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ch. 2 notes - Orbital – the 3-D space where an electron...

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Ch. 2  17:58 Matter – anything that takes up space and has mass Element – substance that cannot be broken down to other substances by chemical  reactions Compound – 2 or more different elements combined in a fixed ratio Essential elements – what an organism needs to live a healthy life and reproduce Ex) O, C, H, N Trace elements – required by an organism in only minute quantities Ex) FE, I Atom – smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of an element, made up of  subatomic particles Neutrons – neutral Protons – positive = atomic number Neutrons + protons = atomic nucleus = mass # Electrons – negative Isotopes – some atoms with more neutrons than other atoms of the same element Radioactive isotope – nucleus decays spontaneously, giving off particles and energy Energy – capacity to cause change Potential energy – energy matter possesses because of its location/structure
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Unformatted text preview: Orbital – the 3-D space where an electron is found 90% of the time Chemical bonds – attractions between atoms (share/transfer valence electrons) Covalent bond – share a pair of valence electrons molecule Single bond/double bond Electronegativity – the attraction of a particular atom for the electron of a covalent bond Nonpolar covalent bond – electrons are shared equally Polar covalent bond – electrons are not shared equally Ionic bond – cation (+) and anionic (-) attraction ionic compounds (salt) Weak chemical bonds Hydrogen bonds – noncovalent attraction between a hydrogen and an electronegative atom (F, N, O) Van der Waals interactions – ever-changing regions of positive/negative charge that enable all atoms and molecules to stick to one another Ionic bonds in water 17:58 17:58...
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