queue as well as the average run queue of all the active processors are reported. If the -M option is not used, only the average run queue information of all the active processors is reported: cpu runq-sz %runocc __ Average length of the run queue(s) of processes (in memory and runnable); swpq-sz Section 1M− 758 cpu number (only on a multi-processor system and used with the -M option) Average length of the swap queue of runnable processes (processes swapped out but ready to run); The percentage of time the run queue(s) were occupied by processes (in memory and runnable); −2− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ sar(1M) sar(1M) The percentage of time the swap queue of runnable processes (processes swapped out but ready to run) was occupied. %swpocc -v Report status of text, process, inode and file tables: text-sz proc-sz inod-sz file-sz text-ov proc-ov inod-ov The number of times the inode table (inode cache) overflowed (number of times the kernel could not find any available inode table entries) between sample points; file-ov -m (Not Applicable); The number of times the system file table overflowed (number of times the kernel could not find any available file table entries) between sample points. The current-size and maximum-size of the process table; The current-size and maximum-size of the inode table (inode cache); The current-size and maximum-size of the system file table; (Not Applicable); The number of times the process table overflowed (number of times the kernel could not find any available process table entries) between sample points; Report message and semaphore activities: msg/s sema/s select/s -A -M Number of System V msgrcv() calls per second; Number of System V semop() calls per second; Number of System V select() calls per second. This value will only be reported if the "-S" option is also explicitly specified. Report all data. Equivalent to -udqbwcayvm . Report the per-processor data on a multi-processor system when used with -q and/or -u options. If the -M option is not used on a multi-processor system, the output format of the -u and -q options is the same as the uni-processor output format and the data reported is the average value of all the active processors. EXAMPLES Watch CPU activity evolve for 5 seconds: sar 1 5 Watch CPU activity evolve for 10 minutes and save data: sar -o temp 60 10 s Review disk and tape activity from that period later: sar -d -f temp Review cpu utilization on a multi-processor system later: sar -u -M -f temp WARNINGS Users of sar must not rely on the exact field widths and spacing of its output, as these will vary depending on the system, the release of HP-UX, and the data to be displayed. FILES /var/adm/sa/sadd daily data file, where dd is two digits representing the day of the month. SEE ALSO sa1(1M). STANDARDS CONFORMANCE sar : SVID2, SVID3 HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −3− Section 1M− 759 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ savecrash(1M) savecrash(1M) NAME savecrash - save a crash dump of the operating system SYNOPSIS /sbin/savecrash [-cflprvzZ ] [-D dumpdevice -O offset ] [-d sysfile ] [-m minfree ] [-s chunksize] [-t tapedevice ] [-w NOSWAP SWAPEACH SWAPEND ] [dirname ] DESCRIPTION savecrash saves the crash dump information of the system (assuming one was made when the system crashed) and writes a reboot message in the shutdown log file. dirname is the name of the existing directory in which to store the crash dump; the default is /var/adm/crash. savecrash saves the crash image and related files in the directory dirname /crash. n. The trailing n in the directory name is a number that increases by one every time savecrash is run with the same dirname . This number is kept in the file dirname /bounds , which is created if it does not already exist. Usually, savecrash creates the INDEX file in the crash directory from the crash dump header, copies all kernel modules that were loaded in memory at the time of the crash, and copies all dump device contents into crash image files. When savecrash writes out a crash dump directory, it checks the space available on the file system containing dirname . savecrash will not use that portion of the file system space which is reserved for the superuser. Additional space on the file system can be reserved for other uses with -m minfree , where minfree is the amount of additional space to reserve. This option is useful for ensuring enough file system space for normal system activities after a panic. If there is insufficient space in the file system for the portions of the crash dump that need to be saved, savecrash will save as much as will fit in the available space. (Priority is given to the index file, then to the kernel module files, and then to the physical memory image.) The dump will be considered saved, and savecrash will not attempt to save it again, unless there was insufficient space for any of the physical memory image. (See the description of option -r .) savecrash also writes a reboot message in the shutdown log file (/etc/shutdownlog), if one exists. (If a shutdown log file does not exist, savecrash does not create one.) If the system crashes as a result of a kernel panic, savecrash also records the panic string in the shutdown log. By default, when the primary paging device is not used as one of the dump devices or after the crash image on the primary paging device has been saved, savecrash runs in the background. This reduces system boot-up time by allowing the system to be run with only the primary paging device. s It is possible for dump devices to be used also as paging devices. If savecrash determines that a dump device is already enabled for paging, and that paging activity has already taken place on that device, a warning message will indicate that the dump may be invalid. If a dump device has not already been enabled for paging, savecrash prevents paging from being enabled to the device by creating the file /etc/savecore.LCK. swapon does not enable the device for paging if the device is locked in /etc/savecore.LCK (see swapon (1M) for more details). As savecrash finishes saving the image from each dump device, it updates the /etc/savecore.LCK file and optionally executes swapon to enable paging on the device. Options -c Mark the dump in the dump device as saved, without performing any other action. The -c option is useful for manually inhibiting dump actions called by /sbin/init.d/savecrash. -f Run savecrash in the foreground only. By default, savecrash runs in the background when the primary paging device does not contain an unsaved portion of the crash image. Turning this option on increases system boot-up time, but guarantees that the dump has been saved when control returns to the caller. -l Logs the panic information to /etc/shutdownlog as described above, but does not actually save the dump. The dump is marked as saved so that future invocations of savecrash do not create duplicate log entries. -p Only preserves swap-endangered dump device contents into crash image files. Swap-endangered dump devices are those devices that are also configured as swap devices by the system. If all dump Section 1M− 760 __ −1− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ savecrash(1M) savecrash(1M) devices are configured as swap devices, the entire dump will be preserved in the crash directory. If no swap devices are used as dump devices (dedicated dump devices), only the INDEX file and kernel modules will be copied into the crash directory. -r Resaves a dump that a previous invocation of savecrash has marked as already saved. This is useful if the first invocation did ran out of space, and enough space has since been freed to try again. -v -z Enables additional progress messages and diagnostics. savecrash will compress all physical memory image files and kernel module files in the dump directory. -Z savecrash will not compress any files in the dump directory. If neither -z nor -Z is specified and the amount of free disk space becomes less than twice the total disk space, savecrash will compress the remaining files. -D dumpdevice dumpdevice is the name of the device containing the header of the raw crash image. The console messages from the time of the panic will identify the major and minor numbers of this device. This option, in combination with -O , can be used to tell savecrash where to find the dump in the rare instances that savecrash doesn’t know where to look. -O offset offset is the offset in kBytes, relative to the beginning of the device specified with -D above, of the header of the raw crash image. The console messages from the time of the panic will identify this offset. This option, in combination with -D , can be used to tell savecrash where to find the dump in the rare instances that savecrash doesn’t know where to look. -d sysfile sysfile is the name of a file containing the image of the system that produced the core dump (that is, the system running when the crash occurred). If this option is not specified, savecrash gets the file name from the dump itself. If the file containing the image of the system that caused the crash has changed, use this option to specify the new file name. -m minfree minfree is the amount of free space (in kBytes) that must remain free for ordinary user files after savecrash completes, in addition to space reserved for the superuser. If necessary, only part of the dump will be saved to achieve this requirement. minfree may be specified in bytes (b), kilobytes (k), megabytes (m), or gigabytes (g). The default minfree value is zero, and the default unit is kilobytes. -s chunksize chunksize is the size (default kBytes) of a single physical memory image file before compression. The kByte value must be a multiple of page size (divisible by 4) and between 64 and 1048576. chunksize may be specified in units of bytes (b), kilobytes (k), megabytes (m), or gigabytes (g). Larger numbers increase compression efficiency at the expense of both savecrash time and debugging time. If -s is not specified, a default is chosen based on the physical memory size and the amount of available file system space. s -t tapedevice tapedevice is the tape device where the crash dump will be written. Crash dumps that are written to tape are written using a tar format. The crash dump tape can be read using tar (1). When the -t option is specified, the -p option is not allowed and the whole dump is always preserved. In addition, -c and -l , are not allowed and -m is ignored. Also, when -t is specified, savecrash will not perform any compression. When dirname is specified with the -t option, dirname is the name of the existing directory where the INDEX file is created; the default directory is /tmp . The INDEX file is the first file that is written out to the dump tape. This file is written a second time once all the dump files have been written. The first copy of the file only contains crash dump header information and its filename on tape is tmpindex . It does not contain information for the module and image files. When writing to tape, the tape device must be online otherwise the command will fail with an error. Additionally, when savecrash reaches end-of-tape, it will prompt the user for the next tape. Any tape errors encountered will result in a generic tape error. HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −2− Section 1M− 761 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ savecrash(1M) savecrash(1M) -w opt Defines the interaction between savecrash and swapon . opt can be one of the following values: NOSWAP Do not run swapon from savecrash . SWAPEACH (default) Call swapon each time savecrash finishes saving the image from each dump device. This option provides the most efficient use of paging space. SWAPEND Only call swapon when savecrash finishes saving the image file from all dump devices. If this option is used, no additional paging space other than the primary paging space is available until the complete crash dump image is saved. This option provides a second chance to retrieve the crash image if savecrash fails on first attempt. For compatibility with earlier savecore syntax, the values of 0, 1 and 2 can be used in place of NOSWAP , SWAPEACH , and SWAPEND , respectively. This usage is obsolescent. RETURN VALUE Upon exit, savecrash returns the following values: 0 1 2 3 4 A crash dump was found and saved, or savecrash has preserved dump information from the primary swap device and is continuing to run in the background to complete its tasks. A crash dump could not be saved due to an error. No crash dump was found to save. A partial crash dump was saved, but there was insufficient space to preserve the complete dump. The savecrash process continued in the background, see the INDEX file for actual results. WARNINGS savecrash relies on the expectation that device numbers have the same meaning (point to the same devices) at the time the system dumps and at the time the dump is saved. If, after a crash, the system was booted from a different boot device in order to run savecrash , it is possible that this expectation will not be met. If so, savecrash may save an incomplete or incorrect dump or may fail to save a dump at all. Such cases cannot be reliably detected, so there may be no warning or error message. If savecrash encounters an error while running in the background (such as running out of space), it will not be easily detectable by the caller. If the caller must ensure that the savecrash operation was successful, for example before writing to a dump device, the caller should specify -f to force savecrash to run in the foreground, and should then examine the exit status of the savecrash process when it finishes. AUTHOR savecrash was developed by HP and the University of California, Berkeley. FILES s /etc/shutdownlog /etc/rc.config.d/savecrash /sbin/init.d/savecrash dirname /bounds /stand/vmunix shutdown log savecrash startup configuration file savecrash startup file crash dump number default kernel image saved by savecrash SEE ALSO adb(1), crashutil(1M), swapon(1M), tar(1). Section 1M− 762 __ −3− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ scn(1M) scn(1M) NAME scn - scan an HP SCSI disk array LUN for parity consistency SYNOPSIS scn -i number_of_initiators device_file DESCRIPTION scn scans the disks of the LUN in an HP SCSI disk array identified by the character device file device_file . The parity information for any block reporting inconsistent parity is corrected by an immediate call to rpr . RETURN VALUE scn returns the following values: 0 -1 Successful completion. Command failed (an error occurred). DIAGNOSTICS AND ERRORS Errors can originate from problems with: • scn • SCSI (device level) communications • system calls Error messages generated by scn: usage: scn -i <num initiators> <special> scn encountered an error in command syntax. Enter the command again with all required arguments, in the order shown. scn: LUN # too big The LUN number, derived from the device file name, is out of range. scn: Not a raw file Utilities must be able to open the device file for raw access. That is, you must specify a character device file rather than a block device file. scn: LUN does not exist The addressed LUN is not configured, and is not known to the array controller. scn: Not an HP SCSI disk array The device being addressed is not an HP SCSI disk array. SCSI (device level) communication errors: Sense data associated with the failed operation is printed. Error messages generated by system calls: scn uses the following system calls: malloc() , free() , stat() , open() , close() , fopen() , fclose() , read() , write() , and ioctl() . s Documentation for these HP-UX system calls contains information about the specific error conditions associated with each call. scn does not alter the value of errno . The interpretation of errno for printing purposes is performed by the system utility strerror() . EXAMPLES To scan the LUN at /dev/rdsk/c2t0d0 on a Series 800 computer with two hosts (initiators) attached: scn -i 2 /dev/rdsk/c2t0d0 DEPENDENCIES The HP C2425 and HP C2427 disk arrays are only supported on Series 700 systems running HP-UX version 9.0X. The HP C2430 disk array is supported on Series 700 and 800 systems running HP-UX versions 9.0X and 10.0X. HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −1− Section 1M− 763 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ scn(1M) scn(1M) AUTHOR scn was developed by HP. SEE ALSO rpr(1M). s Section 1M− 764 __ −2− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ scsictl(1M) scsictl(1M) NAME scsictl - control a SCSI device SYNOPSIS scsictl [-akq ] [-c command ]... [-m mode [=value ] ]... device DESCRIPTION The scsictl command provides a mechanism for controlling a SCSI device. It can be used to query mode parameters, set configurable mode parameters, and perform SCSI commands. The operations are performed in the same order as they appear on the command line. device specifies the character special file to use. Options scsictl recognizes the following options. -a Display the status of all mode parameters available, separated by semicolon-blank (; ) or newline. -c command Cause the device to perform the specified command. command can be one of the following: erase For magneto-optical devices that support write without erase, this command can be used to pre-erase the whole surface to increase data throughput on subsequent write operations. This command maintains exclusive access to the surface during the pre-erasure. sync_cache For devices that have an internal write cache, this command causes the device to flush its cache to the physical medium. -k Continue processing arguments even after an error is detected. The default behavior is to exit immediately when an error is detected. Command line syntax is always verified for correctness, regardless of the -k option. Improper command line syntax causes scsictl to exit without performing any operations on the device. -m mode Display the status of the specified mode parameter. mode can be one of the following: immediate_report For devices that support immediate reporting, this mode controls how the device responds to write requests. If immediate report is enabled (1), write requests can be acknowledged before the data is physically transferred to the media. If immediate report is disabled (0), the device is forced to await the completion of any write request before reporting its status. ir Equivalent to immediate_report. queue_depth s For devices that support a queue depth greater than the system default, this mode controls how many I/Os the driver will attempt to queue to the device at any one time. Valid values are (1−255 ). Some disk devices will not support the maximum queue depth settable by this command. Setting the queue depth in software to a value larger than the disk can handle will result in I/Os being held off once a QUEUE FULL condition exists on the disk. -m mode =value Set the mode parameter mode to value . The available mode parameters and values are listed above. Mode parameters that take only a binary value (1 or 0) can also be specified as either on or off , respectively. -q Suppress the labels that are normally printed when mode parameters are displayed. Mode parameter values are printed in the same order as they appear on the command line, separated by semicolon-blank (; ) or newline. Mode parameters and commands need only be specified up to a unique prefix. When abbreviating a mode parameter or command, at least the first three characters must be supplied. HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −1− Section 1M− 765 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ scsictl(1M) scsictl(1M) DIAGNOSTICS Diagnostic messages are generally self-explanatory. EXAMPLES To display all the mode parameters, turn immediate_report on, and redisplay the value of immediate_report: scsictl -a -m ir=1 -m ir /dev/rdsk/c0t6d0 producing the following output: immediate_report = 0; queue_depth = 8; immediate_report = 1 The same operation with labels suppressed: scsictl -aq -m ir=1 -m ir /dev/rdsk/c0t6d0 produces the following output: 0; 8; 1 WARNINGS Not all devices support all mode parameters and commands listed above. Changing a mode parameter may have no effect on such a device. Issuing a command that is not supported by a device can cause an error message to be generated. scsictl is not supported on sequential-access devices using the tape driver. The immediate_report mode applies to the entire device; the section number of the device argument is ignored. To aid recovery, immediate reporting is not used for writes of file system data structures that are maintained by the operating system, writes to a hard disk (but not a magneto-optical device) through the character-device interface, or writes to regular files that the user has made synchronous with O_SYNC or O_DSYNC (see open (2) and fcntl (2)). DEPENDENCIES disc3 When the system is rebooted, the disc3 driver always resets the value of the immediate_report mode parameter to off . If ioctl() or scsictl is used to change the setting of immediate reporting on a SCSI device, the new value becomes the default setting upon subsequent configuration (e.g., opens) of this device and retains its value across system or device powerfail recovery. However, on the next system reboot, the immediate-report mode parameter is again reset to the value of the tunable system parameter, default_disk_ir. This is set in the system_file used to create the HP-UX system by the config command (see config (1M)). s sdisk If ioctl() or scsictl is used to change the setting of immediate reporting on a SCSI device, the new value becomes the default setting upon subsequent configuration (e.g., opens) of this device until the "last close" of the device, that is, when neither the system nor any application has the device open (for example, unmounting a file system via umount and then mounting it again via mount (see mount (1M)). On the next "first open", the immediate-report mode parameter is again reset to the value of the tunable system parameter, default_disk_ir. This is set in the system_file used to create the HP-UX system by the config command (see config (1M)). SEE ALSO config(1M), diskinfo(1M), fcntl(2), open(2). Section 1M− 766 __ −2− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ see(1M) see(1M) NAME see - access bytes in the HP SCSI disk array controller EEPROM SYNOPSIS see -d special see -b byte_number -h hex_byte device_file DESCRIPTION see displays, or changes bytes in the controller EEPROM of the HP SCSI disk array associated with device file device_file . A 64-byte area in the EEPROM is accessible to the user. Although the command is directed to a single LUN, the EEPROM settings affect all the LUNs of the device. Options Display only. Displays the current values of the bytes in the accessible portion of the EEPROM. -d -b byte_number -v hex_byte Loads the hexadecimal value hex_byte into the decimal byte byte_number of the user accessible 64-byte region in the EEPROM. BYTE DESCRIPTION The following list of user accessible bytes in the EEPROM, and their default values is provided for informational purposes only. Changing the values can result in "incorrect" controller behavior with respect to HP SCSI disk array utilities, and other support software. See WARNINGS . byte 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30-63 meaning enable synchronous negotiation enable wide negotiation spin-up algorithm spin-up delay ready timeout host command delay at power on firmware drive cmd timeout value default RAID level option control bits MSB option control bits LSB sense key for drive failures inquiry data byte 7 ROM sequence control bits synchronization control bits inquiry revision level format diagnostic self-test options host command delay for bus reset inquiry unconfigured device type software command timeout value software command timeout actions drive bus reset to ready wait host delay after data phase drive scan disabled channel (MSB) drive scan disabled channel (LSB) time to asynchronous event fan polling interval power supply polling interval reserved Error Reporting Options (MSB) Error Reporting Options (LSB) reserved C2425/7 value 0x00 0x00 0x01 0x32 0x0a 0x00 0x64 0x00 0x00 0x27 0x06 0x12 0x01 0x02 0x00 0x01 0x00 0x20 0x14 0x07 0x08 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x01 0x00 0x00 C2430 value 0x00 0x00 0x01 0x1e 0x17 0x00 0x64 0x05 0x00 0x53 0x06 0x32 0x01 0x02 0x00 0x01 0x00 0x20 0x14 0x07 0x08 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x01 0x00 0x00 s RETURN VALUE see returns the following values: 0 Successful completion. HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −1− Section 1M− 767 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ see(1M) see(1M) -1 Command failed (an error occurred). DIAGNOSTICS AND ERRORS Errors can originate from problems with: • see • SCSI (device level) communications • system calls Error messages generated by see: usage: see <-d | -b <byteno> -v <hex byte>> <special> An error in command syntax has occurred. Re-enter command with the required arguments, in the order shown. see: Arg out of range One of the arguments has exceeded its maximum or minimum size, or is incorrect in form. Check the size and form of each argument. see: device busy To ensure that see does not modify a disk array that is being used by another process, see attempts to obtain exclusive access to the disk array. If the disk array is already opened by another process (for example, LVM — the Logical Volume Manager), a ‘‘device busy ’’ error message is returned by the driver. To eliminate the ‘‘device busy ’’ condition, determine what process has the device open. In the case of LVM, it is necessary to deactivate the volume group containing the array before configuring the array (see vgchange (1M)). see: LUN # too big The LUN number, which is derived from the device special file name, is out of range. see: LUN does not exist The addressed LUN is not configured, and thus is not known to the array controller. see: Not a raw file Utilities must be able to open the device file for raw access. see: Not an HP SCSI disk array The device being addressed is not an HP SCSI disk array. see: Transfer length error The amount of data actually sent to or received from the device was not the expected amount. SCSI (device level) communication errors: Sense data associated with the failed operation is printed. Error messages generated by system calls: see uses the following system calls: s stat() , open() , close() , read() , write() , and ioctl() . Documentation for these HP-UX system calls contains information about the specific error conditions associated with each call. see does not alter the value of errno . The interpretation of errno for printing purposes is performed by the system utility strerror() . EXAMPLES To display the values of the accessible EEPROM bytes on HP SCSI disk array /dev/rdsk/c2t6d0 on a Series 700: see -d /dev/rdsk/c2t6d0 WARNING Changing the values of EEPROM bytes can result in incorrect controller behavior with respect to utilities and support software that may not be immediately obvious. Also, the EEPROM can only be written to a finite number of times, and if its write count is exceeded, it must be replaced. DEPENDENCIES The HP C2425 and HP C2427 disk arrays are only supported on Series 700 systems running HP-UX version 9.0X. Section 1M− 768 __ −2− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ see(1M) see(1M) The HP C2430 disk array is supported on Series 700 and 800 systems running HP-UX versions 9.0X and 10.0X. AUTHOR see was developed by HP. s HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −3− Section 1M− 769 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ sendmail(1M) sendmail(1M) NAME sendmail - send mail over the Internet SYNOPSIS /usr/sbin/sendmail [ mode ] [ flags ] [ address ... ] DESCRIPTION sendmail sends a message to one or more recipients or addresses , routing the message over whatever networks are necessary. sendmail does internetwork forwarding as necessary to deliver the message to the correct