lecture 4

lecture 4 - Belief and Virtuosity in Rome; Bernini...

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Belief and Virtuosity in Rome; Bernini 20:33 Parmigianino Madonna with the Long Neck C. 1534 Ludovico Caracci Madonna and Child with Saints Francis and Jerome Differences Proportionally: the kind of woman you’d see in everyday life Much more naturalistic little guy, fat folds in his arms Significant change in the handling of the bodies Gone is the strange focus on the sexuality of the Virgin Voluminous robe Modest, more decorous Fancy hairstyle veil, conservative Gone is the strange, vaguely explained classical setting and replaced with a more straightforward image of heaven (halo, angels from cloud), situated on the moon Well-known saints, Gerome (translated Bible into Latin) and Francis This painting has removed that ambiguity, confusion in Parmigianino’s painting What changed? Lucas Cranach Martin Luther as a Young Man
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1520 Oil on panel Reform Corruption – the Church had so much money, being a priest/bishop/cardinal = huge property Long-standing criticism of clerks sleeping with nuns, etc. Martin Luther criticized the Church for its corruption, greed, priests not allowed to marry, and especially indulgences Luther had the ear of a number of very important German nobles, had the protection of Northern European aristocracy They increasingly realized that they had an economic self-interest in doing away with this system Sending money for indulgences, paying the papacy and Church paid for Pope’s lavish lifestyle, pope’s army, not beneficial from northern princes as well Economic and military self-interest in breaking from the Church Standardized critiques of the Church Anonymous German woodcutter The Papal Ass of Rome Woodcut 1523 ass = stubbornness, stupidity, monstrous creature Pope’s effeminacy, inability to lead Sorruption of the Church Reform church! Reformation The Council of Trent 1545-1563
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Neutral ground, between Northern Europe and Italy Protestants didn’t believe the Church when it said, “We’ll give you safe conduct, we won’t kill you when you get here.” They weren’t stupid. Didn’t show up or left early from the Council decade-long Catholic council, rather than solving the problems, became a council for dealing with the Reformers, the threat of this movement in the North Separate Christian religions in Europe competing with each other, the result of military conflict in this period Paolo Veronese Christ in the House of Levi Oil on canvas 1573 Why was the church so concerned about people being confused? Increasing concern with Protestantism it would lead to someone seeking the truth somewhere else, likely Lutheranism Primary goal: keeping people from defecting to Protestantism, heresies introduced by Luther Insisted on the idea that paintings were supposed to be the Bile of the poor, clearly show these stories, teach the doctrine, keep them in the faith
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lecture 4 - Belief and Virtuosity in Rome; Bernini...

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