♥Comparative Government & Politics Unit-7 National Movement and Anti-colonial Strugg

♥Comparative Government & Politics Unit-7 National Movement and Anti-colonial Strugg

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UNIT 7 PATTERNS OF ANTI-COLONIAL STRUGGLES Structure 0 bjectives Introduction Anti-Colonialism Esplained 7.2.1 Colonialis~n 7.2.2 Colonies' Desire for Liberatior1 Patterns of Anti-Colonial Struggles 7.3.1 Natiotial It~depetidence Movements 7.3.2 National Liberation Movements Methods of Anti-Colonial Struggles 7.4.1 Peaceful Non-Violent Struggles 7.4.2 Armed Struggles Three Stages of Anti-Colonial Struggles 7.5.1 Proto-Ntltiotialism 7.5.2 The Rise OF New Leadership 7.5.3 Mass Move~ncnt Success of Anti-Colonial Struggles Let Us Sum Up Key Words Some Usefbl Books Answers to Check Your Progress Exercises 7.0 OBJECTIVES Decolonisation is the most significant development of post-Second World War period. It took place as a result of end of colonial rule in large number of erstwhile colonies, preceded by anti-colonial struggles in these colonies. This unit deals with various patterns of these struggles. After going through this unit you will be able to: recall the urge of the oppressed peoples for freedom; identify the patterns of anti-colonial struggles; explain the means adoptcd in diffcrcnt colonics in thcir strusles: and trace thc thrcc stages in the process of anti-colonial struggles. 7.1 INTRODUCTION When the United Nations was set up in 1945, it had only 51 (original) members. Of these, India was not then a sovereign state. It was under British rule. Besides, 1 two members viz. Ukraine and Bylo-Russia were Union Republics of the erstwhile Soviet Union. Today, at the dawn of 21st century there are 189 sovereign countries who are members of the United Nations. Most (not all) of i them were colonies of one Imperial Power or the other in 1945. The process of termination of foreign colonial rule began with the independence of the Philippines from the United States in 1946. But, it got real boost with the independence of . India and creation of tde r'ominions of India and Pakistan by Britain in August 1947. This was followed, in quick succession, by the independgnce of a large nu~ber of colonies in Asia and Africa carlier ruled by Britain, France, the Netherlands, Belgium. Spain and Portugal. Most of thc Colonial Po\vers were forced LO grant indcpcndmcc to thcir colonies by the anti-colonial struggles carried out in the colonies.
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Nutio~~nl Movement and All the colonies did not follow any uniform pattern in their struggle against their Anti-Colonlal Struggles rulers. While some of the erstwhile colonies had to wage prolonged struggles for their independence, there were some where such struggles were waged for a short period. In some of the colonies hardly any struggle was waged, and independence came in the wake of then ongoing decolonisation. There were two main patterns of anti-colonial struggles. In some of the colonies, the struggle was limited against their colonial masters, and not against the then existing socio- economic systems. Where struggles were merely against the rulers, and not against the system, the desire was to secure transfer of political power from the colonial masters to the peoples of the colonies. These struggles were described as
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♥Comparative Government & Politics Unit-7 National Movement and Anti-colonial Strugg

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