place. sendmail is not intended as a user interface routine. Other programs provide user-friendly front ends. sendmail is used only to deliver pre-formatted messages. With no flags specified in the command line, sendmail reads its standard input up to an end-of-file or a line consisting only of a single dot (.) and sends a copy of the message found there to all of the addresses listed in the command line. It determines the network(s) to use based on the syntax and contents of the addresses, according to information in the sendmail configuration file. The default configuration file is /etc/mail/sendmail.cf. Local addresses are looked up in a file and aliased appropriately, and sendmail also supports the use of NIS and LDAP for address lookup. Aliasing can be prevented by preceding the address with a backslash (\). Normally the sender is not included in any alias expansions. For example, if ‘john’ sends to ‘group’, and ‘group’ includes ‘john’ in the expansion, then the letter will not be delivered to ‘john’. If newaliases is invoked, sendmail will rebuild the alias database. newaliases is identical to sendmail -bi . See newaliases (1M). Mail that is temporarily undeliverable is saved in a mail queue. If mailq is invoked, sendmail will print the contents of the mail queue. The mail queue files are in the directory /var/spool/mqueue. mailq is identical to sendmail -bp . See mailq (1). Arguments sendmail recognizes the following arguments: mode A mode selected from those described in the "Modes" subsection below. Only one mode can be specified. The default is -bm . address The address of a recipient. Several addresses can be specified. flags A flag selected from those described in the "Flags" subsection below. Several flags can be specified. Modes sendmail operates in one of the following modes. The default is -bm , deliver mail in the usual way. -ba Go into ARPANET mode. All input lines must end with a CR-LF, and all messages will be generated with a CR-LF at the end. Also, the ‘‘From:’’ and ‘‘Sender:’’ fields are examined for the name of the sender. s -bd Run as a daemon. sendmail will fork and run in background listening on socket 25 for incoming SMTP connections. -bD -bh -bH -bi Run as a daemon, but run in foreground. Print the persistent host status database. Purge the persistent host status database. Initialize the alias database for the mail aliases file. newaliases is identical to sendmail -bi . See newaliases (1M). -bm Deliver mail in the usual way (default). -bp Print a listing of the mail queue. mailq is identical to sendmail -bp . See mailq (1). -bs Use the SMTP protocol as described in RFC821 on standard input and output. This flag implies all the operations of the ba flag that are compatible with SMTP. -bt Run in address test mode. This mode reads addresses and shows the steps in parsing; it is used for debugging configuration tables. Section 1M− 770 __ −1− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ sendmail(1M) sendmail(1M) -bv Verify names only - do not try to collect or deliver a message. Verify mode is normally used for validating users or mailing lists. Flags sendmail recognizes the following flags: -Btype Set the body type, 7BIT or 8BITMIME. -Cfile Use alternate configuration file. sendmail refuses to run as root if an alternate configuration file is specified. -dX Set debugging value to X. -Ffullname Set the full name of the sender. -fname Sets the name of the ‘‘from’’ person (i.e., the sender of the mail) to name . If the user of the -f option is not a ‘‘trusted’’ user (normally root , daemon , and network ) and if the name set using the -f option and the login name of the person actually sending the mail are not the same, it results in an X-Authentication-Warning in the mail header. -hN Set the hop count to N . The hop count is incremented every time the mail is processed. When it reaches a limit, the mail is returned with an error message, the victim of an aliasing loop. If not specified, ‘‘Received:’’ lines in the message are counted. -i Ignore dots alone on lines by themselves in incoming messages. This should be set if you are reading from a file. -n -Ndsn Do not do aliasing. Set delivery status notification conditions. The valid conditions with which dsn can be set are as follows: For no notifications. never failure delay success If delivery failed. If delivery is delayed. When message is successfully delivered. -Ooption =value Set option option to a specified value . Options are described below in ""Processing Options." -ox =value Set option x to the specified value . Options are described below in "Processing Options." -pprotocol Set the name of the protocol used to receive the message. This can be a simple protocol name such as ‘‘UUCP’’ or a protocol and hostname, such as ‘‘UUCP:ucbvax’’. -qtime Process saved messages in the queue at given intervals. If time is omitted, process the queue once. time is given as a tagged number, with s being seconds, m being minutes, h being hours, d being days, and w being weeks. For example, -q1h30m or -q90m would both set the timeout to one hour thirty minutes. If time is specified, sendmail will run in background. This option can be used safely with bd . -qIsubstr -qRsubstr -qSsubstr -rname -Rreturn Limit processed jobs to those containing substr as a substring of the queue id. Limit processed jobs to those containing substr as a substring of one of the recipients. Limit processed jobs to those containing substr as a substring of the sender. An alternate and obsolete form of the f flag. Set the amount of the message to be returned if the message bounces. The values that can be set for return are as follows: full hdrs -t To return the entire message To return only the headers. Read message for recipients. To:, Cc:, and Bcc: lines will be scanned for recipient addresses. The Bcc: line will be deleted before transmission. HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ s −2− Section 1M− 771 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ sendmail(1M) sendmail(1M) -U Initial (user) submission. This flag should always be set when sendmail is called from a user agent such as mail or elm . This flag should never be set when called from a network delivery agent such as rmail . -v -Venvid Go into verbose mode. Alias expansions will be announced, etc. -Xlogfile Log all traffic in and out of mailers in the indicated log file. This should only be used as a last resort for debugging mailer bugs. It will log a lot of data very quickly. -- Stop processing command flags and use the rest of the arguments as addresses. Set the original envelope identification. This is propagated across SMTP to servers that support DSN’s (delivery status notification) and is returned in DSN-compliant error messages. Processing Options There are also a number of processing options that may be set. Normally these will only be used by a system administrator. Options may be set either on the command line using the -o flag or in the configuration file, /etc/mail/sendmail.cf. The options are: AliasFile= file Use alternate alias file. HoldExpensive On mailers that are considered ‘‘expensive’’ to connect to, do not initiate immediate connection. This requires queuing. CheckpointInterval=N Checkpoint the queue file after every N successful deliveries (default 10). This avoids excessive duplicate deliveries when sending to long mailing lists interrupted by system crashes. DeliveryMode= x Set the delivery mode to x . Delivery modes are i b q interactive (synchronous) delivery. d deferred; the same as q except that database lookups (DNS and NIS lookups) are avoided. background (asynchronous) delivery. queue only; expect the messages to be delivered the next time that the queue is run. ErrorMode= x Set error processing to mode x . Valid modes are m w p q e s mail back the error message. ‘‘write’’ back the error message (or mail it back if the sender is not logged in). print the errors on the terminal (default). throw away error messages (only exit status is returned). do special processing for the BerkNet. If the text of the message is not mailed back by modes m or w and if the sender is local to this machine, a copy of the message is appended to the file dead.letter in the sender’s home directory. SaveFromLine Save UNIX -style From lines at the front of messages. MaxHopCount= N The maximum number of times a message is allowed to ‘‘hop’’ before it is considered in a loop. IgnoreDots Do not take dots on a line by themselves as a message terminator. SendMimeErrors Send error messages in MIME format. Section 1M− 772 __ −3− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ sendmail(1M) sendmail(1M) ConnectionCacheTimeOut=timeout Set connection cache timeout. ConnectionCacheSize=N Set connection cache size. Loglevel= n The log level. MeToo Send to ‘‘me’’ (the sender) also if the sender is in an alias expansion. CheckAliases Validate the right hand side of aliases during a newaliases command. See newaliases (1M). OldStyleheaders If set, this message may have old style headers. If not set, this message is guaranteed to have new style headers (i.e., commas instead of spaces between addresses). If set, an adaptive algorithm is used that will correctly determine the header format in most cases. QueueDirectory=queuedir Select the directory in which to queue messages. StatusFile= file Save statistics in the named file. Timeout.queuereturn=time Set the timeout on undelivered messages in the queue to the specified time. After delivery has failed (e.g., because of a host being down) for this amount of time, the failed messages will be returned to the sender. The default is three days. UserDatabaseSpec=userdatabase If set, a user database is consulted to get forwarding information. You can consider this an adjunct to the aliasing mechanism, except that the database is intended to be distributed; aliases are local to a particular host. ForkEachJob Fork each job during queue runs. May be convenient on memory-poor machines. SevenBitInput Strip incoming messages to seven bits. EightBitMode= mode Set the handling of eight bit input to seven bit destinations. Mode can be set to the following values m Convert to seven-bit MIME format. p Pass it as eight bits. s Bounce the mail. MInQueueAge= timeout s Sets how long a job must ferment in the queue in between attempts to send it. DefaultCharSet=charset Sets the default character set used to label 8-bit data that is not otherwise labeled. DialDelay= sleeptime If opening a connection fails, sleep for sleeptime seconds and try again. Useful on dialon-demand sites. NoRecipientAction=action Set the behaviour when there are no recipient headers (To:, Cc: or Bcc:) in message to action. The different values that can be set for action are none Leaves the message unchanged. add-to Adds a To: header with the envelope recipients. add-apparently-to Adds an Apparently-To: header with the envelope recipients. HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −4− Section 1M− 773 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ sendmail(1M) sendmail(1M) add-bcc Adds an empty Bcc: add-to-undisclosed Adds a header reading To:undisclosed-recipients: MaxDaemonChildren=N Sets the maximum number of children that an incoming SMTP daemon will allow to spawn at any time to N . ConnectionRateThrottle=N Sets the maximum number of connections per second to the SMTP port to N . AutoRebuildAliases If set, causes sendmail to rebuild the alias database when needed. Setting this option may cause excessive overhead and is not recommended. DontProbeInterfaces If set, this option is to turn off the inclusion of all the interface names in $=w on startup. In particular, if you have lots of virtual interfaces, this option will speed up startup. However, unless you make other arrangements, mail sent to those addresses will be bounced. This is useful for sending mail to hosts which have dynamically assigned names. DontBlameSendmail=options This options allows you to bypass some of sendmail file security checks at the expense of system security. This should only be used if you are absolutely sure you know the consequences. The available options for DontBlameSendmail are as follows: Safe AssumeSafeChown ClassFileInUnsafeDirPath ErrorHeaderInUnsafeDirPath GroupWritableDirPathSafe GroupWritableForwardFileSafe GroupWritableIncludeFileSafe GroupWritableAliasFile HelpFileinUnsafeDirPath WorldWritableAliasFile ForwardFileInGroupWritableDirPath IncludeFileInGroupWritableDirPath ForwardFileInUnsafeDirPath IncludeFileInUnsafeDirPath ForwardFileInUnsafeDirPathSafe IncludeFileInUnsafeDirPathSafe MapInUnsafeDirPath LinkedAliasFileInWritableDir LinkedClassFileInWritableDir LinkedForwardFileInWritableDir LinkedIncludeFileInWritableDir LinkedMapInWritableDir LinkedServiceSwitchFileInWritableDir FileDeliveryToHardLink FileDeliveryToSymLink WriteMapToHardLink WriteMapToSymLink WriteStatsToHardLink WriteStatsToSymLink RunProgramInUnsafeDirPath RunWritableProgram s DontInitGroups=True |False This can be set to true to prevent program deliveries from picking up extra group privileges. MaxRecipientsPerMessage=no_of_recipients This option limits the number of recipients, no_of_recipients that will be accepted in a single SMTP transaction. After this number is reached, sendmail starts returning Section 1M− 774 __ −5− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ sendmail(1M) sendmail(1M) "452 Too many recipients" to all RCPT commands. This can be used to limit the number of recipients per envelope (in particular, to discourage use of the server for spamming). Note: a better approach is to restrict relaying entirely. MaxHeadersLength=max_header_length This option allows to specify a maximum length of the sum of all headers, max_header_length . This can be used to prevent a Denial-of-Service(DoS) attack. RunAsUser= user If set, causes sendmail to do a setuid to that user early in processing to avoid potential security problems. However, this means that /var/spool/mqueue directory owned by the user and all .forward and :include: files must be readable by that user , and all files to be written must be writable by that user , and all programs will be executed by that user . It is also incompatible with the SafeFileEnvironment option. In other words, it may not actually add much to security. However, it should be useful on firewalls and other places where users do not have accounts and the aliases file is well constrained. SafeFileEnvironment=option If set, files named as delivery targets must be regular files in addition to the regular checks. Also, if the option is non-null, then it is used as the name of a directory that is used as a chroot (2) environment for the delivery; the file names listed in an alias or forward should include the name of this root. QueueSortOrder=option This option can take two values (host or priority and time ). Based on that, the queue will be sorted. host This makes better use of the connection cache, but may delay more ‘‘interactive’’ messages behind large backlogs under some circumstances. This is a good option if you have high speed links or do not do lots of ‘‘batch’’ messages, but less good if you are using something like PPP on a 14.4 modem. time This option causes the queue to be sorted strictly on the time of submission. This may cause a bad behaviour over slow lines and on nodes with heavy traffic. Also, this does not guarantee that jobs will be delivered in submission order unless you also set DeliveryMode=queue. In general, it should probably only be used on the command line, and only in conjunction with -qRhost.domain. PrivacyOptions=flag The available values for flag are public needmailhelo needexpnhelo noexpn needvrfyhelo novrfy restrictmailq restrictqrun noreceipts goaway authwarnings noverb noetrn HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ Allow open access. Insist on HELO (or EHLO) before the MAIL command. Insist on HELO (or EHLO) before the EXPN command. s Disallow EXPN command totally. Insist on HELO (or EHLO) before the VRFY command. Disallow VRFY command totally. Restrict mailq command. Restrict -q command-line flag. Don’t return success DSN’s. Disallow essentially all SMTP status queries. Put X-Authentication-Warning headers in messages if HELO was not used inside SMTP transaction. flag to disable the SMTP VERB command. flag to disable the SMTP ETRN command. −6− Section 1M− 775 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ sendmail(1M) sendmail(1M) Aliases You can set up system aliases and user forwarding. The alias and .forward files are described in the aliases (5) manpage. EXIT STATUS sendmail returns an exit status describing what it did. The codes are defined in <sysexits.h >: EX_OK Successful completion on all addresses. EX_NOUSER User name not recognized. EX_UNAVAILABLE Catchall meaning necessary resources were not available. EX_SYNTAX Syntax error in address. EX_SOFTWARE Internal software error, including bad arguments. EX_OSERR Temporary operating system error, such as ‘‘cannot fork’’ . EX_NOHOST Host name not recognized. EX_TEMPFAIL Message could not be sent immediately, but was queued. AUTHOR The sendmail command was developed by the University of California, Berkeley, and originally appeared in BSD 4.2. This version of HP-UX sendmail originally came from sendmail 8.9.3 . FILES $HOME/.forward User’s mail forwarding file $HOME/dead.letter User’s failed message file Except for the /etc/mail/sendmail.cf file and the daemon process ID file, the below mentioned default pathnames are all specified in the configuration file, /etc/mail/sendmail.cf. These default file names can be overridden in the configuration file. /etc/mail/aliases raw data for alias names data base of alias names /etc/mail/aliases.db configuration file /etc/mail/sendmail.cf help file /usr/share/lib/sendmail.hf collected statistics /etc/mail/sendmail.st mail queue files /var/spool/mqueue/* The process id of the daemon /etc/mail/sendmail.pid The list of all hostnames that are recognized as local, which causes /etc/mail/sendmail.cw /etc/nsswitch.conf s SEE ALSO aliases(5), convert_awk(1M), elm(1), expand_alias(1), identd(1M), idlookup(1), killsm(1M), mail(1), mailq(1), mailstats(1), mailx(1), mtail(1M), newaliases(1M), praliases(1), smrsh(1M). Section 1M− 776 __ sendmail to accept mail for these hosts and attempt local delivery configuration file for the name-service switch −7− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ service.switch(1M) service.switch(1M) NAME service.switch - indicate lookup sources and fallback mechanism SYNOPSIS /etc/mail/service.switch DESCRIPTION /etc/mail/service.switch is a sendmail (1M) service switch similar to /etc/nsswitch.conf (see switch (5)) that indicates the lookup source for hostnames and aliases. It consists of two lines, one for hosts and one for aliases. The lookup sources are listed after the ’hosts’ or ’aliases’ name. For hosts, one or more of the following can be listed: files (for /etc/hosts ), dns, nis, or nisplus. For aliases, one or more of the following can be listed: files (for /etc/mail/aliases), nis, or nisplus. Sample Configurations 1. The default configuration for service.switch is to use dns for hostname lookups and the aliases file for aliases. (Note that due to a bug, the hostname lookup will never fallback to a file lookup, so anything listed after dns will be ignored.) hosts dns files aliases files 2. To work with a non-dns environment that uses file lookups (/etc/hosts ), the following service.switch can be used: hosts files aliases files 3. To work with a NIS environment that does not use DNS, the following service.switch can be used: hosts nis files aliases nis files 4. To work with a NISPLUS environment that does not use DNS, the following service.switch can be used: hosts nisplus files aliases nisplus files Modifying SENDMAIL.CF The sendmail.cf file must be modified to request the usage of the service.switch file. Otherwise, the default for sendmail.cf is to use DNS for host name lookups, and files for alias lookups. To use NIS, NISPLUS, or files, the following line must be uncommented in sendmail.cf : #O ServiceSwitchFile=/etc/mail/service.switch SEE ALSO sendmail(1M). s HISTORY The service.switch file appeared in sendmail V8. HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −1− Section 1M− 777 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ set_parms(1M) set_parms(1M) NAME set_parms - set up system hostname, networking, date/time and root password SYNOPSIS set_parms hostname | timezone | date_time | root_passwd | ip_address | taddl_netwrk set_parms initial DESCRIPTION set_parms is an interactive system set up program which allows the user to set up various important system parameters when first booting up a newly installed operating system. In a first boot situation, set_parms is invoked automatically by /sbin/auto_parms. For set_parms purposes, first boot is defined as having no hostname set when the system starts up. This causes set_parms to step through all of its sub-areas to allow the user to set a hostname, select the proper timezone for the system’s location, set the date and time, set a root password, and set an IP address, netmask, default routing, DNS, and NIS information. After the system has booted and is running, set_parms may also be called directly from the command line to finish setting up a particular sub-area (first form above), or to step through all areas (via set_parms initial ) similar to how it works at first boot. There are certain limitations to its actions when it’s run after first boot, see below. set_parms has two available user interfaces: a terminal-based interface and a graphical interface. At first boot, the graphical interface will be used if the system console is a graphics device, otherwise a terminal interface is used. If called on a normal running system, the graphical interface will be used if and only if a DISPLAY variable is set in the user’s environment and an X server can be contacted at the host referenced in the DISPLAY variable. If run under CDE, set_parms should select the graphical interface. set_parms is also DHCP-aware. If the user attempts to change DHCP supplied data such as the hostname or IP address, set_parms will issue a warning. If the user continues with the changes, then set_parms will relinquish the DHCP lease. On first boot, set_parms will ask the user if he would like to try getting set up data from a DHCP server. set_parms can only be run by the super-user. Options Each sub-area is described below. In a first boot situation, all of the sub-areas are run sequentially. Special first boot behavior is noted if applicable, along with any concerns when calling set_parms on a running system. When calling a sub-area directly, only a unique portion of the sub-area name must be given. hostname s Sets the system hostname. Validates a user supplied hostname according to host naming conventions and sets various system initialization variables to operate with that hostname. Particularly, it edits /etc/hosts to associate the new hostname with the current IP address of the system, if that can be determined. First boot : Also allows the user to specify a DHCP server to get hostname and networking information from, then confirms the information. WARNING: set_parms does not know about optionally installed software when changing the hostname. If such software remembers the previous hostname, then it may not work properly after the hostname is changed. A mechanism is provided that helps generalize the hostname changing function. set_parms will call, in ls (1) sorted order, any executable programs installed in the directory /sbin/ch_hostname.d. This occurs in first boot or non-first boot calls. HP may in the future supply special programs in this location. The system administrator may also supply custom programs for site installations using, for example, Ignite-UX. The system must be rebooted after the hostname is changed for it to take full effect. timezone Allows the user to select a timezone based on the country of location. Also allows setting a user-supplied timezone. The system will need to be rebooted for a change to take effect. date_time Allows the user to set the system date and time interactively. The change takes effect immediately. root_passwd Allows the user to set or change the root password of the system. This function just calls the passwd (1) command. Section 1M− 778 __ −1− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ set_parms(1M) set_parms(1M) ip_address Allows the user to set or change the primary IP address of the system. An IP address change will require a system reboot to take effect. Edits the /etc/hosts file to associate the new IP address with the current hostname. First boot: also lets the user pick the lan interface to set up for this and subsequent networking functions. Non-first boot: In multiple lan systems, it assumes that the IP address is being changed for the lowest numbered IP address/Lan Interface Card data set in the /etc/rc.config.d/netconf file. addl_netwrk Allows the user to set the subnet mask, which defines the network and local portions of a network address, the default routing gateway, and define access to the Domain Name System (DNS) and Network Information Service (NIS). A reboot is required for everything to take effect in the non-first-boot case. set_parms and Ignite-UX/Cold Install After "cold installing" HP-UX from a CD, or using Ignite-UX to install HP-UX, the file /tmp/install.vars is generally left on the system. This file is used to communicate to set_parms hostname and networking information that was used during the installation, in case the user wants to use any of these parameters as final system parameters. In particular, set_parms uses as defaults the shell-style variables in this file that begin with INST_ . For example, INST_LAN_DEV indicates which LAN interface was used during a network cold install. This is the LAN interface that set_parms will configure. In general, set_parms first looks in the system configuration files in the /etc/rc.config.d directory for default information, then in /tmp/install.vars. If Ignite-UX is installed on your system, see the manual pages for ignite (5) and instl_adm (4). In particular, look at instl_adm (4) for descriptions of the is_net_info_temporary , run_setparms , and final variables. Native Language Support (NLS): set_parms supports all of the standard HP supplied languages. In first boot situations, the language set_parms uses will be dictated by either geocustoms (1M) or the LANG variable as set in /etc/rc.config.d/LANG. Geocustoms , if called by set_parms , allows the user to pick both a system set up language (the language of the system administrator setting up the system, to use in the user interface) and a system default language (the language of the end user). set_parms uses the system set up language as picked within geocustoms, unless the system default language is set to be an Asian language. In this case, it will use the Asian language, (from the file /etc/rc.config.d/LANG), since geocustoms itself does not provide an Asian language user interface. Interaction with auto_parms and geocustoms During the boot-up sequence, /sbin/rc always invokes auto_parms , which in turn detects the first boot situation and the need to run geocustoms (independent conditions) and calls set_parms if either or both of these conditions are true. set_parms first sets up an X-windows environment (if the system console is on a graphics display), and then calls geocustoms if necessary. After geocustoms (if called) is finished, and in a first boot situation, set_parms starts its interface and, based on user input, may call back into auto_parms to obtain and set up the management of a DHCP lease. After this has been done, and after set_parms completes its other system set-up actions, control passes back to /sbin/rc which completes the boot-up sequence utilizing the newly created system data. s EXAMPLES See /sbin/rc for invocation context in the first boot case. FILES /sbin/set_parms The main driver program. /sbin/set_parms.util Common subroutines used by set_parms