objectivescomplete - Objectives Chapter 6 1 Define learning...

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Objectives Chapter 6 1. Define learning. a. Relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by experience 2. Describe how classical conditioning was discovered and explain how it works. a. Pavlov was interested in the way behavior is conditioned by association b. Noticed after a while that before they had even put powder in the dogs mouth, the dogs would begin to salivate when they saw the experimenters. c. Wanted to find out if a neutral stimulus could be come associated with making the dogs salivate 3. Who discovered classical conditioning? a. Pavlov 4. Be able to discriminate between the key terms: unconditioned stimulus/response and conditioned stimulus/response. a. Unconditioned stimulus (UCS)- no strong associations with stimulus b. Unconditioned response (UCR)- no strong associations with response c. Conditioned stimulus (CS)- repeated pairings becomes strong association with stimulus d. Conditioned response (CR)- repeated pairings becomes strong association with response 5. Explain how extinction occurs and discuss why spontaneous recovery often occurs after a conditioned response has been extinguished. a. Extinction occurs when you present a conditioned stimulus (the tone) without a unconditioned stimulus (the food powder), and the conditioned response (salivation) will stop. b. Spontaneous recovery occurs when the conditioned response reappears in a weak form when the conditioned stimulus is presented alone again after extinction. . 6. Understand and be able to describe how classical conditioning is related to drug overdoses. What is a compensatory response? a. When people take the drugs, the drug (UCS) brings about certain responses to which the body responds with countermeasures (UCR) intended to reestablish homeostasis. b. Over time this compensatory response also becomes the conditioned response. c. That is, the body physiologically prepares itself for the drug’s expected effects. 7. What is operant conditioning? a. Behavior followed by reinforcement increases chances of the behavior happening again. 8. How was operant conditioning discovered and by whom? a. Discovered by Edward Thorndike was watching American cats trying to escape from puzzle boxes. b. Once some impulsive action allowed them to open the door, all other unsuccessful impulses were stamped out, and the successful act was stamped in by the resulting pleasure.
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9. What are positive and negative reinforcement? a. Positive reinforcement- bringing good things to an organism b. Negative reinforcement- taking bad things from an organism. 10. What type of reinforcement schedule is more resistant to extinction? Can you define and explain with examples the following reinforcement schedules: continuous versus partial reinforcement, fixed interval schedule, variable interval schedule, fixed ratio schedule, and variable ratio schedule. a.
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course PSYCH 2001 taught by Professor Domange during the Spring '08 term at LSU.

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objectivescomplete - Objectives Chapter 6 1 Define learning...

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