Chapter 2. answer - CHAPTER 2 FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND CASH...

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CHAPTER 2 FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND CASH FLOW Answers to Concept Questions 1. Liquidity measures how quickly and easily an asset can be converted to cash without significant loss in value. It’s desirable for firms to have high liquidity so that they have a large factor of safety in meeting short-term creditor demands. However, since liquidity also has an opportunity cost associated with it - namely that higher returns can generally be found by investing the cash into productive assets - low liquidity levels are also desirable to the firm. It’s up to the firm’s financial management staff to find a reasonable compromise between these opposing needs 2. The recognition and matching principles in financial accounting call for revenues, and the costs associated with producing those revenues, to be “booked” when the revenue process is essentially complete, not necessarily when the cash is collected or bills are paid. Note that this way is not necessarily correct; it’s the way accountants have chosen to do it. 3. The bottom line number shows the change in the cash balance on the balance sheet. As such, it is not a useful number for analyzing a company. 4. The major difference is the treatment of interest expense. The accounting statement of cash flows treats interest as an operating cash flow, while the financial cash flows treat interest as a financing cash flow. The logic of the accounting statement of cash flows is that since interest appears on the income statement, which shows the operations for the period, it is an operating cash flow. In reality, interest is a financing expense, which results from the company’s choice of debt/equity. We will have more to say about this in a later chapter. When comparing the two cash flow statements, the financial statement of cash flows is a more appropriate measure of the company’s operating performance because of its treatment of interest. 5. Market values can never be negative. Imagine a share of stock selling for –$20. This would mean that if you placed an order for 100 shares, you would get the stock along with a check for $2,000. How many shares do you want to buy? More generally, because of corporate and individual bankruptcy laws, net worth for a person or a corporation cannot be negative, implying that liabilities cannot exceed assets in market value. 6. For a successful company that is rapidly expanding, for example, capital outlays will be large, possibly leading to negative cash flow from assets. In general, what matters is whether the money is spent productively, not whether cash flow from assets is positive or negative. 7. It’s probably not a good sign for an established company, but it would be fairly ordinary for a start- up, so it depends.
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8. For example, if a company were to become more efficient in inventory management, the amount of inventory needed would decline. The same might be true if it becomes better at collecting its receivables. In general, anything that leads to a decline in ending NWC relative to beginning would
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This note was uploaded on 03/12/2012 for the course FINANCE 5080 taught by Professor C during the Fall '10 term at University of Houston.

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Chapter 2. answer - CHAPTER 2 FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND CASH...

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