and the sub-area programs. /sbin/set_parms.d/ Directory which holds all of the sub-area programs called by set_parms . set_parms runs these in sorted order. /sbin/ch_hostname.d/ Directory containing the hostname-change programs defined by the user. These are standalone programs run, in sorted order, by set_parms when setting or changing the hostname. /tmp/install.vars File set by Ignite-UX/Cold Install which contains networking and other system information used HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −2− Section 1M− 779 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ set_parms(1M) set_parms(1M) during the installation. SEE ALSO auto_parms(1M), geocustoms(1M), dhcpdb2conf(1M), ignite(5), instl_adm(4). s Section 1M− 780 __ −3− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ setboot(1M) setboot(1M) NAME setboot - display and modify boot variables in stable storage SYNOPSIS /usr/sbin/setboot [-p primary-path ] [-a alternate-path ] [-b onoff ] [-s onoff ] [-v] [-t testname =on off default ]... [-T testname =on off default ]... DESCRIPTION The setboot command displays and sets boot variables in stable storage (also known as nonvolatile memory). Any user can display the values; only a superuser can change them. On all systems, the variables are: primary path, alternate path, autoboot flag, and autosearch flag. If SpeedyBoot is installed, the variables expand to include: early CPU tests, late CPU tests, full memory tests, processor hardware tests, and central electronic complex tests. With no options, setboot displays the current values for the primary and alternate boot paths and the autoboot and autosearch flags. If SpeedyBoot is installed, setboot -v also displays the status of the CPU, memory, hardware, and electronics tests. SpeedyBoot The SpeedyBoot firmware and software extensions allows a superuser to control which firmware tests are executed by the system during the boot process. The tests settings can be specified both for all subsequent boots and for the next one only. They are described in the "The Tests" section below. The -v, -t, and -T options of the setboot command provide the user interface to the firmware tests. SpeedyBoot augments the test control that is available on systems that have the Boot Console Handler (BCH). By turning off some or all of the boot tests, you can shorten boot time appreciably. However, in the event of a system panic or boot failure, all tests are executed on the subsequent boot. Some older platforms can be upgraded to new firmware that supports SpeedyBoot. SpeedyBoot Tests The SpeedyBoot tests and the possible display values are summarized in the following table: Test all SELFTESTS early_cpu late_cpu FASTBOOT full_memory PDH CEC Current on|off|partial on|off|partial on|off on|off on|off|partial on|off on|off on|off Supported yes|no|partial yes|no|partial yes|no yes|no yes|no|partial yes|no yes|no yes|no Default on|off|partial on|off|partial on|off on|off on|off|partial on|off on|off on|off NEXT BOOT on|off|partial on|off|partial on|off on|off on|off|partial on|off on|off on|off s The Columns Test The keyword names of the tests that can be controlled by SpeedyBoot. See "The Tests" section below. Current The current enablement of each test. on means the test is normally executed on each boot. off means the test is normally omitted on each boot. partial means some of the subtests are normally executed on each boot. Supported Whether the test is supported by the system firmware. yes means the test is supported. no means the test is not supported. partial means some of the subtests are supported. Default The default values for each test. on , off , and partial are the same as for Current . NEXT BOOT The values for each test that will be used on the next boot. If they are different from Current , the Current values will be reestablished after the next boot. on , off , and partial are the same as for Current . HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −1− Section 1M− 781 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ setboot(1M) setboot(1M) The Tests These are keywords for the hardware tests that are executed by processor-dependent code (PDC) or firmware upon a boot or reboot of the system. all All the listed tests. SELFTESTS Includes the early_cpu and late_cpu tests. This is equivalent to the SELFTESTS option in the boot console handler (BCH) service menu. The difference is that setboot can control the subtests separately, while BCH cannot. early_cpu When on, run firmware, cache, and CPU-specific tests. Performed out of firmware. When off, skip the tests. late_cpu When on, run firmware, cache, and CPU-specific tests. Performed out of memory and therefore faster than the early_cpu tests. When off, skip the tests. FASTBOOT Includes the full_memory and PDH tests. This is equivalent to the FASTBOOT option in the boot console handler (BCH) service menu. The difference is that setboot can control the subtests separately, while BCH cannot. Note: When FASTBOOT is on, the tests are performed, and vice versa. full_memory When on, run write/read-write/read tests on all memory locations. When off, only initialize memory. PDH Processor-dependent hardware. When on, test a checksum of read-only memory (ROM). When off, do not. CEC Central electronic complex. When on, test low-level bus converters and I/O chips. When off, do not. CEC is not available on all systems. Options The setboot command supports the following options: (none) Display the current values for the primary and alternate boot paths and the autoboot and autosearch flags. See example 2 in the "EXAMPLES: General" section. -p primary-path Set the primary boot path variable to primary-path . See ioscan (1M) for the correct format. s -a alternate-path Set the alternate boot path variable to alternate-path . See ioscan (1M) for the correct format. -s onoff Enable or disable the autosearch sequence. -b onoff Enable or disable the autoboot sequence. -v Display the current values for the primary and alternate boot paths and the autoboot and autosearch flags and a status table of the SpeedyBoot tests. See example 1 in the "EXAMPLES: SpeedyBoot" section. -t testname =value Change the value for the test testname in stable storage to value for all following boots. The changes are reflected in the Current and NEXT BOOT columns of the setboot -v display. testname can be one of the following keywords, as described above in the "DESCRIPTION: SpeedyBoot Tests" section. all SELFTESTS early_cpu late_cpu FASTBOOT Section 1M− 782 __ −2− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ setboot(1M) setboot(1M) full_memory PDH CEC value can be one of: on Enable the test. off Disable the test. default Reset the test to the system default, which is shown in the Defaults column of the setboot -v display. -T testname =value Change the values for the test testname for the next system boot only. The changes are reflected in the NEXT BOOT column of the setboot -v display. The change does not modify stable storage, so the permanent values, shown in the Current column, are restored after the boot. testname and value are the same as for the -t option. RETURN VALUE The setboot command returns one of: 0 1 Successful completion Failure DIAGNOSTICS The setboot command returns the following error messages: "bootpath" is not a proper bootpath The boot path bootpath is not in correct format. See ioscan (1M) for the proper hardware path format. cannot open /dev/kepd - message setboot cannot open the kernel pseudo driver file /dev/kepd . The message explains why. cannot set autoboot/autosearch flags The autoboot or autosearch flag could not be set. cannot set type boot path setboot can’t set the specified boot path. type may be primary or alternate . error accessing boot path - message The message explains why. For example, you may not have permission (not be superuser) to change parameters. error accessing firmware - message s The firmware could not be read or written. The message explains why. Invalid Arguments Passed to the invoked PDC routine This is an internal error. test not found in /etc/setboot_tests file The test you specified is not defined for your system. The firmware of your system does not support querying or changing SELFTEST and FASTBOOT settings except through the boot-time console interface, ie, BCH menu. Invoked PDC routine [option ] not implemented You have specified a SpeedyBoot option (-t , -T , or -v ) and your system does not have the firmware to support it. Unknown error errornum encountered by setboot(1M) An unexpected error, number errornum , was encountered while setboot was processing SpeedyBoot parameters. Warning: Autoboot flag must be on for autosearch flag to have effect HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −3− Section 1M− 783 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ setboot(1M) setboot(1M) If the autoboot flag is off, automatic searching for a bootable system cannot occur, even if the autosearch flag is on. warning: invalid data in /etc/setboot_tests The /etc/setboot_tests file contains tests that are not supported by setboot on your system. Do not modify this file. EXAMPLES General 1. Set the primary path to 2/4.1.0 and enable the autoboot sequence: setboot -p 2/4.1.0 -b on 2. Display the boot paths and auto flags: setboot displays Primary bootpath : 2/0/1.6.0 Alternate bootpath : 2/0/2.0.0 Autoboot is ON (enabled) Autosearch is ON (enabled) SpeedyBoot 1. Display all current stable storage values. setboot -v displays Primary bootpath : 10/0.0.0 Alternate bootpath : 10/12/5.0.0 Autoboot is ON (enabled) Autosearch is OFF (disabled) s 2. 3. TEST CURRENT SUPPORTED DEFAULT NEXT BOOT -------------------------------all partial partial partial partial SELFTESTS partial yes on partial early_cpu off yes on off late_cpu on yes on on FASTBOOT partial yes on partial full_memory off yes on off PDH on yes on on CEC off no off off Enable full_memory and PDH tests and have those tests executed on all subsequent reboots. setboot -t FASTBOOT=on Disable the late processor tests and have those tests skipped on all subsequent reboots. If early CPU tests are on when this command is executed, the SELFTESTS state in BCH stays on while setboot -v shows it as partial . setboot -t late_cpu=off 4. Reset all tests to the machine-shipped default values. 5. setboot -t all=default Reset only the FASTBOOT (full_memory and PDH ) tests to their default values. setboot -t FASTBOOT=default 6. Cause the early and late CPU tests to be executed on the next system boot. The previously set test values take effect again after the single boot. Section 1M− 784 __ −4− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ setboot(1M) setboot(1M) setboot -T SELFTESTS=on 7. Cause all tests to be skipped on the next reboot. The previously set test values will take effect for subsequent reboots. setboot -T all=off WARNINGS The setboot command fails under the following circumstances: • The number of writes to the stable storage exceeds the number allowed by the architecture implementation. • Hardware failure. • The implementation does not have memory for the alternate boot path, in which case, this variable is neither readable nor writable. The interpretation of Autoboot and Autosearch has changed for systems that support hardware partitions. The firmware interprets the bits in combination and not as individual bits as done before. In order to provide the traditional behaviour of setboot , the user input for the autoboot and autosearch flags is internally mapped to the right combination to achieve the desired behaviour. As a side effect, when the user issues the setboot command without any options to get a display of the current settings, he will be displayed the new mapped values for autoboot and autosearch. The user may not be able to always see the values which he had initially set using -b or -s options. To make full use of the new boot device configuration features available on the systems which support hardware partitions, please use the pf command from the boot console handler. DEPENDENCIES If SpeedyBoot is not installed on a system, options -v, -t, and -T will produce a diagnostic error. AUTHOR setboot was developed by HP. FILES /dev/kepd /etc/setboot_tests Special device file used by the setboot command. Definitions of tests which can be viewed or controlled with the -v, -t, and -T options. SEE ALSO hpux(1M), ioscan(1M), isl(1M), mkboot(1M). s HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −5− Section 1M− 785 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ setext(1M) setext(1M) NAME setext (vxfs) - set extent attributes SYNOPSIS /usr/sbin/setext [-F vxfs ] [-e extent_size ] [-f flag ] [-r reservation ] [-V] file DESCRIPTION setext specifies a fixed extent size for a file, and reserves space for a file. The file must already exist. Options -e extent_size Specify a fixed extent size. extent_size is the number of file system blocks to allocate for the extent. An extent_size of zero cancels previous fixed-size extents for the file and uses the default extent allocation policy. See vxtunefs (1M) for information on extent size parameters. -F vxfs -f flags Specify the VxFS file system type. The available allocation flags are align Specify that all extents must be aligned on extent_size boundaries relative to the start of allocation units. chgsize Immediately incorporate the reservation into the file and update the file’s on-disk inode with size and block count information that is increased to include the reserved space. The space added to the file is not initialized. Only users with appropriate privileges can use the chgsize option. contig Specify that the reservation must be allocated contiguously. noextend Specify that the file may not be extended after the preallocated space is used. noreserve Specify that the reservation is not a persistent attribute of the file. Instead, the space is allocated until the final close of the file, when any space not used by the file is freed. The temporary reservation is not visible to the user (via getext (1M) or the VX_GETEXT ioctl, for example). trim Specify that the reservation is reduced to the current file size after the last close by all processes that have the file open. -r reservation Preallocate space for file. reservation is specified in file system blocks. -V Echo the completed command line, but do not execute the command. The command s line is generated by incorporating the user-specified options and other information derived from /etc/fstab . This option allows the user to verify the command line. NOTES setext is available only with the HP OnLineJFS product. You can specify multiple flags by entering multiple instances of -f on the command line. You must specify the allocation flags with either the -e or -r option. Only the align and noextend allocation flags are persistent attributes of the file and therefore visible via getext (1M) or the VX_GETEXT ioctl. Other allocation flags may have persistent effects, but are not visible as allocation flags. In some cases, fsadm may reorganize the extent map of a file in such a way as to make it less contiguous. However, it will not change the geometry of a file that has a fixed extent size. SEE ALSO getext(1M), fsadm_vxfs(1M), vxtunefs(1M), vxfsio(7) (particularly the section on VX_SETEXT ). Section 1M− 786 __ −1− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ setmemwindow(1M) setmemwindow(1M) NAME setmemwindow - changes the window id of a running program or starts a program in a particular memory window SYNOPSIS setmemwindow [ -cjnfbov ] [ -i WinId ] -p pid | program [ arg ... ] DESCRIPTION setmemwindow is the command that changes the window id of a running process or starts a specified program in a particular memory window. If the -p option is specified with a non-zero pid , only the process’ window id is changed, and any value specified for program is ignored. The executable program is only executed if the process id pid is either 0 or unspecified. Changing the window id for the running process does not mean the process immediately attaches to or creates objects using that window. The targeted process does not begin using the window until it exec’s a new image. setmemwindow , used as a wrapper for an existing executable, starts the program in the desired (see -i option below) memory window. In order to execute program , setmemwindow changes the window id, fork’s a child and exec’s program in the child process. The default behavior of setmemwindow is to wait until program finishes. If -n is specified, the waiting for program is bypassed and setmemwindow exits immediately after fork’ing the child. If -c and -j are unspecified, the default behavior is to place the process into the window specified by WinId . If WinId exists, then the process is placed into that memory window. If no window exists with WinId , an unused window is allocated and associated with WinId . -c specifies the creation of a window. If the window already exists and -c is specified, the call fails. -j specifies the joining to an existing window. If the window does not exist and -j is specified, the call fails. The -f option instructs the command to exec program regardless if the setmemwindow is unable to change the process’ window to the specified WinId . The failure to create a specific window may be the effect of the lack of available memory windows - the underlying kernel has not been configured with enough memory windows (exit status ENOMEM) or the feature is not implemented (exit status ENOSYS). Options -i WinId Specifies the desired memory window. WinId is a key to the desired memory window. WinId is a user specified value and should be one of the values contained in the file Applications extract the user key from /etc/services.window. according to a unique string contained in /etc/services.window using the getmemwindow command. (See /etc/services.window, getmemwindow (1M) and services.window (4).) The kernel tries to locate an existing window with WinId . If one is found, that window is used. If no window with WinId is found, an unused entry is located and assigned to WinId . s The value 0 for WinID is special. If specified, the process/program is placed into the default global window instead of a unique window with id WinId . If WinID is unspecified, the process and its children will run in a private memory window, and no other processes in the system can attach to this memory window. This memory window remains active until the process and its children terminate. -p pid | program [arg ... ] Change the memory window for process pid , or start program in the specified memory window. If program has arguments (arg ... ), they must also be specified. If -p is unspecified or the value of pid is 0, the calling process has its window id changed, and program is exec’ed. If a non-zero process pid is specified, only the window in that process is changed, and program is ignored. -c Create a window with id WinId and attach the specified process to it. If WinId already exists the call fails. HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −1− Section 1M− 787 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ setmemwindow(1M) setmemwindow(1M) -j Join an existing window with id WinId . The specified process attaches to an existing memory window. If no entry exists the call fails. -n If program is exec’ed, the default behavior is to waitpid (see the wait (2) manual page) for the process to terminate. Specifying -n causes setmemwindow to exit after fork’ing the child (that will exec program ). -f The default behavior for setmemwindow is to exit without executing the user specified program if the memory window cannot be set. The failure to set the memory window may be caused by the lack of enough memory windows in the system, the memory windows feature is not implemented, a memory window with WinId could not be found in the attempt to join a memory window, or a memory window with the WinId was found in the attempt to create a memory window. The -f option instructs setmemwindow to exec program regardless if the desired memory window was set or not. Obviously, using this option there is no guarantee program has been attached to the desired memory window and it is unclear in what memory window it is running. Using this option is strongly discouraged. -b Create a memory window where both memory window quadrants use the same space id. For SHMEM_MAGIC executables this generates two quadrants with the same space id. Applications can use this to generate the appearance of larger contiguous shared memory ranges with a maximum of 2 gigabytes. For example, an application that generates a 1 gigabyte shared memory segment has that segment placed into the 2nd quadrant by default. If the application creates another 1 gigabyte segment that segment is placed in the 3rd quadrant. Both segments are contiguous virtually, allowing the application to treat the virtual range as if it were a contiguous 2 gigabyte segment. This option only benefits SHMEM_MAGIC executables. They are the only type of executable format able to place shared objects in the 2nd quadrant. -o Send the pid of the exec’ed program to the stdout. The message sent out is: "setmemwindow:pid=dddd\n", where dddd is the decimal value of the pid. Application Usage Memory Windows helps alleviate the 1.75 gigabytes limitation on system wide shared memory for 32-bit applications by allowing cooperating applications to configure their own 1 gigabyte window of shared resources. The definition of a memory window is only available for 32-bit processes. Note that memory windows allows the creation of more than 1.75 gigabytes of total system wide shared memory, but it does not extend how much shared memory a single process can create. SHARED_MAGIC executables are still limited to 1.75 gigabytes. s HP-UX ships memory windows disabled. To enable memory windows, the kernel tunable parameter, max_mem_window, must be set to the desired number. max_mem_window represents the number of memory windows beyond the global default window. Setting max_mem_window to 2, for example, would produce a total of three memory windows, the default global window plus two user defined windows. Setting max_mem_window to 0 leaves only the default or global memory window. There are two new commands and one file introduced by memory windows: setmemwindow , getmemwindow , and /etc/services.window file. The /etc/services.window file maps a memory window application to a particular window id. Using this central file allows applications to share memory windows, by using the same window id, as well as avoid unintentional memory window collisions. See services.window (4) for more information. The getmemwindow command is used to extract the window id of a user process from the /etc/services.window file. The setmemwindow command starts a particular process in a memory window. A common usage of these commands is to extract a memory window id with getmemwindow , which is then passed to setmemwindow to start a process with the given window id. Processes must be in the same window to share data. Processes wanting to share global data, such as shared memory or MAP_SHARED memory mapped files, must make sure all processes are in the same memory window. If processes in different memory windows wish to share data reliably, the creator of the data must take steps to guarantee the data is placed in a location accessible to all processes. For more detailed information on memory windows, refer to the 11.0 Memory Window White Paper . Section 1M− 788 __ −2− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ setmemwindow(1M) setmemwindow(1M) RETURN VALUE The returned exit value is 0 on success or a positive number on failure. If -n is not specified, the value returned is the exit status of the executed program obtained from the waitpid (2) system call. EXAMPLES # # Start the program "myprog" in a memory window extracted by the string # "myapp". # WinId=$(getmemwindow myapp) setmemwindow -i $WinId myprog arg1 arg2 # # Start the program "myprog" in a newly created memory window # extracted by the string "myapp". # WinId=$(getmemwindow myapp) setmemwindow -c -i $WinId myprog arg1 arg2 # # Start the program "myprog" in an existing memory window # extracted by the string "myapp". # WinId=$(getmemwindow myapp) setmemwindow -j -i $WinId myprog arg1 arg2 # # Start the program "myprog" in a private memory window. # "myprog" and its descendents can access the window. # setmemwindow myprog arg1 arg2 Only AUTHOR setmemwindow was developed by HP. FILES /etc/services.window File containing applications’ associated window ids. SEE ALSO getmemwindow(1M), services.window(4), 11.0 Memory Windows White Paper . HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −3− s Section 1M− 789 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ setmnt(1M) setmnt(1M) NAME setmnt - establish the file-system mount table, /etc/mnttab SYNOPSIS /usr/sbin/setmnt DESCRIPTION The setmnt command creates the /etc/mnttab table (see mnttab (4)), which is needed by both the mount and umount commands (see mount (1M)). setmnt reads the standard input and creates an entry in /etc/mnttab for each line of input. Input lines have the format: filesys node where filesys is the name of the device special file associated with the file system (such as /dev/dsk/c0t5d0) and node is the root name of that file system. Thus filesys and node become the first two strings in the mount table entry. WARNINGS The mount and umount commands rewrite the /etc/mnttab file whenever a file system is mounted or unmounted if /etc/mnttab is found to be out of date with the mounted file system table maintained internally by the HP-UX kernel. The syncer command also updates /etc/mnttab if it is out of date (see syncer (1M)). /etc/mnttab should never be manually edited. Use of this command to write invalid information into /etc/mnttab is strongly discouraged. The setmnt command is not intented to be run interactively; input should be directed to it from a file (for example, setmnt < /tmp/file.mnt). If run interactively, terminate input with a ctrl-D . setmnt silently enforces an upper limit on the maximum number of /etc/mnttab entries. It is unwise to use setmnt to create false entries for mount and umount . This command is obsolete and it may not be available for future releases. FILES /etc/mnttab Mounted file system table SEE ALSO devnm(1M), mount(1M), syncer(1M), mnttab(4). STANDARDS CONFORMANCE setmnt : SVID2, SVID3 s Section 1M− 790 __ −1− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ setprivgrp(1M) setprivgrp(1M) NAME setprivgrp - set special privileges for groups SYNOPSIS setprivgrp setprivgrp setprivgrp setprivgrp groupname [privileges ] -g [privileges ] -n [privileges ] -f file DESCRIPTION The setprivgrp command associates a group with a list of privileges, thus providing access to certain system capabilities for members of a particular group or groups. The privileges can be displayed with the getprivgrp command (see getprivgrp (1)). Privileges can be granted to individual groups, as defined in the /etc/group file, and globally for all groups. Only a superuser can use the setprivgrp command. Options and Arguments setprivgrp recognizes the following options and arguments: privileges One or more of the keywords described below in "Privileged Capabilities". groupname The name of a group defined in the file named /etc/group . The current privileges for groupname , if any, are replaced by the specified privileges . To retain prior privileges, they must be respecified. -g Specify global privileges that apply to all groups. The current privileges, if any, are replaced by the specified privileges , To retain prior privileges, they must be respecified. -n If no privileges are specified, delete all privileges for all groups, including global privileges. If one or more privileges are specified, delete the specified privileges from the current privilege lists of all groups, including the global privilege list, but do not delete unspecified privileges. -f file Set the privileges according to entries in the file file . This file is usually /etc/privgroup. The entry formats are described below in "Group Privileges File Format". Privileged Capabilities The following system capabilities can be granted to groups: s CHOWN Can use chown() to change file ownerships (see chown (2)). LOCKRDONLY Can use lockf() to set locks on files that are open for reading only (see lockf (2)). MLOCK Can use plock() to lock process text and data into memory, and the shmctl() SHM_LOCK function to lock shared memory segments (see plock (2) and shmctl (2)). RTPRIO Can use rtprio() to set real-time priorities (see rtprio (2)). RTSCHED Can use sched_setparam() and sched_setscheduler() to set POSIX.4 real-time priorities (see rtsched (2)). SERIALIZE Can use serialize() to force the target process to run serially with other processes that are also marked by this system call (see serialize (2)). SETRUGID Can use setuid() and setgid() to change, respectively, the real user ID and real group ID of a process (see setuid (2) and setgid (2)). Group Privileges File Format The file specified with the -f option should contain one or more lines in the following formats: groupname [privileges ] HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −1− Section 1M− 791 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ setprivgrp(1M) setprivgrp(1M) -g [privileges ] -n [privileges ] They are described above in "Options and Arguments". RETURN VALUE setprivgrp exits with one of the following values: 0 Successful completion. >0 Failure. AUTHOR setprivgrp was developed by HP. FILES /etc/group /etc/privgroup SEE ALSO getprivgrp(1), chown(2), getprivgrp(2), lockf(2), plock(2), rtprio(2), rtsched(2), serialize(2), setgid(2), setuid(2), shmctl(2), privgrp(4). s Section 1M− 792 __ −2− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ setuname(1M) setuname(1M) NAME setuname - change machine information SYNOPSIS setuname [-s name ] [-n node ] [-t] DESCRIPTION The setuname command is used to modify the value for system name and/or the node name by using the appropriate option(s). The setuname command attempts to change the parameter values in both the running kernel and the system configuration to cross reboots. A temporary change affects only the running kernel. Options The setuname command supports the following options: -s name Changes the system name (e.g., HP-UX) in the sysname field of the utsname structure where name is the new system name and consists of alphanumeric characters and the special characters dash, underbar, and dollar sign. -n node Changes the name in the nodename field of the utsname structure where node specifies the new node name and consists of alphanumeric characters and the special characters dash, underbar, and dollar sign. -t Signifies a temporary change. The change will not survive a reboot. Either or both of the -s or -n options must be given when invoking setuname . The size of the name and node is limited to UTSLEN −1 characters. UTSLEN is defined in <sys/utsname.h>. Only users having appropriate privileges can use this command. EXAMPLES To permanently change the system name to HP-UX and the node name to the-node , issue the following command: setuname -s HP-UX -n the-node To temporarily change the system name to SYSTEM and the node name to new-node , issue the following command: setuname -s SYSTEM -n new-node -t SEE ALSO uname(1), uname(2). s HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −1− Section 1M− 793 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ showmount(1M) showmount(1M) NAME showmount - show all remote mounts SYNOPSIS /usr/sbin/showmount [-a] [-d] [-e] [ host ] DESCRIPTION showmount lists all clients that have remotely mounted a filesystem from host . This information is maintained by the mountd server on host (see mountd (1M)). The default value for host is the value returned by hostname (see hostname (1)). Options -a Print all remote mounts in the format name :directory where hostname is the name of the client, and directory is the directory or root of the file system that was mounted. -d List directories that have been remotely mounted by clients. -e Print the list of exported file systems. WARNINGS If a client crashes, executing showmount on the server will show that the client still has a file system mounted. In other words, the client’s entry is not removed from /etc/rmtab until the client reboots and executes: umount -a Also, if a client mounts the same remote directory twice, only one entry appears in /etc/rmtab . Doing a umount of one of these directories removes the single entry and showmount no longer indicates that the remote directory is mounted. AUTHOR showmount was developed by Sun Microsystems, Inc. SEE ALSO hostname(1), exportfs(1M), mountd(1M), exports(4), rmtab(4). s Section 1M− 794 __ −1− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ shutdown(1M) shutdown(1M) NAME shutdown - terminate all processing SYNOPSIS /sbin/shutdown [-h-r] [-y] [-o] [grace ] /sbin/shutdown -R [-H] [-y] [-o] [grace ] DESCRIPTION The shutdown command is part of the HP-UX system operation procedures. Its primary function is to terminate all currently running processes in an orderly and cautious manner. shutdown can be used to put the system in single-user mode for administrative purposes such as backup or file system consistency checks (see fsck (1M)), to halt or reboot the system, or to make the partition ready for reconfig. By default, shutdown is an interactive program. Options and Arguments shutdown recognizes the following options and arguments. -h -r -R Shut down the system and halt. -H Shut down the system to a ready to reconfig state and do not reboot. This option can be used only in combination with the -R option. This option is available only on systems that support hardware partitions. -y Do not require any interactive responses from the user. (Respond yes or no as appropriate to all questions, such that the user does not interact with the shutdown process.) -o When executed on the cluster server in a diskless cluster environment, shutdown the server only and do not reboot clients. If this argument is not entered the default behavior is to reboot all clients when the server is shutdown. grace Either a decimal integer that specifies the duration in seconds of a grace period for users to log off before the system shuts down, or the word now . The default is 60. If grace is either 0 or now , shutdown runs more quickly, giving users very little time to log out. Shut down the system and reboot automatically. Shut down the system to a ready to reconfig state and reboot automatically. This option is available only on systems that support hardware partitions. If -r (reboot) or -h (halt) or -R (reconfig) are not specified, standalone and server systems are placed in single-user state. Either -r (reboot) or -h (halt) must be specified for a client; shutdown to singleuser state is not allowed for a client. See dcnodes (1M), init (1M). Shutdown Procedure shutdown goes through the following steps: s • The PATH environment variable is reset to /usr/bin:/usr/sbin:/sbin. • The IFS environment variable is reset to space, tab, newline. • The user is checked for authorization to execute the shutdown command. Only authorized users can execute the shutdown command. See FILES for more information on the /etc/shutdown.allow authorization file. • The current working directory is changed to the root directory (/). • All file systems’ super blocks are updated; see sync (1M). This must be done before rebooting the system to ensure file system integrity. • The real user ID is set to that of the superuser. • A broadcast message is sent to all users currently logged in on the system telling them to log out. The administrator can specify a message at this time; otherwise, a standard warning message is displayed. • The next step depends on whether a system is standalone, a server , or a client. • If the system is standalone, /sbin/rc is executed to shut down subsystems, unmount file systems, and perform other tasks to bring the system to run level 0. HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −1− Section 1M− 795 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ shutdown(1M) shutdown(1M) • • • If the system is a server , the optional -o argument is used to determine if all clients in the cluster should also be rebooted. The default behavior (command line parameter -o is not entered) is to reboot all clients using /sbin/reboot; entering -o results in the server only being rebooted and the clients being left alone. Then /sbin/rc is executed to shut down subsystems, unmount file systems, and perform other tasks to bring the system to run level 0. If the system is a client, /sbin/rc is executed to bring the system down to run-level 2, and then /sbin/reboot is executed. Shutdown to the single-user state is not an allowed option for clients. The system is rebooted, halted, or put in the ready to reconfig state by executing /sbin/reboot if the -h or -r or -R option was chosen. If the system was not a cluster client and the system was being brought down to single-user state, a signal is sent to the init process to change states (see init (1M)). DIAGNOSTICS device busy This is the most commonly encountered error diagnostic, and happens when a particular file system could not be unmounted; see mount (1M). user not allowed to shut down this system User is not authorized to shut down the system. User and system must both be included in the authorization file /etc/shutdown.allow. EXAMPLES Immediately reboot the system and run HP-UX again: shutdown -r 0 Halt the system in 5 minutes (300 seconds) with no interactive questions and answers: shutdown -h -y 300 Go to run-level s in 10 minutes: shutdown 600 Immediately shut down a partition so that it can be deleted: shutdown -R -H 0 Reboot a partition in 5 minutes so that new cells that have been assigned to the partition become active: shutdown -R 300 s WARNINGS The user name compared with the entry in the shutdown.allow file is obtained using getlogin() or, if that fails, using getpwuid() (see getlogin (3C) and getpwent (3C)). The hostname in /etc/shutdown.allow is compared with the hostname obtained using gethostbyname() (see gethostent (3N)). shutdown must be executed from a directory on the root volume, such as the / directory. The maximum broadcast message that can be sent is approximately 970 characters. When executing shutdown on an NFS diskless cluster server and the -o option is not entered, clients of the server will be rebooted. No clients should be individually rebooted or shutdown while the cluster is being shutdown. FILES /etc/shutdown.allow Authorization file. The file contains lines that consist of a system host name and the login name of a user who is authorized to reboot or halt the system. A superuser’s login name must be included in this file in order to execute shutdown . However, if the file is missing or of zero length, the root user can run the shutdown program to bring the system down. Section 1M− 796 __ −2− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ shutdown(1M) shutdown(1M) This file does not affect authorization to bring the system down to single-user state for maintenance purposes; that operation is permitted only when invoked by a superuser. A comment character, #, at the beginning of a line causes the rest of the line to be ignored (comments cannot span multiple lines without additional comment characters). Blank lines are also ignored. The wildcard character + can be used in place of a host name or a user name to specify all hosts or all users, respectively (see hosts.equiv (4)). For example: # user1 can shut down systemA and systemB systemA user1 systemB user1 # root can shut down any system + root # Any user can shut down systemC systemC + SEE ALSO dcnodes(1M), fsck(1M), init(1M), killall(1M), gethostent(3N), getpwent(3C), hosts.equiv(4). mount(1M), reboot(1M), sync(1M), dcnodes(3X), For more information about shutdowns and reboots on Superdome systems, see the manual, Managing Superdome Complexes: A Guide for System Administrators available on the web at docs.hp.com . s HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −3− Section 1M− 797 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ sig_named(1M) sig_named(1M) NAME sig_named - send signals to the domain name server SYNOPSIS sig_named [-v] [debug [+] debug-level dump kill restart stats trace ] DESCRIPTION sig_named sends the appropriate signal to the domain name server /usr/sbin/named. The process ID is obtained from /var/run/named.pid or from ps (1) if /var/run/named.pid does not exist. Options sig_named recognizes the following options and command-line arguments: -v Verify that the name server is running before sending the signal. The verification is done using ps (see ps (1)). debug [+]debug-level Set the debugging output sent to /var/tmp/named.run to debug-level . If debugging is already on, it is turned off before the debug level is set. If + precedes debuglevel , the current debugging level is raised by the amount indicated. If debug-level is zero, debugging is turned off. dump Signal the name server to dump its database. /var/tmp/named_dump.db. The database is dumped to kill restart stats Kill the name server process. trace Toggles tracing of incoming queries to /var/adm/syslog/syslog.log. Signal the name server to reload its database. Remove the old statistics file, /var/tmp/named.stats. Signal the name server to dump its statistics. Show the statistics file on the standard output. AUTHOR sig_named was developed by HP. FILES /var/run/named.pid /var/tmp/named.run /var/tmp/named_dump.db /var/tmp/named.stats Process ID Debug output Dump of the name server database Nameserver statistics data SEE ALSO kill(1), named(1M). s Section 1M− 798 __ −1− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ smrsh(1M) smrsh(1M) NAME smrsh - restricted shell for sendmail SYNOPSIS smrsh -c command DESCRIPTION The smrsh program is intended as a replacement for sh for use in the prog mailer in sendmail configuration files. It sharply limits the commands that can be run using the |program syntax of sendmail in order to improve the overall security of your system. Briefly, even if a ‘‘bad guy’’ can get sendmail to run a program without going through an alias or forward file, smrsh limits the set of programs that he or she can execute. Briefly, smrsh limits programs to be in the directory /var/adm/sm.bin, allowing the system administrator to choose the set of acceptable commands. It also rejects any commands with the characters \, <, >, |, ;, &, $, (, ), \r (carriage return), and \n (newline) on the command line to prevent ‘‘end run’’ attacks. Initial pathnames on programs are stripped, so forwarding to /usr/ucb/vacation, /usr/bin/vacation, /home/server/mydir/bin/vacation, and vacation all actually forward to /var/adm/sm.bin/vacation. System administrators should be conservative about populating /var/adm/sm.bin. Reasonable additions are vacation and rmail . Do not include any shell or shell-like program (such as perl ) in the sm.bin directory. Note that this does not restrict the use of shell or perl scripts in the sm.bin directory (using the #! syntax); it simply disallows execution of arbitrary programs. FILES /var/adm/sm.bin Directory for restricted programs SEE ALSO sendmail(1M). s HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −1− Section 1M− 799 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ snmpd(1M) snmpd(1M) NAME snmpd, snmpdm - Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) Daemon SYNOPSIS /usr/sbin/snmpd [ -a ] [ -authfail ] [ -C contact ] [ -Contact contact ] [ -h ] [ -help ] [ -L location ] [ -Location location ] [ -l logfile ] [ -logfile logfile ] [ -m logmask ] [ -mask logmask ] [ -n ] [ -P portnum ] [ -Port portnum ] [ -sys description ] [ -sysDescr description ] /usr/sbin/snmpd [ -e extendFile ] /usr/sbin/snmpdm [ -a ] [ -authfail ] [ -C contact ] [ -Contact contact ] [ -h ] [ -help ] [ -L location ] [ -Location location ] [ -l logfile ] [ -logfile logfile ] [ -m logmask ] [ -mask logmask ] [ -n ] [ -P portnum ] [ -Port portnum ] [ -sys description ] [ -sysDescr description ] DESCRIPTION The Master SNMP Agent (/usr/sbin/snmpdm) and the collection of subAgents (/usr/sbin/mib2agt, /usr/sbin/hp_unixagt, ...) that would attach to the Master Agent collectively form a single SNMP Agent. The SNMP Agent accepts SNMP Get, GetNext and Set requests from an SNMP Manager which cause it to read or write the Management Information Base (MIB ). The MIB objects are instrumented by the subAgents. The Master Agent can bind to three kinds of subAgents, namely, • Loosely coupled subAgents or separate process subAgents which open IPC communication channels to communicate with the Master Agent, • Shared library subAgents which are dynamically linkable libraries, • Remotely coupled subagents which could run on a different processor or operating system and communicate with the Master Agent using TCP. Options The Master agent /usr/sbin/snmpdm and the script /usr/sbin/snmpd recognize the following command line options: -authfail Suppress sending authenticationFailure traps. -a -Contact contact -C contact Specify the contact person responsible for the network management agent. This option overrides the contact person specified in the Master Agent configuration file /etc/SnmpAgent.d/snmpd.conf. It does not alter the value specified in the file. By default, the agent’s contact is a blank string. To configure the agent’s contact, add the contact after the word contact: in the configuration file /etc/SnmpAgent.d/snmpd.conf or use the -C option. s -e extendFile This option is provided for backward compatibility with the pre-emanate snmpd.ea extensible SNMP agent. It is applicable only to the script /usr/sbin/snmpd, and only if the EMANATE extensible agent is installed. It is installed if the file /usr/sbin/extsubagt exists. This option causes the extsubagt to use the command line specified extendFile instead of the default file /etc/SnmpAgent.d/snmpd.extend to add user defined MIB objects to the SNMP agent. -help Display command line options and log mask values. -h -Location location -L location Specify the location of the agent. This option overrides the location specified in /etc/SnmpAgent.d/snmpd.conf. It does not alter the value in /etc/SnmpAgent.d/snmpd.conf. By default, the agent’s location is a blank string. To configure the agent’s location, add the location to /etc/SnmpAgent.d/snmpd.conf or use the -L option. -logfile logfile -l logfile Use the logfile for logging rather than the default logfile, /var/adm/snmpd.log. A value of - will direct logging to stdout . Section 1M− 800 __ −1− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ snmpd(1M) snmpd(1M) -mask logmask -m logmask Sets the initial logging mask to logmask. The logmask option may not be used in the agent start up scripts. This option should be used only while debugging the agent. See the SNMP Agent Logging section for valid values of logmask and for other details. -n Normally snmpdm puts itself into the background as if the command was terminated with an ampersand(&). This option inhibits that behavior and makes the agent run in the foreground. -Port portnum -P portnum Specify the UDP port number that the agent will listen on for SNMP requests. The default is port 161. The value can also be specified in /etc/services. Only the super-user can start snmpdm and only one snmpdm can execute on a particular UDP port. -sysDescr description -sys description Allows the user to specify the value for the system.sysDescr MIB object. The format is a text string enclosed in quotes. This option overrides the sysDescr specified in /etc/SnmpAgent.d/snmpd.conf. For example, snmpdm -sys "nsmd1, test system" SNMPv1 Security An SNMP Manager application can request to read a MIB value available at an agent by issuing an SNMP GetRequest, or a manager application may request to alter a MIB value by issuing an SNMP SetRequest. Each SNMP request is accompanied by a community name, which is essentially a password that enables SNMP access to MIB values on an agent. Note, the agent does not respond to any SNMP requests, including GetRequests, if no community name is configured in /etc/SnmpAgent.d/snmpd.conf. To configure the agent to respond to GetRequests accompanied by a specific community name, add the community name as a get-community-name to the configuration file. By default the get-community-name is set to public in the file. For details on this configuration file see the snmpd.conf (4) manual page. By default, the agent does not allow managers to alter MIB values (it returns errors for SNMP SetRequests). To configure the agent to respond to SNMP SetRequests (AND GetRequests), add a setcommunity-name to the file /etc/SnmpAgent.d/snmpd.conf. SNMPv2c Simple Network Management Protocol Community based Version 2 (SNMPv2 ) is supported in this version of the SNMP Agent. Traps The agent also sends information to a manager without an explicit request from the manager. Such an operation is called a trap . By default, SNMP traps are not sent to any destination. To configure the agent to send traps to one or more specific destinations, add the trap destinations to /etc/SnmpAgent.d/snmpd.conf. s Then Master Agent (snmpdm ) and the MIB-2 subAgent (mib2agt ) collaborate to send the following SNMP traps: coldStart Sends a coldStart trap when the SNMP Agent is invoked. linkDown Sends a linkDown trap when an interface goes down. linkUp Sends a linkUp trap when an interface comes up. authenticationFailure Sends an authenticationFailure trap when an SNMP request is sent to the agent with a community name that does not match any community names the agent is configured to work with. SNMP Agent Logging The SNMP Agent provides the capability to log various types of errors and events. There are three types of logging: Errors, Warnings and Traces. HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −2− Section 1M− 801 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ snmpd(1M) snmpd(1M) Log Masks Log masks enable the user to specify the particular classes of messages that should be logged to /var/adm/snmpd.log or logfile . There are three different ways in which you can specify the logmask that you want. They are: (1) decimal number, (2) hex number, or (3) text string. The three may not be used in combination. To select multiple output types do the following. For decimal or hex format simply add the individual logmask values together and enter that number. When entering strings, place multiple strings on the same line, space separated, without quotes. ================================================================== LOG MASK VALUES FUNCTION Decimal Hex String ================================================================== Log factory trace messages 8388608 0x00800000 FACTORY_TRACE Log factory warning messages 268435456 0x10000000 FACTORY_WARN Log factory error messages 536870912 0x20000000 FACTORY_ERROR For example, to turn on error log messages: decimal format: snmpdm -m 536870912 hex format: snmpdm -m 0x20000000 string format: snmpdm -m FACTORY_ERROR Using -m or -mask logmask command line options might cause the master agent to run in the foreground and the agent would not daemonize. This could potentially cause system hang during boot times if any of these options were added to the start up scripts, since the boot up environment might wait indefinitely for the agent to daemonize. So it is adviced not to add these command line options to the start up scripts but use these options only during an agent debug session. Supported MIB Objects The Management Information Base (MIB ) is a conceptual database of values MIB (objects ) on the agent. The Master SNMP Agent implements a small number of MIB objects but most MIB objects are implemented by subAgents that attach to the Master Agent. See /opt/OV/snmp_mibs/ on systems with OpenView products installed for definitions of particular MIB objects. version of the SNMP Agent includes three subAgents, /usr/sbin/mib2agt, and /usr/sbin/hp_unixagt which implement the MIB-2 and hp-unix MIBs respectively, and the third /usr/sbin/trapdestagt which is used in configuring destinations for the agent’s traps. The MIBs for the subagents mib2agt and hp_unixagt are described in /opt/OV/snmp_mibs/rfc1213-MIB-II and /opt/OV/snmp_mibs/hp-unix on systems with OpenView products installed. The MIB-2 subAgent supports most of the objects in RFC1213 . The EGP group is not supported. The hp- This unix subAgent supports most of the objects in the hp-unix MIB. s DEPRECATED MIBS The ieee8023Mac MIB group corresponding to the following OID is no longer supported: private(4).enterprises(1).hp(11).nm(2).interface(4).ieee8023Mac(1) This MIB group is replaced with the "Ether-Like" MIB group (RFC1398) which corresponds to OID: mgmt(2).mib-2(1).transmission(10).dot3(7) SNMP Agent Startup The SNMP Agent startup mechanism is built upon the System V.4 file system paradigm. The startup script, /etc/netmanrc, which was used in previous releases of the SNMP Agent is no longer used. Automatic Startup As installed, the SNMP Master Agent and all subAgents should startup automatically each time the system re-boots or any time the system transitions from run level 1 to run level 2. When the system enters run level 2 the operating system will execute /sbin/init.d/SnmpMaster which will startup the Master /sbin/init.d/SnmpMib2, Agent. Similarly, the operating system invoked /sbin/init.d/SnmpHpunix and /sbin/init.d/SnmpTrpDst will startup the MIB2, HP Unix and Trap Dest subAgents respectively immediately after the Master Agent is started. Prior to executing these startup scripts the system will examine all scripts in /etc/rc.config.d for environment variables which could potentially influence the startup of the Master Agent and each subAgent. See the particular startup script or configuration file for details on supported environment Section 1M− 802 __ −3− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ snmpd(1M) snmpd(1M) variables. The user should never modify scripts in /sbin/init.d . Instead the startup behavior should be controlled by adjusting values in the appropriate configuration script in /etc/rc.config.d. Manual Startup There are two ways to start the SNMP Agent manually. The first way is to execute snmpdm and then start each subAgent. Separate process subAgents are started by invoking the particular subAgent executables. The second and simplest way to start the SNMP Agent manually is to execute the snmpd startup script which will invoke the Master Agent and all subAgents who have been installed and designed to operate in this paradigm. The snmpd script is layered upon the V.4 startup paradigm and so makes use of the component startup scripts in /sbin/init.d and configuration scripts in /etc/rc.config.d. When snmpd is invoked it starts /usr/sbin/snmpdm, passes all its command line arguments to it and then executes each script (S*) found in /sbin/SnmpAgtStart.d. EXTERNAL INFLUENCES Environment Variables LANG determines the language in which messages appear. If LANG is not specified or is set to the empty string, a default of "C" (see lang (5)) is used instead of LANG. If any internationalization variable contains an invalid setting, snmpdm behaves as if all internationalization variables are set to "C." See environ (5). Many SNMP Agent log messages are only available in English. International Code Set Support Supports single-byte character code sets. AUTHOR snmpd was developed by HP, Massachusetts Institute of Technology and SNMP Research. FILES /usr/sbin/snmpd /usr/sbin/snmpdm /usr/sbin/mib2agt /usr/sbin/hp_unixagt /usr/sbin/trapdestagt /etc/SnmpAgent.d/snmpd.conf /var/adm/snmpd.log /opt/OV/snmp_mibs/ /sbin/SnmpAgtStart.d/ SEE ALSO snmpd.conf(4). RFC 1155, RFC 1157, RFC 1212, RFC 1213, RFC 1231, RFC 1398. HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −4− s Section 1M− 803 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ softpower(1M) softpower(1M) NAME softpower - determine if softpower hardware is installed on the system SYNOPSIS /sbin/softpower DESCRIPTION The softpower command determines whether a software controlled power switch is installed on the system. RETURN VALUE softpower returns the following values: 0 Softpower hardware detected on the system. 