♥Comparative Government & Politics Unit-9 Society, Economy and State

♥Comparative Government & Politics Unit-9 Society, Economy and State

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UNIT 9 SOCIAL STRUCTURES AND STRATIFICATION Structure Objectives Introduction Meaning Perspectives on Social Structures 9.3.1 Structuralism 9.3.2 Functionalism 9.3.3 Mumian 9.3.4 Weherian 9.3.5 Webcrinn atid Mamian-Integratioti-Hnkrtnas Social Stratification 9.4.1 The Marxist Approach 9.4.2 The Weberian Approach 9.4.3 The Functionalist Approach Let Us Sum Up Some Useful Books Answers to Check Your Progress Exercises pp -- - - 9.0 OBJECTIVES This unit is intended to acquaint you with the social structures on which political institutions base their actions. However given the fact that there are different ways of looking at social structures the orientation of political action depends on the understanding of social structures. After going through this unit: we hope, you would: Understand the relation between social structures and social practices; Highlight the different approaches to the understanding of social structures; Relate the political institutions to social structures; and Outline the different perspectives on social stratification. 9.1 INTRODUCTION In common language we often ascribe the successes or failures of political action to certain social realities such as class, nation, caste, religion, gender and so on. For instance, we might say that the continued prevalence of untouchability in India has effectively limited the benefits of affirmative action reaching out to dalits; or women's political participation has been thwarted by gcnder exploitation. We, often, say that such and such a political decision or outcome has been due to the presence or absence of certain social structures. Most of us are aware that the course of public decision-making is not merely based on rule of law or franchise in a fomlal sense. Such a course also depends on the operation of social forces. Social structures are not constant. They change and reconstitute themselves. They undergo transfornlation with the activity of their members. They are subject to changes tllrough scores of ways but more specifically through political &on. In India, scholars have pointed out how the electoral process has led to the reformulation and reassertion of caste identities. Social agents or actors (members of a society) may understand their position and role in social structures diffkrently.
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Society Ecollonly alld State Resources and powers, honours and rankings of social agents widely vary in any society. Members composing any society are assigned to roles with demarcated functions. A large number of roles that social actors are called upon to play art: not of their choosing but are assigned to them. "I did not decide the caste, religion and linguistic community that I was born into." Although the stratificaitons they beget undergo change, such a change is gradual and these stratifications tend to persist over time.
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♥Comparative Government & Politics Unit-9 Society, Economy and State

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