ch. 5 notes

ch. 5 notes - Ch. 5 03:54 Macromolecules polymers built...

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Ch. 5 03:54 Macromolecules – polymers built from monomers Polymer – long molecule consisting of similar or identical building blocks linked by covalent bonds Make/break down, facilitated by enzymes Dehydration reaction: monomers are connected by a reaction in which two molecules are covalently bonded to each other, with the loss of a water molecule Hydrolysis: bond between monomers is broken down by the addition of a water molecule; H from H 2 O attaches to one monomer and the –OH attaches to adjacent monomer 4 categories carbohydrates – sugars/polymers of sugars Monosaccharides – simple sugars simplest formula = CH 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 disaccharides – double sugars by glycosidic linkage polysaccharides – polymers with many sugar building blocks Trademarks of a sugar Has a carbonyl group (C=O) and multiple hydroxyl groups (-OH) Either an aldose or a ketose Size of C skeleton – three to seven carbons long 6 carbons – hexoses 3 carbons – triases 5 carbons – pentoses Monosaccharides – major nutrients for cells, raw material for the synthesis of other types of small organic molecules (amino acids, fatty acids) Disaccharides
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Ex) maltose (glucose + glucose), sucrose (glucose + fructose), lactose (galactose + glucose) Polysaccharides Storage – building material for structures that protect the cell or the whole organism Ex) cellulose – straight molecule, never branched, some hydroxyl groups free to hydrogen-bond with the hydroxyls of other cellulose molecules lying parallel to it grouped into microfibrils Ex) chitin – arthropods use it to build exoskeletons, also in fungi to build cell walls Lipids – mix poorly with water, hydrophobic Fats – constructed from glycerol and fatty acids (alcohol) long C skeleton 16-18 C’s in length, with a carboxyl group at the end. Hydrocarbon chain = nonpolar = hydrophobic
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This note was uploaded on 03/14/2012 for the course BISC 220 taught by Professor Mcclure during the Spring '09 term at USC.

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ch. 5 notes - Ch. 5 03:54 Macromolecules polymers built...

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