1 Softpower hardware was not detected on the system. 2 The command failed because it is being run on an earlier version of HP-UX that does not support the appropriate sysconf call. AUTHOR softpower was developed by HP. SEE ALSO sysconf(2). s Section 1M− 804 __ −1− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ spd(1M) spd(1M) NAME spd - set physical drive parameters on an HP SCSI disk array SYNOPSIS spd [-a] [-c] [-d] [-f] [-r] [-x] [-M] drive device_file DESCRIPTION spd changes the status of a drive on an HP SCSI disk array associated with device file device_file . Options Add drive. Adds a drive to the set of drives known by the controller. -a -c Clear the warning, or "failed disk" error status. Parity checking via scn must be performed immediately following this operation. See WARNING. -d -f Delete drive. Deletes a drive from the set of drives known by the controller. -r Replace drive. Marks the drive as replaced, which instructs the controller to start reconstructing the LUN (s) associated with this replaced drive. -x Replace and format drive. Marks a drive as replaced, and instructs the controller to physically format the drive before starting LUN reconstruction. -M Force the selected option. By altering the state of individual disk mechanisms contained within a disk array, the state of configured LUN devices may also be altered. For example, if the disk array has a LUN configured into a RAID 5 configuration, and one of the disk mechanisms used to create the LUN is in a FAILED state, the disk array will be operating in a DEGRADED mode. If the user selected the FAIL DRIVE option on one of the functioning disk mechanisms of the LUN, the state of the LUN would be changed from DEGRADED to DEAD. spd will warn the user of any significant change in LUN state resulting from their selected option. The -M option suppresses these warnings and performs the selected operation. drive Specified in the form cX iY , where X (a decimal number) represents the SCSI channel number, and Y (a decimal number) represents the SCSI-ID number of the disk drive. Fail drive. Marks the drive as failed, and may place the LUN (s) residing on it in a dead or degraded state, depending on RAID level, and the presence of other failed drives in the LUN. RETURN VALUE spd returns the following values: 0 -1 Successful completion. Command failed (an error occurred). s DIAGNOSTICS AND ERRORS Errors can originate from problems with: • spd • SCSI (device level) communications • system calls Error messages generated by spd: usage: spd <-a | -c | -d | -f | -r | -x> <-M> <cXiY> <special> An error in command syntax has occurred. Enter command again with all required arguments, in the order shown. spd: device busy To ensure that spd does not modify a disk array that is being used by another process, spd attempts to obtain exclusive access to the disk array. If the disk array is already opened by another process (for example, LVM — the Logical Volume Manager), a ‘‘device busy ’’ error message is returned by the driver. To eliminate the ‘‘device busy ’’ condition, determine what process has the device open. In the case of LVM, it is necessary to deactivate the volume group containing the array before configuring the array (see vgchange (1M)). spd: Arg out of range One of the arguments has exceeded its maximum or minimum size, or is incorrect in form. Check the HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −1− Section 1M− 805 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ spd(1M) spd(1M) size and form of each argument. spd: LUN does not exist The addressed LUN is not configured, and thus is not known to the array controller. spd: LUN # too big The LUN number, which is derived from the device file name, is out of range. spd: Not a raw file Utilities must be able to open the device file for raw access. spd: Not an HP SCSI disk array The device being addressed is not an HP SCSI disk array. SCSI (device level) communication errors: Sense data associated with the failed operation is printed. spd: Transfer length error The amount of data actually sent to or received from the device was not the expected amount. Error messages generated by system calls: spd uses the following system calls: malloc() , free() , stat() , open() , close() , read() , write() , and ioctl() . Documentation for these HP-UX system calls contains information about the specific error conditions associated with each call. spd does not alter the value of errno . The interpretation of errno for printing purposes is performed by the system utility strerror() . EXAMPLES The following command clears the FAILED state of the drive at ID 3 on channel 2 on the HP SCSI disk array /dev/rdsk/c2t6d0 on a series 700. The -M option must be selected to suppress warning messages. The scn operation must be performed immediately to ensure accurate data parity information. spd -c -M c2i3 /dev/rdsk/c2t6d0 scn /dev/rdsk/c2t6d0 To add the drive at ID 3 on channel 2 to the set of drives the array controller knows about on the HP SCSI /dev/rdsk/c2t6d0 on a series 700: disk array spd -a c2i3 /dev/rdsk/c2t6d0 To delete the drive at ID 3 on channel 2 from the set of drives the array controller knows about on the HP SCSI disk array /dev/rdsk/c2t6d0 on a series 800: spd -d c2i3 /dev/rdsk/c2t6d0 s To mark the drive at ID 3 on channel 2 as failed, thus rendering any redundant RAID mode LUN (s) residing on it as dead or degraded, on the HP SCSI disk array /dev/rdsk/c2t6d0 on a series 700: spd -f -M c2i3 /dev/rdsk/c2t6d0 To mark the drive at ID 3 on channel 2 as replaced, thus initiating the reconstruction of any redundant RAID mode LUN (s) residing on it, on the HP SCSI disk array /dev/rdsk/c2t6d0 on a series 700: spd -r b2a3 /dev/rdsk/c2t6d0 NOTE Failing a drive on a RAID_0 LUN will leave it with an "optimal" LUN status, even though the controller will no longer access the failed drive and its data. WARNING Clearing a "failed" disk status might leave the array with inconsistent parity. This can lead to corrupted data if the array LUN ever operates in "degraded" state. Parity scan and repair must be performed immediately after clearing the "failed" state of a disk array. DEPENDENCIES The HP C2425 and HP C2427 disk arrays are only supported on Series 700 systems running HP-UX version 9.0X. Section 1M− 806 __ −2− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ spd(1M) spd(1M) The HP C2430 disk array is supported on Series 700 and 800 systems running HP-UX versions 9.0X and 10.0X. AUTHOR spd was developed by HP. s HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −3− Section 1M− 807 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ spray(1M) spray(1M) NAME spray - spray packets SYNOPSIS /usr/sbin/spray host [-c count ] [-l length ] DESCRIPTION spray sends a one-way stream of packets to host using RPC, then reports how many were received by host and what the transfer rate was. The host name can be either a name or an internet address. Options spray recognizes the following options and command-line arguments: -c count Specifies how many packets to send. The default value of count is the number of packets required to make the total stream size 100 000 bytes. -l length The number of bytes in the Ethernet packet holding the RPC call message. Since the data is encoded using XDR, and XDR only deals with 32-bit quantities, not all values of length are possible. The spray command rounds up to the nearest possible value. When length is greater than the size of an Ethernet packet, the system breaks the datagram into multiple Ethernet packets. The default value of length is 86 bytes (the size of the RPC and UDP headers). AUTHOR spray was developed by Sun Microsystems, Inc. SEE ALSO ping(1M), sprayd(1M). s Section 1M− 808 __ −1− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ sprayd(1M) sprayd(1M) NAME sprayd - spray server SYNOPSIS /usr/lib/netsvc/spray/rpc.sprayd [-l log_file ] [-e-n] DESCRIPTION sprayd is an RPC server that records the packets sent by spray from another system (see spray (1M)). inetd invokes sprayd through /etc/inetd.conf (see inetd (1M)). Options sprayd recognizes the following options and command-line arguments: -l log_file Log any errors to the named log file, log_file . Errors are not logged if the -l option is not specified. Information logged to the file includes date and time of the error, host name, process id and name of the function generating the error, and the error message. Note that different services can share a single log file since enough information is included to uniquely identify each error. -e Exit after serving each RPC request. Using the -e option, the inetd security file /var/adm/inetd.sec can control access to RPC services. -n Exit only if • portmap dies (see portmap (1M)), Another rpc.sprayd registers with portmap , or • rpc.sprayd becomes unregistered with portmap . • The -n option is more efficient because a new process is not launched for each RPC request. default. -n is the AUTHOR sprayd was developed by Sun Microsystems, Inc. SEE ALSO inetd(1M), spray(1M), portmap(1M), inetd.conf(4), inetd.sec(4), services(4). s HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −1− Section 1M− 809 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ sss(1M) sss(1M) NAME sss - set spindle sync state of drives in an HP SCSI disk array SYNOPSIS sss -d [drive_list ] device_file sss -on [-s] [drive_list ] device_file sss -off [drive_list ] device_file DESCRIPTION sss displays or changes the spindle synchronization state of the disk drives in the HP SCSI disk array associated with device file device_file . Though device_file is the name of a device file corresponding to a LUN, sss operates (by default) on all disk drives physically connected to the array controller, without regard to the drives’ LUN ownership. Even if multiple LUNs (or sub-LUNs) are present, sss should be directed to only one of them (that is, specify the name of the device file for only one of the LUNs in the sss command line). To affect a subset of the physical drives in the array, specify which drives to affect in drive_list . Options -d -on Sync on. Enables spindle synchronization; one drive is designated master and the rest are designated slaves, unless the -s "slave only" tag is present, in which case all designated drives will be slaves. If only one drive is designated, it will be a master. -off -s Sync off. Disables spindle synchronization. drive_list s Display only. Displays the current spindle synchronization status. This has two components: the drive’s master or slave status and its state of spindle synchronization (on or off). A list of drives used to specify which drives in the array will be affected by the synchronization operation. drive_list is in the form cX iY , where X (a decimal number) represents the SCSI channel number, and Y (a decimal number) represents the SCSI-ID number of the desired drive. Drives names in drive_list are separated by commas. If no drive_list is present, sss defaults to all physical drives attached to the array controller, regardless of which LUNs they belong to. Slave only. Only used with the -on option. Make all designated drives slaves. This is useful when replacing a drive in a set of drives which already have spindle synchronization enabled. If you have replaced the master drive, use the -on option without -s , and specify the new drive only. RETURN VALUE sss returns the following values: 0 -1 Successful completion. Command failed (an error occurred). DIAGNOSTICS AND ERRORS Errors can originate from problems with: • sss • SCSI (device level) communications • system calls Error messages generated by sss: usage: sss <-d | -on [-s] | -off> [cXiY,...] <special> sss encountered an error in command syntax. Enter the command again with the required arguments, in the order shown. sss: Arg out of range One of the arguments has exceeded its maximum or minimum size, or is incorrect in form. Check the size and form of each argument. sss: device busy To ensure that sss does not modify a disk array that is being used by another process, sss Section 1M− 810 __ −1− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ sss(1M) sss(1M) attempts to obtain exclusive access to the disk array. If the disk array is already opened by another process (for example, LVM — the Logical Volume Manager), a ‘‘device busy ’’ error message is returned by the driver. To eliminate the ‘‘device busy ’’ condition, determine what process has the device open. In the case of LVM, it is necessary to deactivate the volume group containing the array before configuring the spindle sync state of the drives in the array (see vgchange (1M)). sss: LUN # too big The LUN number, which is derived from the device file name, is out of range. sss: Not a raw file sss must be able to open the device file for raw access. sss: Not an HP SCSI disk array The device being addressed is not an HP SCSI disk array. sss: Transfer length error The amount of data actually sent to or received from the device was not the expected amount. SCSI (device level) communication errors: Sense data associated with the failed operation is printed. Error messages generated by system calls: sss uses the following system calls: malloc() , free() , stat() , open() , close() , read() , write() , and ioctl() . Documentation for these HP-UX system calls contains information about the specific error conditions associated with each call. sss does not alter the value of errno . The interpretation of errno for printing purposes is performed by the system utility strerror() . EXAMPLES To display the spindle synchronization status of drives on HP SCSI disk array /dev/rdsk/c22d0s2 on a Series 800: sss -d /dev/rdsk/c22d0s2 To enable spindle synchronization on all drives of the HP SCSI disk array /dev/rdsk/c410d3l3s0 on a Series 700: sss -on /dev/rdsk/c410d3l3s0 The drive on SCSI channel 3 at SCSI ID 0 of the HP SCSI disk array /dev/rdsk/c410d3l3s0 has just been replaced. The other drives in the array are synchronized, and the replaced one was a slave. To enable spindle synchronization on the new drive on a Series 700: sss -on -s c3i0 /dev/rdsk/c410d3l3s0 If, in the replacement scenario above, the replaced drive was the master, to enable spindle synchronization and make the new drive a master: sss -on c3i0 /dev/rdsk/c410d3l3s0 s or, alternatively, enable the whole set again: sss -on /dev/rdsk/c410d3l3s0 DEPENDENCIES This utility is currently supported only on HP C2425, HP C2427, and HP C2430 disk arrays. AUTHOR sss was developed by HP. HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −2− Section 1M− 811 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ st(1M) st(1M) NAME st - shared tape administration SYNOPSIS st -f device_file [-r] [-s] DESCRIPTION The st command provides users with a command-line interface to check the status of a shared tape device or to reclaim a shared tape device from a host system that has failed while holding a reservation on the shared tape device. The st command can also be used for the same purpose on shared library robotic devices. To use the st command you must have root user id. Please see examples below for usage. Options st recognizes the following options and arguments: -f device_file Specifies the tape device file or sctl pass-through device file for the shared tape/library device. This parameter is mandatory and st will report an error if -f device_file is omitted. -r Allows the user to reclaim a shared tape device or shared library robotic device in the case where a host failed while holding a reservation on the shared device. This option causes a bus device reset to be issued to the device specified by the -f option. Prints out the current status of the shared tape/library device specified by the -f option. -s RETURN VALUE st returns 0 upon successful completion and 1 otherwise. EXAMPLES st -f /dev/scsi/st_device -s The following shows three examples of output from the above command. Device is reserved by another host The above output indicates that the shared device is reserved by another host and is therefore unavailable at this time. Device not ready The above output indicates that the shared device is not ready for use at this time. Device is OK and available The above output indicates that the shared device is ready for use at this time. s To reclaim a shared tape/library device from a failed host, the following command can be used: st -f /dev/scsi/st_device -r WARNINGS The -r option must be used with care. When reclaiming devices, it must be ensured that the host from which the device is being reclaimed has in fact failed, as data may be lost as the result of reclaiming a device that is currently in use by another host. DEPENDENCIES The sctl SCSI pass-through driver must be configured in the kernel before this command can be used to administer the shared tape device. See scsi_ctl (7). AUTHOR st was developed by Hewlett-Packard. SEE ALSO mt(1), scsi(7), scsi_ctl(7). Section 1M− 812 __ −1− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ statd(1M) statd(1M) NAME statd - network status monitor SYNOPSIS /usr/sbin/rpc.statd [-l log_file ] DESCRIPTION statd is an RPC server. It interacts with lockd to provide crash and recovery functions for the locking services on NFS (see lockd (1M)). Options statd recognizes the following options and command-line arguments: -l log_file Log any errors to the named log file, log_file . Errors are not logged if the -l option is not specified. Information logged to the file includes date and time of the error, host name, process id and name of the function generating the error, and the error message. FILES /var/statmon/sm/* /var/statmon/sm.bak/* /var/statmon/state WARNINGS Changes in status of a site are detected only upon startup of a new status monitor and lock daemon. AUTHOR statd was developed by Sun Microsystems, Inc. SEE ALSO fcntl(2), lockf(2), signal(2), lockd(1M), sm(4). s HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −1− Section 1M− 813 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ strace(1M) strace(1M) NAME strace - write STREAMS event trace messages to standard output SYNOPSIS strace [ mod sub pri ] ... DESCRIPTION strace gets STREAMS event trace messages from STREAMS drivers and modules via the STREAMS log driver (strlog(7) ), and writes these messages to standard output. By default, strace without arguments writes all STREAMS trace messages from all drivers and modules. strace with command-line arguments limits the trace messages received. The arguments, which must be specified in groups of three, are: mod Specifies the STREAMS module identification number from the streamtab entry. sub Specifies a subidentification number (often corresponding to a minor device). pri Specifies a tracing priority level. strace gets messages of a level equal to or less than the value specified by pri. Only positive integer values are allowed. The value all can be used for any argument in the strace command line to indicate that there are no restrictions for that argument. Multiple sets of the three arguments can be specified to obtain the messages from more than one driver or module. Only one strace process can open the STREAMS log driver at a time. When strace is invoked, the log driver compares the sets of command line arguments with actual trace messages, returning only messages that satisfy the specified criteria. STREAMS event trace messages have the following format: seq time tick pri ind mod sub text Components are interpreted as follows: seq Trace event sequence number. time Time the message was sent expressed in hh:mm:ss. tick Time the message was sent expressed in machine ticks since the last boot. pri Tracing priority level as defined by the STREAMS driver or module that originates the messages. ind Can be any combination of the following three message indicators: E F N s The message has also been saved in the error log. The message signaled a fatal error. The message has also been mailed to the system administrator. mod Module identification number of the trace message source. sub Subidentification number of the trace message source. text Trace message text. strace runs until terminated by the user. EXAMPLES Display all trace messages received from the driver or module identified by mod 28 : strace 28 all all Display trace messages of any tracing priority level from the driver or module identified by mod 28 and its minor devices identified by the sub 2, 3, or 4: strace 28 2 all 28 3 all 28 4 all Display the trace messages from the same driver or module and subs but limit the priority levels to 0 for subs 2 and 3; 1 for sub 4, driver or module 28 : Section 1M− 814 __ −1− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ strace(1M) strace strace(1M) 28 2 0 28 3 0 28 4 1 WARNINGS Running strace with several sets of arguments can impair STREAMS performance, particularly for those modules and drivers that are sending the messages. Also be aware that strace may not be able to handle a large number of messages. If drivers and modules return messages to strace too quickly, some may be lost. FILES /usr/lib/nls/msg/C/strace.cat NLS catalog for strace . SEE ALSO strclean(1M), strerr(1M), strlog(7). s HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −2− Section 1M− 815 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ strchg(1M) strchg(1M) NAME strchg, strconf - change or query stream configuration SYNOPSIS strchg -h module1[, module2 ]... strchg -p [ -a-u module ] strchg -f file strconf strconf -t strconf -m module DESCRIPTION The strchg and strconf commands are used to change or query the configuration of the stream associated with the user’s standard input. The strchg command pushes modules on and/or pops modules off the stream. The strconf command queries the configuration of the stream. Only the superuser or owner of a STREAMS device may alter the configuration of that stream. strchg Options The strchg command uses the following options: -h module1[,module2] ... strchg pushes modules onto a stream. The modules are pushable STREAMS modules as defined by module1 , module2 , and so on. The modules are pushed in order. That is, module1 is pushed first, module2 is pushed second, etc. -p -a -u module With the -p option alone, strchg pops the topmost module from the stream. With the -p and -a options, all the modules above the topmost driver are popped. With the -p and -u module options, all modules above but not including module are popped off the stream. The -a and -u options are mutually exclusive. -f file The user can specify a file that contains a list of modules representing the desired configuration of the stream. Each module name must appear on a separate line where the first name represents the topmost module and the last name represents the module that should be closest to the driver. The strchg command will determine the current configuration of the stream and pop and push the necessary modules in order to end up with the desired configuration. The -h, -f, and -p options are mutually exclusive. s strconf Options Invoked without any arguments, strconf prints a list of all the modules in the stream as well as the topmost driver. The list is printed in one name per line where the first name printed is the topmost module on the stream (if one exists) and the last item printed is the name of the driver. The strconf command uses the following options: -t -m module Only the topmost module (if one exists) is printed. strconf checks if the named module is present on the stream. If so, strconf prints the message, yes , and returns zero. If not, strconf prints the message, no , and returns a non-zero value. The -t and -m options are mutually exclusive. Notes If the user is neither the owner of the stream nor the superuser, the strchg command will fail. If the user does not have read permissions on the stream and is not the superuser, the strconf command will fail. If modules are pushed in the wrong order, one could end up with a stream that does not function as expected. For ttys, if the line discipline module is not pushed in the correct place, one could have a terminal that does not respond to any commands. Section 1M− 816 __ −1− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ strchg(1M) strchg(1M) DIAGNOSTICS strchg returns zero on success. It prints an error message and returns non-zero status for various error conditions, including usage error, bad module name, too many modules to push, failure of an ioctl on the stream, or failure to open file from the -f option. strconf returns zero on success (for the -m or -t option, "success" means the named or topmost module is present). It returns a non-zero status if invoked with the -m or -t option and the module is not present. It prints an error message and returns non-zero status for various error conditions, including usage error or failure of an ioctl on the stream. EXAMPLES The following command pushes the module ldterm on the stream associated with the user’s standard input: strchg -h ldterm The following command pops the topmost module from the stream associated with /dev/term/24 . The user must be the owner of this device or be superuser. strchg -p < /dev/term/24 If the file, fileconf , contains the following: compat ldterm ptem then the command strchg -f fileconf will configure the user’s standard input stream so that the module ptem is pushed over the driver, followed by ldterm and compat closest to the stream head. The strconf command with no arguments lists the modules and topmost driver on the stream. For a stream that only has the module ldterm pushed above the ports driver, it would produce the following output: ldterm ports The following command asks if ldterm is on the stream: strconf -m ldterm and produces the following output while returning an exit status of 0: yes FILES /usr/lib/nls/msg/C/strchg.cat /usr/lib/nls/msg/C/strconf.cat s NLS catalogs NLS catalogs SEE ALSO streamio(7). HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −2− Section 1M− 817 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ strclean(1M) strclean(1M) NAME strclean - remove outdated STREAMS error log files SYNOPSIS strclean [-d logdir ] [-a age ] DESCRIPTION strclean cleans the STREAMS error logger directory of log files (error. mm-dd ) that contain error messages sent by the STREAMS log driver, strlog (7). If the -d option is not used to specify another directory, strclean removes error log files in the /var/adm/streams directory. If the -a option is not used to specify another age, strclean removes error log files that have not been modified in three days. Options strclean recognizes the following options and command-line arguments: -d logdir Specifies a directory for the location of the STREAMS error log files to be removed if this is not the default directory /var/adm/streams. -a age Specifies a maximum age in days for the STREAMS error log files if this not the default age of 3. The value of age must be an integer greater than or less than 3. EXAMPLES Remove day-old error log files from a directory called /tmp/streams : strclean -d /tmp/streams -a 1 FILES /var/adm/streams/error.mm-dd One or more error log file or files on which strclean operates. The mm-dd in the filename indicates the month and day of the messages contained in the file. /usr/lib/nls/msg/C/strclean.cat NLS catalog for strclean . SEE ALSO strerr(1M), strlog(7). s Section 1M− 818 __ −1− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ strdb(1M) strdb(1M) NAME strdb - STREAMS debugging tool SYNOPSIS strdb [ system ] DESCRIPTION strdb symbolically displays the contents of various STREAMS data structures. The argument system allows substitutes for the default /stand/vmunix. strdb can only handle a 32-bit kernel actually running on a system. For crash dumps and for 64-bit kernels, use the q4 debugger. strdb runs in two modes, STREAMS subsystem and primary. STREAMS subsystem commands report the status of open streams. Primary commands display STREAMS data structures. In