Chemistry

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C h e m i s t r y 1 A P a g e | 1 Unit 2: Chapter 4: Reactions in Aqueous Solution Homework: Read Chapter 4. Work out sample/practice exercises Suggested Chapter 4 Problems: 67, 69, 73, 77, 79, 83, 85, 89, 91, 93, 99, 101, 105 Check for the MasteringChemistry.com assignment and complete before due date The Chemical Equation : Reactants Products Phases: solid (s), liquid (l), gas (g), aqueous (aq) Balancing Chemical Equations : Balance the same number of atoms on either side Once the formulas are correctly written, add numbers to coefficients (never change a subscript to balance) Process: Write skeletal equation with correct formulas Start with the substance with the most atoms and subscripts Balance a free element last Remove fractions by multiplying through by the denominator Check Classifying Chemical Reactions : Types: ( D-D) double displacement, (P) precipitation, (N) neutralization or acid- base, (Syn) synthesis or combination, (D) decomposition, (R) redox or oxidation-reduction, (SR) single replacement, (C) combustion , (G) gas evolution Electrolytes in Aqueous Solution : Strong Electrolytes will largely dissociate into its ions in an aqueous solution and are written as separated ions in the ionic reactions. Examples: Strong acids, Strong Bases, Soluble salts. Strong Acids: HCl, HBr, HI, HNO 3 , H 2 SO 4 , HClO 4 , HClO 3 Strong Bases: soluble hydroxides from Group 1A (not including H) and Group 11A, not including the top two) LiOH, NaOH, KOH, RbOH, Ca(OH) 2 , Sr(OH) 2 , Ba(OH) 2
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C h e m i s t r y 1 A P a g e | 2 Soluble Salts: Ionic compounds that contain the cations from Group 1A; Li + , Na + , K + , Rb + , Cs + , or ammonium ion, NH 4 + . A compound is probably soluble if it has the anion; Cl -1 , Br -1 , I -1 except with Ag + , Hg 2 +2 , or Pb +2 , and most compounds that include NO 3 -1 , ClO 4 -1 , C 2 H 3 O 2 -1 , Soluble with most SO 4 -2 except Ba +2 , Hg 2 +2 , or Pb +2 . Weak Electrolytes will partially dissociate into its ions in an aqueous solution, but are written as compounds in an ionic equation. Weak electrolytes are the weak acids and weak bases such as HC 2 H 3 O 2 or NH 3 Nonelectrolytes will stay in their formula in an aqueous solution. Nonelectrolytes are the insoluble salts, gases, and liquids. Writing Molecular, Ionic, and Net ionic equations: Example: For the double displacement reaction of lead (II) nitrate reacting with aluminum chloride. Whole equation: Unbalanced Pb(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) + AlCl 3 (aq) PbCl 2 (s) + Al(NO 3 ) 3 (aq) Total ionic equation: Unbalanced Pb +2 ( aq) + NO 3 -1 (aq) + Al +3 (aq) + Cl -1 (aq) PbCl 2 (s) + Al +3 (aq) + NO 3 -1 (aq) Identify the spectator ions and leave them out when writing the net ionic eq. Net ionic equation
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reactions - Chemistry 1A Page |1 Unit 2: Chapter 4:...

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