BIS2C+MT1+W2011+Study+Guide

BIS2C+MT1+W2011+Study+Guide - BIS2C Winter 2011 Midterm 1...

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BIS2C Winter 2011 Midterm 1 Study guide part I Understanding trees, tree-based thinking, and phylogenetic applications Basic concepts What is a phylogenetic tree ? What are the basic elements of a tree ( terminal taxa , internal nodes , root node , etc.)? Distinguishing between cladograms , phylograms and chronograms . In what way is a tree a simplification of a more complex evolutionary process? How does a monophyletic group (=clade) differ from a non-monophyletic group ( paraphyletic group or polyphyletic group )? What is a synapomorphy ? Why are monophyletic groups characterized by synapomorphies? Explain how an attribute (character) that is an ancestral state in one context can be a derived state in another context. Distinguish between convergence , reversal and homology . What is the relationship between phylogeny and classification ? Define the following: sister groups , ingroups and outgroups . Understand why branch rotation does not change meaning of the tree. Be able to determine if two trees are equivalent. Reconstructing phylogenetic trees Remember that trees are hypotheses . They are inferred from the similarities that are observed among taxa. Understand the components of a character-taxon data matrix . Distinguish between rooted and unrooted trees . Recall the basic procedure for finding/searching for the most parsimonious tree(s): 1. Ignore parsimony-uninformative characters. 2. Draw possible trees. 3. For each informative character count the minimum number of steps required on each tree.
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BIS2C Winter 2011 4. Sum over all characters to get the “score” (number of steps) for each tree. 5.
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This note was uploaded on 03/12/2012 for the course CHE 118B taught by Professor Nasiri during the Spring '08 term at UC Davis.

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BIS2C+MT1+W2011+Study+Guide - BIS2C Winter 2011 Midterm 1...

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