a typical strdb session, you will do the following: • Run strdb . When strdb starts up, you are in primary mode. • Execute the :S command to enter STREAMS subsystem mode. • Enter STREAMS subsystem commands such as s, d, and la to find the open stream you want to examine. • Enter the qh command to select a stream and display the stream head read queue. This command returns you to primary mode. • Enter primary mode navigation keys to display fields in the stream head read queue, and traverse the rest of the stream’s queues. The following commands are available in primary mode. :? ^D :q ^K ^L :u Display a help menu for primary mode. :s Re-enable data structure stacking. By default data structure stacking is turned on. The :u command turns it off. When stacking is on, strdb pushes each structure it displays onto a stack so that it can be reviewed later. See ˆP and other stack commands described below. :l name o|c If the o option is specified, open a log file, name, and start logging. Alternatively if the c option is specified, close a log file, name, and stop logging. :S Enter STREAMS subsystem mode. navigation key Display the field specified by navigation key in the currently displayed data structure. strdb provides different navigation keys for each STREAMS data structure. Each key indicates a particular field in the data structure to display. The navigation keys for STREAMS data structures are described after the STREAMS subsystem commands below. ? ^R Display a help menu for the displayed data structure’s navigation keys. Exit from strdb . Exit from strdb . If logging is enable, dump current screen to log file Refresh the screen. Disable data structure stacking. By default data structure stacking is turned on. When stacking is on, strdb pushes each structure it displays onto a stack so that it can be reviewed later. See ˆP and other stack commands described below. Update the displayed data structure with new values from /dev/kmem on a running system. ^P Pop the displayed data structure off the data structure stack, and display the data structure now at the top of the stack. :m Mark the displayed data structure. Later the data structure stack can be popped back to this structure using ˆU as described below. ^U Pop the data structure stack back to a structure marked with :m , and display this structure. HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ s −1− Section 1M− 819 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ strdb(1M) strdb(1M) Transpose the top two data structure stack entries. Unlike ˆP , this command allows the data structure on the top of the stack to be saved for later viewing. ^T :b addr [ len ] Display len bytes of binary data at address addr. The default for len is 256. :x name addr Display structure name located at address addr. :x ? Display the structure names accepted by :x . The following commands are available in STREAMS subsystem mode. ? h q v s Display a help menu for STREAMS subsystem mode. Display a help menu for STREAMS subsystem mode. Exit from STREAMS subsystem mode to primary mode. Print the version of STREAMS data structures displayed. d| m la name lm ll lp qc qh If the d option is specified, list the STREAMS drivers included in the kernel S800 or dfile file. Alternatively if the m option is specified, list the included modules. List all open streams for device name. The name is one of those shown by the s command. name minor List all modules pushed on the stream for device name and minor minor . name minor List all drivers linked under the multiplexor name with minor minor . name minor List all drivers persistently linked under the multiplexor name with minor minor . name file Write the q_count values for the driver name into file, file . name minor Display the streams head read queue for the STREAMS driver name and minor minor . This command returns the user to primary mode. strdb provides different navigation keys for each STREAMS data structure it displays. Each key indicates a particular data structure field to display. The navigation keys for each STREAMS data structure are described in the following paragraphs. The navigation keys for the STREAMS queue structure are: s i m z n l b o Displays the q_init structure pointed to by the q_qinfo field. Displays the msgb structure pointed to by the q_first field. Displays the msgb structure pointed to by the q_last field. Displays the queue structure pointed to by the q_next field. Displays the queue structure pointed to by the q_link field. Displays the qband structure pointed to by the q_bandp field. Displays the queue structure pointed to by the q_other field. The navigation keys for the STREAMS qinit structure are: i s Displays the module_info structure pointed to by the qi_minfo field. Displays the module_stat field pointed to by the qi_mstat field. The navigation keys for the STREAMS msgb structure are: n p m c d Displays the msgb structure pointed to by the b_next field. Displays the msgb structure pointed to by the b_prev field. Displays the data pointed to by the b_rptr field. Displays the msgb structure pointed to by the b_cont field. Displays the datab structure pointed to by the b_datap field. The navigation keys for the STREAMS datab structure are: d Section 1M− 820 __ Displays the a__datab structure pointed to by the db_f field. −2− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ strdb(1M) strdb(1M) The navigation keys for the STREAMS qband structure are: n f l Displays the qband structure pointed to by the qb_next field. Displays the msgb structure pointed to by the qb_first field. Displays the msgb structure pointed to by the qb_last field. AUTHOR strdb was developed by HP. SEE ALSO STREAMS/UX for HP9000 Reference Manual. s HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −3− Section 1M− 821 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ strerr(1M) strerr(1M) NAME strerr - receive error messages from the STREAMS log driver SYNOPSIS strerr [-a sys_admin_mail_name ] [-d logdir ] DESCRIPTION The strerr daemon receives error messages from the STREAMS log driver (strlog (7)) for addition to the STREAMS error log files (error. mm-dd ) in the STREAMS error logger directory (/var/adm/streams by default). When first called, strerr creates the log file error. mm-dd. This is a daily log file, where mm indicates the month and dd indicates the day of the logged messages. strerr then appends error messages to the log file as they are received from the STREAMS log driver. STREAMS error log messages have the following format: seq time tick pri ind mod sub text Components are interpreted as follows: seq Error event sequence number. time Time the message was sent expressed in hh:mm:ss. tick Time the message was sent expressed in machine ticks since the last boot. pri Error priority level as defined by the STREAMS driver or module that originates the messages. ind Can be any combination of the following three message indicators: T F N The message has also been saved in the trace log. The message signaled a fatal error. The message has also been mailed to the system administrator. mod Module identification number of the error message source. sub Subidentification number of the error message source. text Error message text. strerr runs continuously until terminated by the user. Options strerr recognizes the following options and command-line arguments: -a sys_admin_mail_name Specify the user’s mail name for sending mail messages. Mail is sent to the system administrator by default. -d logdir s Specify the directory to contain the error log file. Default is /var/adm/streams. WARNINGS Only one strerr process can open the STREAMS log driver at a time. This restriction is intended to maximize performance. The STREAMS error logging mechanism works best when it is not overused. strerr can degrade STREAMS performance by affecting the response, throughput, and other behaviors of the drivers and modules that invoke it. strerr also fails to capture messages if drivers and modules generate messages at a higher rate than its optimum read rate. If there are missing sequence numbers among the messages in a log file, messages have been lost. FILES /usr/lib/nls/msg/C/strerr.cat /var/adm/streams/error.mm-dd NLS catalog for strerr . error log file or files on which strerr operates SEE ALSO strace(1M), strlog(7). Section 1M− 822 __ −1− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ strvf(1M) strvf(1M) NAME strvf - STREAMS verification tool SYNOPSIS strvf [-v] DESCRIPTION strvf executes a series of subcommands that verify whether or not STREAMS is currently installed and configured on your system. All output is sent to stdout . Verbose output is always sent to the logfile /var/adm/streams/strvf.log. These subcommands make sure that the STREAMS kernel daemons are running and that open() , putmsg() , getmsg() , ioctl() , and close() can be performed on /dev/echo . Options -v Specifies verbose output to be displayed EXAMPLES strvf Verify STREAMS is working. Brief summary of status is displayed on screen. Verbose description of each subcommand and its status is copied to the logfile. strvf -v Verify STREAMS is working. Verbose description of each subcommand and its status is displayed on the screen and copied to the logfile. This option is useful in troubleshooting strvf failures. FILES /var/adm/streams/strvf.log Logfile containing a verbose description and status of all subcommands. /dev/echo Loopback STREAMS driver used by strvf . SEE ALSO open(2), close(2), getmsg(2), putmsg(2), streamio(7). s HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −1− Section 1M− 823 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ swacl(1M) swacl(1M) NAME swacl - view or modify the Access Control Lists (ACLs) which protect software products SYNOPSIS swacl -l level [-D acl_entry | -F acl_file | -M acl_entry ] [-f software_file ] [-t target_file ] [-x option=value ] [-X option_file ] [software_selections ] [@ target_selections ] Remarks • This command supports operations on remote systems. See the Remote Operation section below for details. • Type man 5 sd to display sd (5) for an overview of all SD commands. DESCRIPTION The swacl command displays or modifies the Access Control Lists (ACLs) which: • Protect the specified target_selections (hosts, software depots or root filesystems). • Protect the specified software_selections on each of the specified target_selections (software depots only). All root filesystems, software depots, and products in software depots are protected by ACLs. The SD commands permit or prevent specific operations based on whether the ACLs on these objects permit the operation. The swacl command is used to view, edit, and manage these ACLs. The ACL must exist and the user must have the appropriate permission (granted by the ACL itself) in order to modify it. ACLs offer a greater degree of selectivity than standard file permissions. ACLs allow an object’s owner (i.e. the user who created the object) or the local superuser to define specific read, write, or modify permissions to a specific list of users, groups, or combinations thereof. Some operations allowed by ACLs are run as local superuser. Because files are loaded and scripts are run as superuser, granting a user write permission on a root filesystem or insert permission on a host effectively gives that user superuser privileges. Protected Objects The following objects are protected by ACLs: • Each root filesystem on a host (including alternate roots), • Each software depot on a host, • s Each host system on which software is being managed by SD, • Each software product contained within a depot. Remote Operation You can enable SD to manage software on remote systems. To let the root user from a central SD controller (also called the central management server or manager node ) perform operations on a remote target (also called the host or agent ): 1) Install a special HP ServiceControl Manager fileset on the remote systems. This enables remote operations by automatically setting up the root, host, and template Access Control Lists (ACLs) on the remote machines and permitting root access from the controller system. To install the fileset, run the following command on each remote system: swinstall -s controller :/var/opt/mx/depot11 AgentConfig.SD-CONFIG NOTES: • controller is the name of the central management server. • If the target is running HP-UX 10.20, use the same command but substitute depot10 for depot11 . • Targets previously set up by SD/OV to be managed by this controller do not need this step. • SD does not require any other ServiceControl Manager filesets. 2) (Optional) swinstall , swcopy , and Section 1M− 824 __ swremove have enhanced GUI interfaces for remote −1− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ swacl(1M) swacl(1M) operations. Enable the enhanced GUIs by creating the .sdkey file on the controller. Use this command: touch /var/adm/sw/.sdkey NOTES: • This step is not required when you use SD from within the HP ServiceControl Manager. • See sd (5), swinstall (1M), swcopy (1M), swjob (1M), swlist (1M) or swremove (1M) for more information on interactive operations. NOTE: You can also set up remote access by using swacl directly on the remote machines to grant root or non-root access to users from the controller system. Options If the -D, -F, or -M option is not specified, swacl prints the requested ACL(s) to the standard output. The swacl command supports the following options: -D acl_entry Deletes an existing entry from the ACL associated with the specified object(s). For this option, the permission field of the ACL entry is not required. You can specify multiple -D options. See the ACL Entries heading for more information. -f software_file Read the list of software_selections from software_file instead of (or in addition to) the command line. -F acl_file Assigns the ACL contained in acl_file to the object. All existing entries are removed and replaced by the entries in the file. Only the ACL’s entries are replaced; none of the information contained in the comment portion (lines with the prefix ‘‘#’’) of an ACL listing is modified with this option. The acl_file is usually the edited output of a swacl list operation. If the replacement ACL contains no syntax errors and the user has control permission on the ACL (or is the local superuser), the replacement succeeds. -l level Defines which level of SD ACLs to view/modify. The supported levels of depot, host, root, and product objects that can be protected are: depot View/modify the ACL protecting the software depot(s) identified by the target_selections . host View/modify the ACL protecting the host system(s) identified by the target_selections . root View/modify the ACL protecting the root filesystem(s) identified by the target_selections . product View/modify the ACL protecting the software product identified by the software_selection . Applies only to products in depots, not installed products in roots. s The supported levels of templates are: global_soc_template View/modify the template ACL used to initialize the ACL(s) of future software depot(s) or root filesystem(s) added to the host(s) identified by the target_selections . Additionally, swacl can create templates that you can re-use to create new ACLs. global_product_template View/modify the template ACL used to initialize the product_template ACL(s) of future software depot(s) added to the host(s) identified by the target_selections . product_template View/modify the template ACL used to initialize the ACL(s) of future product(s) added to the software depot(s) identified by the target_selections . HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −2− Section 1M− 825 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ swacl(1M) swacl(1M) -M acl_entry Adds a new ACL entry or changes the permissions of an existing entry. You can specify multiple -M options. See the ACL Entries heading for more information. -t target_file Read the list of target_selections from file instead of (or in addition to) the command line. -x option=value Set the session option to value and override the default value (or a value in an alternate option_file specified with the -X option). You can specify multiple -x options. -X option_file Read the session options and behaviors from option_file . You can specify only one of the -D, -F , or -M options at each invocation of swacl . Operands Most SD commands support two types of operands: software selections followed by target selections . These operands are separated by the "@" (at) character. This syntax implies that the command operates on "software selections at targets". Software Selections The swacl command supports the following syntax for each software_selection : product[,version ] • The = (equals) relational operator lets you specify selections with the following shell wildcard and pattern-matching notations: • The \* software specification selects all products in the depot when used with -l product. [ ], *, ? The version component usually has the following form: [,r <op> revision][,a <op> arch][,v <op> vendor] [,c <op> category ] • The <op> (relational operator) component can take the form: =, ==, >=, <=, <, >, or != which performs individual comparisons on dot-separated fields. For example, r>=B.10.00 chooses all revisions greater than or equal to B.10.00 . The system compares each dot-separated field to find matches. Shell patterns are not allowed with these operators. • The = (equals) relational operator lets you specify selections with the shell wildcard and patternmatching notations: [ ], *, ?, ! s For example, the expression r=1[01].* returns any revision in version 10 or version 11. • All version components are repeatable within a single specification (e.g. r>=A.12 , r<A.20 ). If multiple components are used, the selection must match all components. • Fully qualified software specs include the r= , a= , and v= version components even if they contain empty strings. • No space or tab characters are allowed in a software selection. • The software instance_id can take the place of the version component. It has the form: [instance_id] within the context of an exported catalog, where instance_id is an integer that distinguishes versions of products and bundles with the same tag. Target Selections The SD commands support this syntax for each target_selection . [host ][:][/directory ] The : (colon) is required if both a host and directory are specified. Section 1M− 826 __ −3− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ swacl(1M) swacl(1M) EXTERNAL INFLUENCES Default Options In addition to the standard options, you can change SD behaviors and policy options by editing the default values found in: /var/adm/sw/defaults the system-wide default values, $HOME/.swdefaults the user-specific default values. You must use the following syntax to specify values in the defaults file: [command_name.]option=value The optional command_name prefix denotes one of the SD commands. Using the prefix limits the change in the default value to that command. If you leave the prefix off, the change applies to all commands. You can also override default values from the command line with the -x or -X options: command -x option =value command -X option_file The following section lists all of the keywords supported by the swacl command. If a default value exists, it is listed after the "=". admin_directory=/var/adm/sw (for normal mode) admin_directory=/var/home/LOGNAME/sw (for nonprivileged mode) The location for SD logfiles and the default parent directory for the installed software catalog. The default value is /var/adm/sw for normal SD operations. When SD operates in nonprivileged mode (that is, when the run_as_superuser default option is set to true ): • The default value is forced to /var/home/LOGNAME/sw • The path element LOGNAME is replaced with the name of the invoking user, which SD reads from the system password file. • If you set the value of this option to HOME/ path , SD replaces HOME with the invoking user’s home directory (from the system password file) and resolves path relative to that directory. For example, HOME/my_admin resolves to the my_admin directory in your home directory. • If you set the value of the installed_software_catalog default option to a relative path, that path is resolved relative to the value of this option. SD’s nonprivileged mode is intended only for managing applications that are specially designed and packaged. You cannot use this mode to manage the HP-UX operating system or patches to it. For a full explanation of nonprivileged SD, see the Software Distributor Administration Guide , available at the http://docs.hp.com web site. See also the installed_software_catalog and run_as_superuser options. distribution_target_directory=/var/spool/sw s Defines the default location of the target depot. installed_software_catalog=products Defines the directory path where the Installed Products Database (IPD) is stored. This information describes installed software. When set to an absolute path, this option defines the location of the IPD. When this option contains a relative path, the SD controller appends the value to the value specified by the admin_directory option to determine the path to the IPD. For alternate roots, this path is resolved relative to the location of the alternate root. This option does not affect where software is installed, only the IPD location. This option permits the simultaneous installation and removal of multiple software applications by multiple users or multiple processes, with each application or group of applications using a different IPD. Caution: use a specific installed_software_catalog to manage a specific application. SD does not support multiple descriptions of the same application in multiple IPDs. See also the admin_directory and run_as_superuser options, which control SD’s nonprivileged mode. (This mode is intended only for managing applications that are HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −4− Section 1M− 827 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ swacl(1M) swacl(1M) specially designed and packaged. You cannot use this mode to manage the HP-UX operating system or patches to it. For a full explanation of nonprivileged SD, see the Software Distributor Administration Guide , available at the http://docs.hp.com web site.) level= Defines the level of SD ACLS to view/modify. The supported levels are: host , depot , root , product , product_template, global_soc_template, or global_product_template. See the discussion of the -l option above for more information. rpc_binding_info=ncacn_ip_tcp:[2121] ncadg_ip_udp:[2121] Defines the protocol sequence(s) and endpoint(s) on which the daemon listens and which the other commands use to contact the daemon. If the connection fails for one protocol sequence, the next is attempted. SD supports both the tcp (ncacn_ip_tcp:[2121]) and udp (ncadg_ip_udp:[2121]) protocol sequence on most platforms. rpc_timeout=5 Relative length of the communications timeout. This is a value in the range from 0 to 9 and is interpreted by the DCE RPC. Higher values mean longer times; you may need a higher value for a slow or busy network. Lower values will give faster recognition on attempts to contact hosts that are not up, or are not running swagentd . Each value is approximately twice as long as the preceding value. A value of 5 is about 30 seconds for the ncadg_ip_udp protocol sequence. This option may not have any noticeable impact when using the ncacn_ip_tcp protocol sequence. run_as_superuser=true This option controls SD’s nonprivileged mode. This option is ignored (treated as true) when the invoking user is super-user. When set to the default value of true, SD operations are performed normally, with permissions for operations either granted to a local super-user or set by SD ACLs. (See swacl (1M) for details on ACLs.) When set to false and the invoking user is local and is not super-user, nonprivileged mode is invoked: • SD ACLs are ignored. • s Permissions for operations are based on the user’s file system permissions. • Files created by SD have the uid and gid of the invoking user, and the mode of created files is set according to the invoking user’s umask. SD’s nonprivileged mode is intended only for managing applications that are specially designed and packaged. You cannot use this mode to manage the HP-UX operating system or patches to it. For a full explanation of nonprivileged SD, see the Software Distributor Administration Guide , available at the http://docs.hp.com web site. See also the admin_directory and installed_software_catalog options. select_local=true If no target_selections are specified, select the default target_directory of the local host as the target_selection for the command. software= Defines the default software_selections . There is no supplied default. If there is more than one software selection, they must be separated by spaces. targets= Defines the default target_selections . There is no supplied default (see select_local above). If there is more than one target selection, they must be separated by spaces. verbose=1 Controls the verbosity of the output (stdout). A value of 0 disables output to stdout. (Error and warning messages are always written to stderr). 