Lecture 10 - Responses to Crime - extra notes

Lecture 10 - Responses to Crime - extra notes - 1 Lecture...

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Lecture 10: Community and Justice Responses to Crime and Criminogenic Conditions – Implications for Crime Reduction extra notes Criminogenic Conditions: Implications for Crime Reduction Rose and Clear (1998) – Incarceration, Social Capital, and Crime: Implications for Social Disorganization Theory Overreliance on formal controls may increase disorganization by impeding other forms of control. High incarceration rates may contribute to rates of criminal violence by the way they contribute to such social problems as inequality, family life deterioration, economic and political alienation, and social disorganization. Concentrated within certain communities, high levels of incarceration undermine social, political, and economic systems already weakened by the low levels of human and social capital produced under conditions such as high rates of poverty, unemployment, and crime. The result is a reduction in social cohesion and a lessening of those communities’ capacity for self-regulation. Incarcerating more offenders has not produced a decrease in crime rates. Since 1973, the number of offenders incarcerated in prisons has increased every year, from about 350,000 to over 1.5 million, but crime has fluctuated during that time period, which suggests that crime control is not directly related to incarceration. Reliance on incarceration is one of the social conditions leading to crime. The more society builds prisons, the more it cultivates the crime problem. Resource-poor communities suffer from the most crime partly because they lack enough social and human capital in the first place. As a result, they suffer the most from incarceration and its unintended consequences. Stronger communities produce fewer offenders, so incarceration is a crime control strategy that works for these communities. High-crime neighbourhoods are also high-incarceration neighbourhoods. In these places, children are more likely to experience family disruption and deteriorated informal social controls that otherwise deflect the young from criminal behaviour. An overreliance on external control agencies actually weakens the capacity of communities to exert their own self-management. The prison can never be a substitute for absent adults, family members, and neighbours in making places safe. Imprisonment of people who threaten the personal safety of residents may decrease the demand for self-regulation. Boston Police Commissioner recently attributed his city’s decline in violence to the combined strength of neighbourhood involvement and aggressive policing. Strengthening and mobilizing communities enables residents to recognize and solve their own problems and creates opportunities for everyone to take responsibility for finding solutions. Probation and parole agencies should work in tandem with neighbourhood groups to deal with local crime problems. In Vermont, all offenders are required to engage in some form of community labor. Violence, drug abuse, and other social problems can be prevented by
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This note was uploaded on 03/19/2012 for the course CRIME 9030 taught by Professor Shwartsf during the Spring '12 term at University of Guelph.

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Lecture 10 - Responses to Crime - extra notes - 1 Lecture...

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