ATOC 184 Lecture11_Feb13_2012

ATOC 184 Lecture11_Feb13_2012 - Computer power Of course...

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Unformatted text preview: Computer power Of course with increased computer power, there is an ability to increase the resolution of GCMs. This allows us to use fewer parameterizations, as well as more accurately represent differences in land surfaces. However, it is not completely obvious that smaller grids are the best use of the computing power. But what are the alternatives? An example of ensemble forecasting, with spaghetti plots; as of 0000 UTC, 11 February 2012 initialization 2-day (48-h) forecast 7-day (168-h) forecast Now, for the average (mean) of all ensemble forecasts; as of 0000 UTC, 11 February 2012 initialization 2-day (48-h) forecast 7-day (168-h) forecast The current spaghetti plots http://www.cdc.noaa.gov/map/images/ens/ens.html#nh A few (nine) different ensemble members for forecasts of sea-level pressures from the 0000 UTC, 11 February 2012 Canadian forecast ensemble Environment Canada ensemble probability of precipitation (at least 2 mm in a 24-h period; 144-168 hour forecast ) http ://www.weatheroffice.gc.ca/ensemble/ based upon the computer output: Why and how the air moves What is a force? A force is something that causes a mass to accelerate. A common example is that of gravity. An object's weight can change if it goes into space or to another planet. This is because gravity may be weaker or stronger there than it is on the Earth. There are two kinds of forces A fundamental force is one that results from an interaction of particles and is independent of the frame of reference. Gravity from the previous slide is a fundamental force. An apparent force acts on all masses in a non-inertial frame of reference, such as a rotating reference frame. The force F does not arise from any physical interaction but rather from the acceleration a of the non- inertial reference frame itself. Fundamental Force Apparent Force What forces act on air? Four forces control the air motions: Pressure gradient force (fundamental) Gravitational force (fundamental) Frictional force (fundamental) Coriolis force (apparent or fictitous-results from the Earths rotation) side, because of greater molecular density Pressure is the force exerted on a particular area (in this case the wall in the figure)....
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ATOC 184 Lecture11_Feb13_2012 - Computer power Of course...

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