1 enables verbose messaging to stdout. Section 1M− 828 __ −5− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ swacl(1M) swacl(1M) Environment Variables SD programs are affected by external environment variables, set environment variables for use by the control scripts, and use other environment variables that affect command behavior. The external environment variable that affects the swacl command is: LANG Determines the language in which messages are displayed. If LANG is not specified or is set to the empty string, a default value of C is used. See the lang (5) man page by typing man 5 lang for more information. Note: The language in which the SD agent and daemon log messages are displayed is set by the system configuration variable script, /etc/rc.config.d/LANG. For example, /etc/rc.config.d/LANG, must be set to LANG=ja_JP.SJIS or LANG=ja_JP.eucJP to make the agent and daemon log messages display in Japanese. LC_ALL Determines the locale used to override any values for locale categories specified by the settings of LANG or any environment variables beginning with LC_ . LC_CTYPE Determines the interpretation of sequences of bytes of text data as characters (e.g., singleversus multibyte characters in values for vendor-defined attributes). LC_MESSAGES Determines the language in which messages are written. LC_TIME Determines the format of dates (create_date and mod_date ) when displayed by swlist . Used by all utilities when displaying dates and times in stdout , stderr , and logging . TZ Determines the time zone for use when displaying dates and times. OPERATION ACL Entries Each entry in an ACL has the following form: entry_type [:key]:permissions For example: user:steve@newdist:crwit An ACL can contain multiple entries. See the Entry Types and Permissions headings below for more information. Entry Types The following entry_types are supported: any_other Permissions for all other users and hosts that do not match a more specific entry in the ACL. (Example: any_other:-r--t.) group Permissions for a named group. This type of ACL entry must include a key that identifies that group. The format can be: group: group_name :permissions or group: group_name @hostname :permissions . (Example: group:adm:crwit.) host Permissions for an SD agent from the specified host system. SD agents require product level read access via either a host , other , or any_other entry type in order to copy or install products from depots. This type of ACL entry must include a key containing a hostname or number (in Internet dot notation) of a system or the asterisk character (*) to denote all systems. (Example: host:newdist@fc.hp.com:r--t .) s object_owner Permissions for the object’s owner, whose identity is listed in the comment header. (Example: object_owner:crwit.) object_group Permissions for members of the object’s group, whose identity is listed in the comment header. (Example: object_group:crwit.) other Permissions for others who are not otherwise named by a more specific entry type. The format for other can be: other: permissions for others on the local host (only one such entry allowed) or other:@ hostname :permissions for others at remote hosts (Only one such entry per remote host allowed). (Example: HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −6− Section 1M− 829 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ swacl(1M) swacl(1M) other:@newdist:-r--t.) Permissions for a named user. This type of ACL entry must include a key that identifies that user. The format for user can be: user: user_name :permissions or user: user_name@hostname :permissions . (Example: user:rml:crwit.) user Permissions Permissions are represented as the single character abbreviations indicated below. Some permissions either apply only to, or have different meaning for, certain types of objects, as detailed below. The following permissions may be granted: r ead Grants permission to read the object. On host , depot , or root objects, read permission allows swlist operations. On products within depots, read permission allows product files to be installed or copied with swinstall or swcopy . w rite Grants permission to modify the object itself. • On a root object (e.g. installed root filesystem), this also grants permission to modify the products installed (contained) within it. • On a depot object, it does not grant permission to modify the products contained within it. Write access on products is required to modify products in a depot. • On a host container, write permission grants permission to unregister depots. It does not grant permission to modify the depots or roots contained within it. i nsert On a host object, grants permission to create (insert) a new software depot or root filesystem object, and to register roots and depots. On a depot object, grants permission to create (insert) a new product object into the depot . c ontrol t est a ll Grants permission to modify the ACL using swacl . Grants permission to perform access checks and to list the ACL. A wildcard which grants all of the above permissions. It is expanded by swacl to crwit . List Output Format The output of a list operation is in the following format: s # # # # # # # # # # # swacl For Object_type Access Control List depot|host:[host]:[/directory] Date: date_stamp Object Ownership: User= user_name Group= group_name Realm= host_name default_realm = host_name entry_type :[key :]permissions entry_type :[key :]permissions entry_type :[key :]permissions You can save this output into a file, modified it, then use it as input to a swacl modify operation (see the -F option above). Object Ownership An owner is also associated with every SD object, as defined by the user name, group and hostname. The owner is the user who created the object. When using swacl to view an ACL, the owner is printed as a comment in the header. Default Realm An ACL defines a default realm for an object. The realm is currently defined as the name of the host system on which the object resides. When using swacl to view an ACL, the default realm is printed as a comment in the header. Section 1M− 830 __ −7− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ swacl(1M) swacl(1M) Keys Expressions (patterns) are not permitted in keys. A key is required for user , group and host entry types. A key is optional for other entry types, and specifies the hostname to which the entry applies. Only one other entry type may exist without a key, and this entry applies to users at the default realm (host) of the ACL. A hostname in a key is listed in its Internet address format (dot notation) if swacl cannot resolve the address using the local lookup mechanism (DNS, NIS, or /etc/hosts ). A hostname within an ACL entry must be resolvable when used with the -D and -M options. Unresolvable hostname values are accepted in files provided with the -F option. RETURN VALUE The swacl command returns: 0 1 2 The software_selections and/or target_selections were successfully displayed or modified. The display/modify operation failed on all target_selections . The modify/modify operation failed on some target_selections . DIAGNOSTICS The swacl command writes to stdout, stderr, and to the daemon logfile. Standard Output The swacl command prints ACL information to stdout when the user requests an ACL listing. Standard Error The swacl command writes messages for all WARNING and ERROR conditions to stderr. A report that the software_selections do not exist is also given if the user has no access permissions to the object. Logging The swacl command does not log summary events. It logs events about each ACL which is modified to the swagentd logfile associated with each target_selection . EXAMPLES To list the ACLs for the C and OPENVIEW products in depot /var/spool/swtest: swacl -l product C OPENVIEW @ /var/spool/swtest The ACL listed to the standard output is similar to this example ACL: # # swacl Product Access Control Lists # # For depot: newdist:/var/spool/swtest # # Date: Wed May 26 11:14:31 2000 # # # For product: OPENVIEW,r=3.2 # # # Object Ownership: User= robason # Group= swadm # Realm= newdist.fc.hp.com # # default_realm=newdist.fc.hp.com object_owner:crwit group:swadm:crwit any_other:-r--t # # For product: C,r=9.4 # # # Object Ownership: User= robason # Group= swadm HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −8− s Section 1M− 831 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ swacl(1M) swacl(1M) # Realm= newdist.fc.hp.com # # default_realm=newdist.fc.hp.com object_owner:crwit user:rob@lehi.fc.hp.com:-r--t user:barb:-r--t user:ramon:-r--t group:swadm:crwit other:-r--t host:lehi.fc.hp.com:-r--t To list the product template ACL on host newdist : swacl -l global_product_template @ newdist To list the host ACL on the local system: swacl -l host To read, edit, then replace the ACL protecting the default depot /var/spool/sw: swacl -l depot > new_acl_file vi new_acl_file swacl -l depot -F new_acl_file To allow user allen to create, register, and manage all new depots and roots on the local system: swacl -l host -M user:allen:a swacl -l global_soc_template -M user:allen:a swacl -l global_product_template -M user:allen:a To allow user allen to fully manage my_depot , which already exists: swacl -l depot -M user:allen:a @ /my_depot swacl -l product_template -M user:allen:a @ /my_depot swacl -l product -M user:allen:a \* @ /my_depot To deny general access to a depot: swacl -l depot -M any_other:- @ /restricted_depot swacl -l product -M any_other:- \* @ /restricted_depot swacl -l product_template -M any_other:- @ /restricted_depot To allow user allen on host gemini access to restricted_depot and all products it currently contains: s swacl -l depot -M host:*:rt @ /restricted_depot swacl -l depot -M user:allen@gemini:rt @ /restricted_depot swacl -l product -M user:allen@gemini:rt \* @ /restricted_depot To revoke previously granted ACL permission for user allen on host gemini to access the WDB product in the default depot on lehi : swacl -l product -D user:allen@gemini WDB @ lehi To deny access to the default depot on the local system from host numenal : swacl -l depot -M host:numenal:To deny access to the OPENVIEW product in the default depot on host lehi to all users who do not have an explicit ACL entry: swacl -l product -M any_other:t OPENVIEW @ lehi To allow user george on host newdist access to the OPENVIEW product in the default depot on host lehi , you must specify both a user ACL for george and a host ACL for newdist : swacl -l product -M user:george@newdist:rt OPENVIEW @ lehi swacl -l product -M host:newdist:rt OPENVIEW @ lehi To revoke a user ACL for user allen on host gemini that allowed access to the OPENVIEW product in the default depot on host lehi : Section 1M− 832 __ −9− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ swacl(1M) swacl(1M) swacl -l product -D user:allen@gemini OPENVIEW @ lehi To revoke any previously issued access to the OPENVIEW product in the default depot on host lehi by users on host numenal : swacl -l product -D host:numenal OPENVIEW @ lehi To deny all access to the users steve and george for the depot /var/spool/sw at host newdist : swacl -l depot -M user:steve:- -M user:george:- \ @ newdist:/var/spool/sw To delete entries for local user rick from all products in the default local depot: swacl -l product -D user:rick \* WARNINGS • You can edit an ACL in such a way that it will leave a system inaccessible. Do not remove all control permissions on an ACL. (Note, however, that the local super-user can always edit SD ACLs, regardless of permissions.) • ACLs can grant the equivalent of local superuser permission. SD loads and runs files and scripts as superuser. Therefore, if an SD ACL gives a user write permission on a root filesystem or insert permission on a host, that user has the equivalent of superuser privileges. • Note that swacl is not a general purpose ACL editor. It works only on ACLs protecting SD objects. FILES $HOME/.swdefaults Contains the user-specific default values for some or all SD options. /usr/lib/sw/sys.defaults Contains the master list of current SD options (with their default values). /var/adm/sw/ The directory which contains all of the configurable (and non-configurable) data for SD. This directory is also the default location of logfiles. /var/adm/sw/defaults Contains the active system-wide default values for some or all SD options. /var/adm/sw/products/ The Installed Products Database (IPD), a catalog of all products installed on a system. /var/adm/sw/security/ The directory which contains ACLs for the system itself, template ACLS, and the secrets file used to authenticate remote requests. /var/spool/sw/ s The default location of a source and target software depot. AUTHOR swacl was developed by the Hewlett-Packard Company. SEE ALSO sd(5), sd(4), swpackage(4), swagentd(1M), swask(1M), swconfig(1M), swcopy(1M), swinstall(1M), swjob(1M), swlist(1M), swmodify(1M), swpackage(1M), swreg(1M), swremove(1M), swverify(1M), install-sd(1M). Software Distributor Administration Guide , available at http://docs.hp.com. SD customer web site at http://software.hp.com/SD_AT_HP/. HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ − 10 − Section 1M− 833 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ swagentd(1M) swagentd(1M) NAME swagent, swagentd - serve local or remote SD software management tasks, daemon that invokes swagent, respectively SYNOPSIS swagent executed by swagentd only. swagentd [-k] [-n] [-r] [-x option=value ] [-X option_file ] Remarks • This command supports operation on remote systems. See Remote Operation below. • For an overview of all SD commands, see the sd (5) man page by typing man 5 sd on the command line. DESCRIPTION The roles of UNIX target and source systems require two processes known as the daemon and agent . For most purposes, the distinction between these two processes is invisible to the user and they can be viewed as a single process. Each SD command interacts with the daemon and agent to perform its requested tasks. The swagentd daemon process must be scheduled before a UNIX system is available as a target or source system. This can be done either manually or in the system start-up script. The swagent agent process is executed by swagentd to perform specific software management tasks. The swagent agent is never invoked by the user. Remote Operation You can enable SD to manage software on remote systems. To let the root user from a central SD controller (also called the central management server or manager node ) perform operations on a remote target (also called the host or agent ): 1) Install a special HP ServiceControl Manager fileset on the remote systems. This enables remote operations by automatically setting up the root, host, and template Access Control Lists (ACLs) on the remote machines and permitting root access from the controller system. To install the fileset, run the following command on each remote system: swinstall -s controller :/var/opt/mx/depot11 AgentConfig.SD-CONFIG NOTES: • s controller is the name of the central management server. • If the target is running HP-UX 10.20, use the same command but substitute depot10 for depot11 . • Targets previously set up by SD/OV to be managed by this controller do not need this step. • SD does not require any other ServiceControl Manager filesets. 2) (Optional) swinstall , swcopy , and swremove have enhanced GUI interfaces for remote operations. Enable the enhanced GUIs by creating the .sdkey file on the controller. Use this command: touch /var/adm/sw/.sdkey NOTES: • This step is not required when you use SD from within the HP ServiceControl Manager. • See sd (5), swinstall (1M), swcopy (1M), swjob (1M), swlist (1M) or swremove (1M) for more information on interactive operations. NOTE: You can also set up remote access by using swacl directly on the remote machines to grant root or non-root access to users from the controller system. Options The swagentd command supports the following options to control its behavior. (These options do not apply to swagent , which you cannot start from the command line.) -k Section 1M− 834 __ The kill option stops the currently running daemon. Stopping the daemon will not stop any agent processes currently performing management tasks (such as installing −1− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ swagentd(1M) swagentd(1M) or removing software), but will cause any subsequent management requests to this host to be refused. This option is equivalent to sending a SIGTERM to the daemon that is running. -n The no fork option runs the daemon as a synchronous process rather than the default behavior of forking to run it asynchronously. This is intended for running the daemon from other utilities that schedule processes, such as init . -r The restart option stops the currently running daemon and restarts a new daemon. Because the swagentd daemon processes options only at startup, you must restart the daemon after you have modified any daemon options. Otherwise, the modified options have no effect. -x option=value Set the option to value and override the default value (or a value in an option_file specified with the -X option). Multiple -x options can be specified. -X option_file Read the session options and behaviors from options_file . EXTERNAL INFLUENCES Default Options In addition to the standard options, you can change SD behaviors and policy options by editing the systemwide default values found in the /var/adm/sw/defaults file. (Note that the user-specific default values in $HOME/.swdefaults do not apply to the agent or daemon.) To specify values in the defaults file, you must use the following: [command_name.]option=value The optional command_name prefix denotes one of the SD commands. Using the prefix limits the value change to that command. If you leave the prefix off, the change applies to all commands that use the option. You can also override swagentd default values from the command line with the -x or -X options: command -x option =value command -X option_file NOTE: the only way to change default values for the agent is to modify the system-wide defaults file. You cannot change agent defaults from the command line. The following section lists all of the keywords supported by the swagentd command. If a default value exists, it is listed after the "=". Daemon Options These options apply only to the daemon, swagentd . After changing daemon options, you must restart the daemon for these options to take effect (see the -r command-line option above). agent=/usr/lbin/swagent s The location of the agent program invoked by the daemon. logfile=/var/adm/sw/swagentd.log This is the default log file for the swagentd daemon. max_agents=-1 The maximum number of agents that are permitted to run simultaneously. The value of -1 means that there is no limit. minimum_job_polling_interval=1 Defines in minutes how often the daemon wakes up to scan the job queue to determine if any scheduled jobs must be started. When set to 0, no scheduled jobs will be initiated. rpc_binding_info=ncacn_ip_tcp:[2121] ncadg_ip_udp:[2121] Defines the protocol sequence(s) and endpoint(s) on which the daemon listens and which the other commands use to contact the daemon. If the connection fails for one protocol sequence, the next is attempted. SD supports both the tcp (ncacn_ip_tcp:[2121]) and udp (ncadg_ip_udp:[2121]) protocol sequence on most platforms. HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −2− Section 1M− 835 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ swagentd(1M) swagentd(1M) Agent Options These options apply only to the agent, swagent . You cannot set these options directly from the command line. To set agent options, you must edit the system-wide defaults file. See the Default Options heading above for instructions. alternate_source= If the swinstall or swcopy controller has set use_alternate_source=true, the target agent will consult and use the configured value of its own alternate_source option to determine the source that it will use in the install or copy. The agent’s value for alternate_source is specified using the host:path syntax. If the host portion is not specified, the local host is used. If the path portion is not specified, the path sent by the command is used. If there is no configured value at all for alternate_source, the agent will apply the controller-supplied path to its own local host. compress_cmd=/usr/contrib/bin/gzip Defines the command called by the source agent to compress files before transmission. If the compression_type is set to other than gzip or compress , this path must be changed. compression_type=gzip Defines the default compression_type used by the agent when it compresses files during or after transmission. If uncompress_files is set to false, the compression_type is recorded for each file compressed so that the correct uncompresswcopy with sion can later be applied during a swinstall , or a uncompress_files set to true. The compress_cmd specified must produce files with the compression_type specified. The uncompress_cmd must be able to process files of the compression_type specified unless the format is gzip , which is uncompressed by the internal uncompressor (funzip ). The only supported compression types are compress and gzip . config_cleanup_cmd=/usr/lbin/sw/config_clean Defines the script called by the agent to perform release-specific configure cleanup steps. install_cleanup_cmd=/usr/lbin/sw/install_clean Defines the script called by the agent to perform release-specific install cleanup steps immediately after the last postinstall script has been run. For an OS update, this script should at least remove commands that were saved by the install_setup script. This script is executed after all filesets have been installed, just before the reboot to the new operating system. install_setup_cmd=/usr/lbin/sw/install_setup Defines the script called by the agent to perform release-specific install preparation. For an OS update, this script should at least copy commands needed for the checkinstall, preinstall, and postinstall scripts to a path where they can be accessed while the real commands are being updated. This script is executed before any kernel filesets are loaded. s kernel_build_cmd=/usr/sbin/mk_kernel Defines the script called by the agent for kernel building after kernel filesets have been loaded. kernel_path=/stand/vmunix Defines the path to the system’s bootable kernel. This path is passed to the kernel_build_cmd via the SW_KERNEL_PATH environment variable. mount_cmd=/sbin/mount Defines the command called by the agent to mount all file systems. reboot_cmd=/sbin/reboot Defines the command called by the agent to reboot the system after all filesets have been loaded, if any of the filesets required reboot. remove_setup_cmd=/usr/lbin/sw/remove_setup Defines the script called by the agent to perform release-specific remove preparation. For an OS update, this script will invoke the tlink command when a fileset is removed. Section 1M− 836 __ −3− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ swagentd(1M) swagentd(1M) rpc_binding_info_alt_source=ncadg_ip_udp:[2121] Defines the protocol sequence(s) and endpoint(s) used when the agent attempts to contact an alternate source depot specified by the alternate_source option. SD supports both the udp (ncadg_ip_udp:[2121]) and tcp (ncacn_ip_tcp:[2121]) protocol sequence/endpoint. source_depot_audit=true If both source and target machine are updated to SD revision B.11.00 or later, the system administrator at the source depot machine can set this option to track which user pulls which software from a depot on the source machine and when the software is pulled. (A user running swinstall/swcopy from a target machine cannot set this option; only the administrator of the source depot machine can set it.) When swagent.source_depot_audit is set to true , a swaudit.log file is created on the source depot (for writable directory depots) or in /var/tmp (for tar images, CD-ROMs, or other nonwritable depots). Users can invoke the swlist interactive user interface (using swlist -i -d) to view, print, or save the audit information on a remote or local depot. Users can view audit information based on language preference, as long as the system has the corresponding SD message catalog files on it. For example, a user can view the source audit information in Japanese during one invocation of swlist , then view the same information in English at the next invocation. system_file_path=/stand/system Defines the path to the kernel’s template file. This path is passed to system_prep_cmd via the SW_SYSTEM_FILE_PATH environment variable. the system_prep_cmd=/usr/lbin/sysadm/system_prep Defines the kernel build preparation script called by the agent. This script must do any necessary preparation so that control scripts can correctly configure the kernel about to be built. This script is called before any kernel filesets have been loaded. uncompress_cmd= Defines the command called by the target agent to uncompress files after transmission. This command processes files which were stored on the media in a compressed format. If the compression_type stored with the file is gzip , the internal uncompression (funzip ) is used instead of the external uncompress_cmd. The default value for HP-UX is undefined. Session File swagentd and swagent do not use a session file. Environment Variables The environment variable that affects the swagentd and swagent commands is: LANG Determines the language in which messages are displayed. If LANG is not specified or is set to the empty string, a default value of C is used. See the lang (5) man page by typing man 5 sd for more information. s Note: The language in which the SD agent and daemon log messages are displayed is set by the system configuration variable script, /etc/rc.config.d/LANG. For example, must be set to LANG=ja_JP.SJIS or /etc/rc.config.d/LANG, LANG=ja_JP.eucJP to make the agent and daemon log messages display in Japanese. LC_ALL Determines the locale to be used to override any values for locale categories specified by the settings of LANG or any environment variables beginning with LC_ . LC_CTYPE Determines the interpretation of sequences of bytes of text data as characters (e.g., singleversus multibyte characters in values for vendor-defined attributes). LC_MESSAGES Determines the language in which messages should be written. LC_TIME Determines the format of dates (create_date and mod_date ) when displayed by swlist . Used by all utilities when displaying dates and times in stdout , stderr , and logging . HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −4− Section 1M− 837 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ swagentd(1M) TZ swagentd(1M) Determines the time zone for use when displaying dates and times. Signals The daemon ignores SIGHUP, SIGINT and SIGQUIT. It immediately exits gracefully after receiving SIGTERM and SIGUSR2. After receiving SIGUSR1, it waits for completion of a copy or remove from a depot session before exiting, so that it can register or unregister depots. Requests to start new sessions are refused during this wait. The agent ignores SIGHUP, SIGINT, and SIGQUIT. It immediately exits gracefully after receiving SIGTERM, SIGUSR1, or SIGUSR2. Killing the agent may leave corrupt software on the system, and thus should only be done if absolutely necessary. Note that when an SD command is killed, the agent does not terminate until completing the task in progress. Locking The swagentd ensures that only one copy of itself is running on the system. Each copy of swagent that is invoked uses appropriate access control for the operation it is performing and the object it is operating on. RETURN VALUES When the -n option is not specified, the swagentd returns: 0 When the daemon is successfully initialized and is now running in the background. non-zero When initialization failed and the daemon terminated. When the -n option is specified, the swagentd returns: 0 When the daemon successfully initialized and then successfully shutdown. non-zero When initialization failed or the daemon unsuccessfully terminated. DIAGNOSTICS The swagentd and swagent commands log events to their specific logfiles. The swagent (target) log files cannot be relocated. They always exist relative to the root or depot target path (e.g. /var/adm/sw/swagent.log for the root / and /var/spool/sw/swagent.log for the depot /var/spool/sw). You can view the target log files using the swjob or sd command. Daemon Log The daemon logs all events to /var/adm/sw/swagentd.log. (The user can specify a different logfile by modifying the logfile option.) s Agent Log When operating on (alternate) root file systems, the swagent logs messages to the file var/adm/sw/swagent.log beneath the root directory (e.g. / or an alternate root directory). Source Depot Audit Log If both source and target machine are updated to HP-UX version 10.30 or later, the system administrator at the source depot machine can track which user pulls which software from a depot on the source machine and when the software is pulled. Refer to the swagent.source_depot_audit option for more information. When operating on software depots, the swagent logs messages to the file swagent.log beneath the depot directory (e.g. /var/spool/sw). When accessing a read-only software depot (e.g. as a source), the swagent logs messages to the file /tmp/swagent.log. EXAMPLES To start the daemon: /usr/sbin/swagentd To restart the daemon: /usr/sbin/swagentd -r To stop the daemon: /usr/sbin/swagentd -k Section 1M− 838 __ −5− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ swagentd(1M) swagentd(1M) FILES /usr/lib/sw/sys.defaults Contains the master list of current SD options (with their default values). /var/adm/sw/ The directory which contains all configurable and non-configurable data for SD. This directory is also the default location of logfiles. /var/adm/sw/defaults Contains the active system-wide default values for some or all SD options. /var/adm/sw/host_object The file which stores the list of depots registered at the local host. AUTHOR swagentd was developed by the Hewlett-Packard Company. swagent was developed by the HewlettPackard Company and Mark H. Colburn (see pax (1)). SEE ALSO sd(5), sd(4), swpackage(4), swacl(1M), swask(1M), swconfig(1M), swcopy(1M), swinstall(1M), swjob(1M), swlist(1M), swmodify(1M), swpackage(1M), swreg(1M), swremove(1M), swverify(1M), install-sd(1M). Software Distributor Administration Guide , available at http://docs.hp.com. SD customer web site at http://software.hp.com/SD_AT_HP/. s HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −6− Section 1M− 839 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ swapinfo(1M) swapinfo(1M) NAME swapinfo - system paging space information SYNOPSIS /usr/sbin/swapinfo [-mtadfnrMqw ] DESCRIPTION swapinfo prints information about device and file system paging space. (Note: the term ‘swap’ refers to an obsolete implementation of virtual memory; HP-UX actually