Lecture 7 - Property Crimes - extra notes

Lecture 7 - Property Crimes - extra notes - 1 Lecture 7:...

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Lecture 7: Property Crimes – extra notes Explanatory Models of Street Crime/Property Crime 1. Social Control theories (Hackler, Ch.7 – pp. 94-97, 100-101, 103) Social control theorists focus on the social bonds to conventional institutions such as the family and the school, which help to constrain crime and delinquency. Early social control theories ( Reiss, Nye ) stress the importance of personal controls, particularly those provided by the family. Hirschi (Social bond theory) stresses the four elements of the social bond: attachment, commitment, involvement, and belief. Gottfredson and Hirschi (General theory of crime) stress that individuals with low self-control have a greater propensity to commit crimes when they have the opportunity to do so. Control theory (Hirschi, 1969) assumes that most people are already disposed to nonconformity unless they receive protective socialization in the form of controls. Individuals’ specific past patterns of social interaction protects them from their deviant inclinations. Thus for control theorists what needs to be explained is not deviance and crime but conformity. According to Hirschi (1969), social controls are learned, and were it not for these controls, we would all be lawbreakers. Social control theory argues that inadequate or ineffective external socialization can result in weak or absent internal controls over behaviour. It is concerned with the ways in which relational ties between young people and adults result in some youth having respect for the values and norms of conventional adults while others do not. It implies that role modeling is important, especially of beliefs, values, and attitudes learned as a result of social bonds formed with conventional actors (e.g. parents, teachers, youth leaders) and conveyed through societal institutions. Social control theory places a major emphasis on family relationships since these provide children with the attachments necessary to restrain their involvement in delinquency. Parents who are close to their children act as a deterrent to delinquency because these children are concerned about what their parents think of them. Warm, affectionate family relationships are associated with low rates of delinquency. Conflict between parents characterizes the families of delinquents. Children who are adequately supervised by their parents (disapproval by people one cares about is the most powerful sanction – more moderate discipline is more effective in encouraging children to internalize a set of values that will ensure long-term compliance than very strict discipline, which is seen as unfair and may lead to feelings of resentment) and whose parents discipline them in an appropriate fashion will have lower delinquency rates. Criminal parents may provide a model of aggression and antisocial attitudes.
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Lecture 7 - Property Crimes - extra notes - 1 Lecture 7:...

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