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homo-horm - Types of Hormones See table 18.1 p 549 Hormones...

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CourseNotes Week 13 22 Types of Hormones - See table 18.1, p. 549 - Hormones are chemical messengers of endocrine glands 1. Steroids - basic structure is made up of three 6-carbon rings and one 5-carbon ring - cholesterol precursor - steroids bind nuclear receptors - hormones bind at specific receptor sites and triggers a cascade of events that cause an effect * note: all steroids are metabolites of cholesterol - types: a. progestin (21 C) - progesterone-like molecule - main sex steroid in the second half of the menstrual cycle b. mineralocorticoid (21 C) - e.g. aldosterone c. glucocorticoids (21 C) - e.g. cortisol and cortisone d. vitamin D 3 (27 C) - not a steroid technically - acts at nuclear receptor e. androgens (19 C) - e.g. testosterone - main circulating male sex steroid - males born with few or no androgen receptors show feminization f. estrogen (18 C) - main circulating hormone in non-pregnant females 2. Protein and polypeptide hormones - have a primary amino acid structure a. polypeptide hormones have < amino acids than the protein hormones - types of protein hormones: 1. insulin 2. growth hormone 3. follicle-stimulation hormone 4. glycoproteins (LH, TSH, oxytocin) - polypeptide hormone: anti-diuretic hormone - receptor sites on plasma membranes - hormone binds and leads to a cascade of events and ultimately an effect b. amine hormones - have NH 2 group at end of molecule ( aminated ) - act at plasma membrane receptor - e.g. catecholamines 1. norepinephrine 2. epinephrine 3. dopamine -- levels in Parkinson’s disease
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Dr. Hutz Week 13 23 Location of Endocrine Glands - See text 571-573 and figure 18.1, p. 548 and 18.2 1. Pineal gland - found in the brain - important in animals that show “seasonality” - controls reproductive cycles in some animals - involved in photoperiodicity - adjustment to sunlight - seasonal affective disorder (SAD) - depression associated with reduction of sunlight during winter months - involved in “jet lag” - try to physically alter endogenous biological clock via use of lights 2. Pituitary - once called the “master gland” of the endocrine system - located at the base of the brain, directly below the hypothalamus a. anterior pituitary - secretes at least 8 hormones b. posterior pituitary - secretes at least 2 hormones 3. Hypothalamus - truly considered the “master gland” - also called a “neuroendocrine organ” - secretes releasing factors or inhibiting factors - blood supply from anterior pituitary infundibulum hypothalamus - responsible for the release of hormones at the anterior pituitary 4. Thyroid - found on either side of trachea - responsible for the BMR - cell oxidation - heat generation - production of calcitonin - ↓↓ Ca 2+ in the bloodstream 5. Parathyroid - found embedded in the thyroid tissue - produces parathyroid hormone (PTH) - ↑↑ Ca 2+ in bloodstream 6. Thymus - overlies the heart - shrinks with time - produces thymosins - involved with maturation and immune functioning 7. Heart - atria produce atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) - involved with Na + balance in the body - indirectly with BP regulation
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CourseNotes Week 13 24 8. Adrenal glands
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