implements virtual memory by way of paging rather than swapping. This command and others retain names derived from ‘swap’ for historical reasons.) By default, swapinfo prints to standard output a two line header as shown here, followed by one line per paging area: Kb AVAIL TYPE Kb USED Kb FREE PCT USED START/ LIMIT Kb RESERVE PRI NAME The fields are: TYPE One of: dev Paging space residing on a mass storage device, either taking up the entire device or, if the device contains a file system, taking up the space between the end of the file system and the end of the device. This space is exclusively reserved for paging, and even if it is not being used for paging, it cannot be used for any other purpose. Device paging areas typically provide the fastest paging. fs Dynamic paging space available from a file system. When this space is needed, the system creates files in the file system and uses them as paging space. File system paging is typically slower than device paging, but allows the space to be used for other things (user files) when not needed for paging. localfs File system paging space (see fs above) on a file system residing on a local disk. network File system paging space (see fs above) on a file system residing on another machine. This file system would have been mounted on the local machine via NFS. reserve Paging space on reserve. This is the amount of paging space that could be needed by processes that are currently running, but that has not yet been allocated from one of the above paging areas. See "Paging Allocation" below. memory s Memory paging area (also known as pseudo-swap). This is the amount of system memory that can be used to hold pages in the event that all of the above paging areas are used up. See "Paging Allocation" below. This line appears only if memory paging is enabled. Kb AVAIL The total available space from the paging area, in blocks of 1024 bytes (rounded to nearest whole block if necessary), including any paging space already in use. For file system paging areas the value is not necessarily constant. It is the current space allocated for paging (even if not currently used), plus the free blocks available on the file system to ordinary users, minus RESERVE (but never less than zero). AVAIL is never more than LIMIT if LIMIT is non-zero. Since paging space is allocated in large chunks, AVAIL is rounded down to the nearest full allocation chunk. For the memory paging area this value is also not necessarily constant, because it reflects allocation of memory by the kernel as well as by processes that might need to be paged. Kb USED The current number of 1-Kbyte blocks used for paging in the paging area. For the memory paging area, this count also includes memory used for other purposes and thus unavailable for paging. Kb FREE The amount of space that can be used for future paging. Usually this is the difference between Kb AVAIL and Kb USED. There could be a difference if some portion of a device paging area is unusable, perhaps because the size of the paging area is not a multiple of the allocation chunk size, or because the tunable parameter maxswapchunks is not set high enough. PCT USED The percentage of capacity in use, based on Kb USED divided by Kb AVAIL; 100% if Kb AVAIL is zero. Section 1M− 840 __ −1− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ swapinfo(1M) swapinfo(1M) START/LIMIT For device paging areas, START is the block address on the mass storage device of the start of the paging area. The value is normally 0 for devices dedicated to paging, or the end of the file system for devices containing both a file system and paging space. For file system paging areas, LIMIT is the maximum number of 1-Kbyte blocks that will be used for paging, the same as the limit value given to swapon . A file system LIMIT value of none means there is no fixed limit; all space is available except that used for files, less the blocks represented by minfree (see fs (4)) plus RESERVE. RESERVE For device paging areas, this value is always ‘‘—’’. For file system paging areas, this value is the number of 1-Kbyte blocks reserved for file system use by ordinary users, the same as the reserve value given to swapon . PRI The same as the priority value given to swapon . This value indicates the order in which space is taken from the devices and file systems used for paging. Space is taken from areas with lower priority values first. priority can have a value between 0 and 10. See "Paging Allocation" below. NAME For device paging areas, the block special file name whose major and minor numbers match the device’s ID. The swapinfo command searches the /dev tree to find device names. If no matching block special file is found, swapinfo prints the device ID (major and minor values), for example, 28,0x15000 . For file system swap areas, NAME is the name of a directory on the file system in which the paging files are stored. Paging Allocation Paging areas are enabled at boot time (for device paging areas configured into the kernel) or by the swapon command (see swapon (1M)), often invoked by /sbin/init.d/swap_start during system initialization based on the contents of /etc/fstab . When a paging area is enabled, some portion of that area is allocated for paging space. For device paging areas, the entire device is allocated, less any leftover fraction of an allocation chunk. (The size of an allocation chunk is controlled by the tunable parameter swchunk , and is typically 2 MB.) For file system paging areas, the minimum value given to swapon (rounded up to the nearest allocation chunk) is allocated. When a process is created, or requests additional space, space is reserved for it by increasing the space shown on the reserve line above. When paging activity actually occurs, space is used in one of the paging areas (the one with the lowest priority number that has free space available, already allocated), and that space will be shown as used in that area. The sum of the space used in all of the paging areas, plus the amount of space reserved, can never exceed the total amount allocated in all of the paging areas. If a request for more memory occurs which would cause this to happen, the system tries several options: 1. The system tries to increase the total space available by allocating more space in file system paging areas. 2. If all file system paging areas are completely allocated and the request is still not satisfied, the system will try to use memory paging as described on the memory line above. (Memory paging is controlled by the tunable parameter swapmem_on , which defaults to 1 (on). If this parameter is turned off, the memory line will not appear.) 3. If memory paging also cannot satisfy the request, because it is full or turned off, the request is denied. s Several implications of this procedure are noteworthy for understanding the output of swapinfo : • Paging space will not be allocated in a file system paging area (except for the minimum specified when the area is first enabled) until all device paging space has been reserved, even if the file system paging area has a lower priority value. • When paging space is allocated to a file system paging area, that space becomes unavailable for user files, even if there is no paging activity to it. • Requests for more paging space will fail when they cannot be satisfied by reserving device, file system, or memory paging, even if some of the reserved paging space is not yet in use. Thus it is possible for requests for more paging space to be denied when some, or even all, of the paging areas show zero usage — space in those areas is completely reserved. HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −2− Section 1M− 841 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ swapinfo(1M) • swapinfo(1M) System available memory is shared between the paging subsystem and kernel memory allocators. Thus, the system may show memory paging usage before all available disk paging space is completely reserved or fully allocated. Logical Volume Manager (LVM) The swapinfo command displays swap logical volume if the system was installed with LVM. To modify swap logical volume, refer to the LVM commands and manpages for lvlnboot and lvrmboot . For example, to remove a swap logical volume, run the following LVM command: lvrmboot -s Options swapinfo recognizes the following options: -m Display the AVAIL, USED, FREE, LIMIT, and RESERVE values in Mbytes instead of Kbytes, rounding off to the nearest whole Mbyte (multiples of 10242). The output header format changes from Kb to Mb accordingly. -t Add a totals line with a TYPE of total . This line totals only the paging information displayed above it, not all paging areas; this line might be misleading if a subset of -dfrM is specified. -a Show all device paging areas, including those configured into the kernel but currently disabled. (These are normally omitted.) The word disabled appears after the NAME, and the Kb AVAIL, Kb USED, and Kb FREE values are 0. The -a option is ignored unless the -d option is present or is true by default. -d Print information about device paging areas only. This modifies the output header appropriately. -f Print information about file system paging areas only. This modifies the output header appropriately. -n Categorize file system paging area information into localfs areas and network areas, instead of calling them both fs areas. -r Print information about reserved paging space only. -M Print information about memory paging space only. The -d, -f, -n, -r and -M options can be combined. The default is -dfnrM . -q Quiet mode. Print only a total "Kb AVAIL" value (with the -m option, Mb AVAIL); that is, the total paging space available on the system (device, file system, reserve, or memory paging space only if -d, -f, -r, or -M is specified), for possible use by programs that want a quick total. If -q is specified, the -t and -a options are ignored. s -w Print a warning about each device paging area that contains wasted space; that is, any device paging area whose allocated size is less than its total size. This option is effective only if -d is also specified or true by default. RETURN VALUE swapinfo returns 0 if it completes successfully (including if any warnings are issued), or 1 if it reports any errors. DIAGNOSTICS swapinfo prints messages to standard error if it has any problems. EXAMPLES List all file system paging areas with a totals line: swapinfo -ft WARNINGS swapinfo needs kernel access for some information. If the user does not have appropriate privileges for kernel access, swapinfo will print a warning and assume that the defaults for that information have not been changed. Users of swapinfo must not rely on the exact field widths and spacing of its output, as these will vary depending on the system, the release of HP-UX, and the data to be displayed. Section 1M− 842 __ −3− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ swapinfo(1M) swapinfo(1M) The information in this manual page about paging allocation and other implementation details may change without warning; users should not rely on the accuracy of this information. AUTHOR swapinfo was developed by HP. SEE ALSO lvlnboot(1M), lvrmboot(1M), swapon(1M), swapon(2), fstab(4), fs(4). s HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −4− Section 1M− 843 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ swapon(1M) swapon(1M) NAME swapon - enable device or file system for paging SYNOPSIS Preferred Forms: /usr/sbin/swapon -a [-u] [-t type ]... /usr/sbin/swapon [-e -f] [-p priority ] [-u] device ... /usr/sbin/swapon [-m min ] [-l limit ] [-r reserve ] [-p priority ] directory ... Obsolescent Form: /usr/sbin/swapon directory [min limit reserve priority ] DESCRIPTION The swapon command enables devices or file systems on which paging is to take place. (NOTE: the term ‘swap’ refers to an obsolete implementation of virtual memory; HP-UX actually implements virtual memory by way of paging rather than swapping. This command and others retain names derived from ‘swap’ for historical reasons.) By enabling a device for paging, the device can be accessed directly (without going through the file system) during paging activity. When a file system is enabled for paging, the device(s) on which the file system resides are accessed indirectly through the file system. There are advantages and disadvantages to both type of paging. Keep the following tradeoffs in mind when enabling devices or file systems for paging. Paging directly to a device is significantly faster than doing so through the file system. However, the space on the device that is allocated to paging cannot be used for anything else, even if it is not being actively used for paging. Paging through a file system, while slower, provides a more efficient use of the space on the device. Space that is not being used for paging in this case can be used by the file system. Paging across a network to a remote machine is always file system paging. The system begins by paging on only a single device so that only one disk is required at bootstrap time. Calls to swapon normally occur in the system startup script /sbin/init.d/swap_start making all paging space available so that the paging activity is interleaved across several disks. Normally, the -a argument is given, causing all devices marked as swap and all file systems marked as swapfs in the file /etc/fstab to be made available to the paging system. By using the fields in /etc/fstab (special_file_name or directory ; see fstab (5)), the system determines which block device or file system to use. The special_file_name specified for each swap entry must specify a block special file. The directory specified for each swapfs entry must specify a directory within the file system to be enabled. s The second form of swapon enables individual block devices to be used for paging. The device name must specify a block special file. If more than one device is given, any options specified will be applied to all devices. If a file system exists on the specified block device and neither an -e nor -f option is specified, swapon fails and an error message is given. This prevents a file system from being inadvertently destroyed. To request paging in the space between the end of the file system and the end of the device, use -e. To force paging to a device containing a file system (destroying the file system), the -f option can be used. Use this with extreme caution! In either of the previous forms, an attempt to enable paging to a device will fail and a warning message will be issued if swapon determines that the device is being used by the savecore command to retrieve system dump information (see savecore (1M)). The -u option can be used to forcibly enable paging to devices being used by savecore ; however, this may overwrite system dump information contained on the device. The last two forms of swapon provide two different methods for enabling file systems for paging. The third form is the preferred method, with the fourth being provided only for backward compatibility. The directory name specifies a directory on the file system that is to be enabled for paging. A directory named /paging is created at the root of the specified file system (unless the file system’s name ends with /paging ). All paging files are created within this directory. The optional arguments to the fourth form have the same meaning as the arguments to the options in the third form. Note that, in the fourth form, if any of the optional arguments are specified, all must be specified. In the third form, if more than one directory is given, any options specified will be applied to all directories. After a file system has been enabled for paging, the optional arguments can be modified by subsequent swapon commands. Section 1M− 844 __ −1− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ swapon(1M) swapon(1M) Options swapon recognizes the following options and arguments: -a Cause all devices marked as swap and all file systems marked as swapfs in the file /etc/fstab to be made available to the paging system. The options field in /etc/fstab entries is read by swapon , and must contain elements formatted as follows: min= min lim= limit See the -m option for the value of min . res= reserve See the -r option for the value of reserve . (File system paging areas only.) pri= priority See the -p option for the value of priority . (File system paging areas only.) end See the -e option for the meaning of this option. (Device paging areas only.) See the -l option for the value of limit . (File system paging areas only.) See fstab (4) for an example entry. -e Use space after the end of the file system on the block device for paging. An error message is returned if no file system is found on the device. This option cannot be used with the -f option. Do not confuse this with paging to a file system. This option is for use with a disk that has both a file system and dedicated paging space on it. -f Force the device to be enabled, which will destroy the file system on it. Use with extreme caution. Normally, if a file system exists on the device to be enabled, swapon fails and displays an error message. This option cannot be used with the -e option. -l limit limit specifies the maximum space the paging system is allowed to take from the disk, provided space is available that is not reserved for exclusive use by the file system. The value of limit is rounded up so that it is a multiple of the paging allocation chunk size, which is set with the kernel tunable parameter swchunk (see config (1M) and swapinfo (1M)). See WARNINGS . The default value for limit is 0, indicating there is no limit to the amount of file system space the paging system can use. limit can be specified in decimal (no prefix), octal (0 prefix), or hexadecimal (0x prefix). It may be specified in units of kilobytes (k suffix), megabytes (M suffix), or file system blocks (no suffix). (A kilobyte is 1024 bytes; a megabyte is 1024 kilobytes; the size of a file system block is determined by the administrator when the file system is created.) -m min min indicates the space the paging system will initially take from the file system. The value of min is rounded up so that it is a multiple of the paging allocation chunk size, which is set with the kernel tunable parameter swchunk (see config (1M) and swapinfo (1M)). The default value for min is 0, indicating no paging space is to be allocated initially. min can be specified in the same forms as limit , above. -p priority priority indicates the order in which space is taken from the file systems and devices used for paging. Space is taken from the systems with lower priority numbers first. Under most circumstances, space is taken from device paging areas before file system paging areas, regardless of priority. See "Paging Allocation" in swapinfo (1M) for more information. priority can have a value from 0 to 10 and has a default value of 1. -r reserve reserve specifies the space, in addition to the space currently occupied by the file system, that is reserved for file system use only, making it unavailable to the paging system. This reserved space is in addition to the minimum free space specified by the administrator when the file system was created. See WARNINGS . The default value for reserve is 0 indicating that no file system space is reserved for file system use only. reserve can be specified in the same forms as limit , above. -t type Restrict the type of the paging area. If the -t option is omitted, all of the paging areas defined in /etc/fstab are made available. type can have one of the following values: HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −2− s Section 1M− 845 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ swapon(1M) swapon(1M) dev fs local remote -u Device paging areas. File system paging areas. Paging areas defined on the local system. Paging areas defined on remote systems. Unlock block device files which are being used by the savecore command. Normally, swapon will not enable paging on a device if it is being used by savecore to retrieve system dump information. The list of devices in use is maintained in the file /etc/savecore.LCK. This option forces the device to be enabled, which may overwrite any system dump information contained on the device. This option should be used with extreme caution. RETURN VALUE swapon returns one of the following values: 0 Successful completion. >0 An error condition occurred. EXAMPLES The first two examples enable paging to the file system containing the /paging directory. The maximum number of file system blocks available to the paging system is set to 5000, the number of file system blocks reserved for file system use only is set to 10000, and the priority is set to 2. The number of file system blocks initially taken by the paging system defaults to 0 in the first example, and is set to 0 in the second example. On a file system with the default 8kB block size, these examples allocate approximately 40MB of file system paging. /usr/sbin/swapon -l 5000 -r 10000 -p 2 /paging /usr/sbin/swapon /paging 0 5000 10000 2 This example enables paging to two block devices and sets the priority of both devices to 0. /usr/sbin/swapon -p 0 /dev/dsk/c10t0d0 /dev/dsk/c13t0d0 This example enables paging to a block device, using the space after the end of the file system for paging and letting the priority default to 1. /usr/sbin/swapon -e /dev/dsk/c4t0d0 This example enables paging to a block device, forcing paging even if a file system exists on the device. /usr/sbin/swapon -f /dev/dsk/c12t0d0 s WARNINGS Once file system blocks have been allocated for paging space, the file system cannot be unmounted unless the system is rebooted. If any paging area becomes unavailable while the system is running, for example if a network failure occurs while paging to a remote system, the system will immediately halt. The file system block size used by the -l, -m, and -r options varies between file systems, and is defined by the system administrator at the time the file system is created. The dumpfs command can be used to determine the block size for a particular file system (see dumpfs (1M)). When using the -l and -r options, the reserve space specified by the -r option takes precedence over the -l option. Thus, if: D R limit L F = Total disk space available to ordinary users = Reserve space specified by the -r option = Paging space limit specified by the -l option = Space currently available to the paging system = Space currently occupied by the file system the following relationships hold: F + R + limit < D In normal operation L=0 If F + R >= D Section 1M− 846 __ −3− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ swapon(1M) 0 <= L <= limit swapon(1M) If F + R + limit >= D FILES /dev/dsk/c card ttarget ddevice /etc/fstab /etc/savecore.LCK Normal paging devices File system table List of devices being used by savecore AUTHOR swapon was developed by HP and the University of California, Berkeley. SEE ALSO config(1M), savecore(1M), swapinfo(1M), swapon(2), fstab(4). s HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ −4− Section 1M− 847 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ swask(1M) swask(1M) (Hewlett-Packard Company) NAME swask - ask for user response SYNOPSIS swask [-v] [-c catalog ] [-C session_file ] [-f software_file ] [-J jobid ] [-Q date ] [-s source ] [-S session_file ] [-t target_file ] [-x option=value ] [-X options_file ] [ software_selections ] [@ target_selections ] Remarks • This command supports operation on remote systems. See Remote Operation below. • For an overview of all SD commands, see the sd (5) man page by typing man 5 sd on the command line. DESCRIPTION The swask command runs interactive software request scripts for the software objects selected to one or more targets specified by target_selections . These scripts store the responses in a response file (named response ) for later use by the swinstall and swconfig commands. The swinstall and swconfig commands can also run the interactive request scripts directly, using the ask option. If the -s option is specified, software is selected from the distribution source. If the -s option is not specified, software installed on the target systems is selected. For each selected software that has a request script, executing that script generates a response file. By specifying the -c catalog option, swask stores a copy of the response file to that catalog for later use by swinstall or swconfig . Remote Operation You can enable SD to manage software on remote systems. To let the root user from a central SD controller (also called the central management server or IR "manager node" ) perform operations on a remote target (also called the host or agent ): 1) Install a special HP ServiceControl Manager fileset on the remote systems. This enables remote operations by automatically setting up the root, host, and template Access Control Lists (ACLs) on the remote machines and permitting root access from the controller system. To install the fileset, run the following command on each remote system: swinstall -s controller :/var/opt/mx/depot11 AgentConfig.SD-CONFIG NOTES: • If the target is running HP-UX 10.20, use the same command but substitute depot10 for depot11 . • s controller is the name of the central management server. • Targets previously set up by SD/OV to be managed by this controller do not need this step. • SD does not require any other ServiceControl Manager filesets. 2) (Optional) swinstall , swcopy , and swremove have enhanced GUI interfaces for remote operations. Enable the enhanced GUIs by creating the .sdkey file on the controller. Use this command: touch /var/adm/sw/.sdkey NOTES: • This step is not required when you use SD from within the HP ServiceControl Manager. • See sd(5) , swinstall(1M) , swcopy(1M) , swjob(1M), swlist(1M) or swremove(1M) for more information on interactive operations. NOTE: You can also set up remote access by using swacl directly on the remote machines to grant root or non-root access to users from the controller system. Options The swask command supports the following options: -v -c catalog Section 1M− 848 __ Turns on verbose output to stdout. Specifies the pathname of an exported catalog which stores the response files created by the request script. swask creates the catalog if it does not already exist. −1− HP-UX Release 11i: December 2000 __ _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Printed by: Nora Chuang _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _[nchuang]_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STANDARD _ _ _ _ _ _ _/build/1111/BRICK/man1m/naaagt.1m _ _ _ _ ____________________ __ __ swask(1M) swask(1M) (Hewlett-Packard Company) If the -c catalog option is omitted and the source is local, swask copies the response files into the source depot, <distribution.path> /catalog . -C session_file Saves the current options and operands to session_file . You can enter a relative or absolute path with the file name. The default directory for session files is $HOME/.sw/sessions/. You can recall a session file with the -S option. -f software_file Reads the list of software_selections from software_file instead of (or in addition to) the command line. -s source Specifies the source depot (or tape) from which software is selected for the ask operation. (SD can read both tar and cpio tape depots.) -S session_file Executes swask based on the options and operands saved from a previous session, as defined in session_file . You can save session information from a command-line session with the -C session_file option. -t targetfile Specifies a default set of targets for swask. -x option=value Sets the session option to value and overrides the default value (or a value in an alternate option_file specified with the -X option). Multiple -x options can be specified. -X option_file Reads the session options and behaviors from option_file . Operands swask supports two types of operands: software selections followed by target selections . These operands are separated by the "@" (at) character. This syntax implies that the command