Anthropology Chapter 4

Anthropology Chapter 4 - Anthropology Chapter 4 Definitions...

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Anthropology Chapter 4 Definitions Fertility- the rate of births in a population or the rate of population increase general Mode of reproduction- The predominant pattern, in a culture, of population change throughout the combined effect of fertility (birth rate) and mortality (death rate) Pronatalism- an attitude or policy that encourages childbearing Demographic transition- the change from the agricultural pattern of high fertility and high mortality to the industrial pattern of low fertility and low mortality Menarche- the onset of menstruation Menopause- the cessation of menstruation Infanticide- the killing of an infant or child Personality- an individual’s patterned and characteristic way of behaving, thinking, and feeling Cultural broker- a person who is familiar with the practices and beliefs of two cultures and who can promote cross-cultural understanding to prevent or mediate conflicts Puberty- a time in the human life cycle that occurs universally and involves a set of biological markers and sexual maturation Adolescence- a culturally defined period of maturation from the time of puberty until adulthood that occurs in some, but not all, cultures Female genital cutting (FGC)- a range of practices involving partial or total removal of the clitoris and labia Berdache- a blurred gender category, usually referring to a person who is biologically male but who takes on a female gender role Amazon- a person who is biologically female but takes on a male gender role Hijra- in India, a blurred gender role in which a person, usually biologically male, takes on female dress and behavior Gender pluralism- the existence within a culture of multiple categories of femininity, masculinity, and blurred genders that are tolerated and legitimate Putrescence- fatherhood, or the cultural process of becoming a father Matrescence- motherhood, or the cultural process of becoming a mother Couvade- customs applying to the behavior of fathers during a shortly after birth of their children The foraging mode of reproduction Birth intervals are very long between children, two factors breast feeding and low level of body fat. Long breast feeding result in inhibiting progesterone production and suppresses ovulation. Diet consists of little fat and lots of physical exercise
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Anthropology Chapter 4 - Anthropology Chapter 4 Definitions...

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