hormone-table

hormone-table - Hormone Structure Functions Pituitary...

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Hormone Structure Functions Pituitary Hormones Oxytocin posterior pituitary peptide; polypeptide of 9 amino acids CYIQNCPLG (C's are disulfide bonded) uterine contraction, causes milk ejection in lactating females (the "let- down" response), responds to suckling reflex and estradiol, lowers steroid synthesis in testes Vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone, ADH) posterior pituitary peptide; polypeptide of 9 amino acids CYFQNCPRG (C's are disulfide bonded) responds to osmoreceptor which senses extracellular [Na + ], blood pressure regulation, increases H 2 O readsorption from distal tubules in kidney, loss results in dilute urine and polydipsia (constant thirst) condition termed diabetes insipidus Melanocyte-stimulating hormones (MSH) anterior pituitary peptides derived from POMC: α polypeptide = 13 amino acids β polypeptide = 18 amino acids γ polypeptide = 12 amino acids α-MSH most significant, involved in pigmentation, primary responses are immunomodulation via melanocortin receptor (MC-1R)-expressing monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells (DCs), down-regulates the production of proinflammatory and immunomodulating cytokines (IL-1, IL- 6, TNF-α, IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-13) as well as the expression of costimulatory molecules (CD86, CD40, ICAM-1) on antigen-presenting DCs Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) also called corticotropin anterior pituitary peptide derived from POMC; polypeptide = 39 amino acids stimulates cells of adrenal gland to increase steroid synthesis and secretion Lipotropin (LPH) anterior pituitary peptides derived from POMC: β polypeptide = 93 amino acids γ polypeptide = 60 amino acids increases fatty acid release from adipocytes Thyrotropin (thyroid- stimulating hormone, TSH) anterior pituitary peptides; 2 proteins: α is 96 amino acids; β is 112 acts on thyroid follicle cells to stimulate throid hormone synthesis Growth hormone (GH, or somatotropin) anterior pituitary peptide; protein of 191 amino acids general anabolic stimulant, increases release of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), cell growth and bone sulfation Prolactin (PRL) anterior pituitary peptide; protein of 197 amino acids stimulates differentiation of secretory cells of mammary gland and stimulates milk synthesis Luteinizing hormone anterior pituitary peptides; 2 increases ovarian progesterone
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(LH); human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is similar and produced in placenta proteins: α is 96 amino acids; β is 121 synthesis, luteinization; acts on Leydig cells of testes to increase testosterone synthesis and release and increases interstitial cell development Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) anterior pituitary peptides; 2 proteins: α is 96 amino acids; β is 120 ovarian follicle development and ovulation, increases estrogen production; acts on Sertoli cells of semiferous tubule to increase spermatogenesis back to Table of Contents Hypothalamic Hormones Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF or CRH) protein of 41 amino acids acts on corticotrope to release ACTH
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hormone-table - Hormone Structure Functions Pituitary...

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