♥Comparative Government & Politics Unit-14 Classification of Political Regimes

♥Comparative Government & Politics Unit-14 Classification of Political Regimes

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UNIT 14 DEMOCRATIC AND AUTHORITARIAN REGIMES Structure 14.0 Objectives 14.1 Introduction 14.2 Government, Political System and Political Regime 14.3 The Purpose of the Classification of Political Regimes 14.4 Evolution of Democratic Regimes 14.5 Democratic Regimes in the Developed States 14.6 Democratic Regimes and the Developing States 14.7 The Nature of Authoritarian Regimes 14.7.1 Characteristics of Authoritarian Regimes 14.7.2 Authoritarian Regimes in the post-Second World War Period 14.8 Let Us Sum Up 14.9 Some Useful Books 14.10 Answers to Check Your Progress Exercises This unit examines contemporary democratic and authoritarian forms of government, a broad classification of political systemstregimes that has been adopted since the inter-War period. After going through this unit, you should be able to: distinguish the terms government, political system and political regime; explain the evolution of democratic regimes; analyse tlie nature, forms and characteristics of modern democratic regimes; identify the features of authoritarian regimes; and analyse the forms of authoritarian regimes established in the post-Second World War period. 14.1 INTRODUCTION As we saw in the last unit, classification as well as characterisation of the various forms of political regimes began with Aristotle, the Greek philosopher of 4th century BC. In his attempts to describe tlie political regimes then in / ekistence, he coined tlie ternis 'democracy', 'oligarchy' and 'tyranny'. Comparative political theorists working in the context of modern nation states continue to use these terms to describe modern political regimes. Co~itemporary political systenis/regimes are broadly categorised as democratic or authoritarian. As we sliall see, this categorisation was a response to the events of historical significance in the 20th century-the emergence of Stalinist Russia, Fascist Italy and Spain and Nazi Germany. Before we proceed to examine the nature and evolution of modern democratic and authoritarian forms of government, it is necessary to address to a theoretical issue of critical significance. This relates to the different connotations of the terms government, political system and political regime.
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Democratic and Authoritarian 14.2 GOVERNMENT, POLITICAL SYSTEM AND Regimes POLITICAL REGIME Though the terms government, political system and political regime are used interchangeably yet there are differences. Government refers to institutional process through wliicli collective and usually binding decisions are made and implemented. The core functiotis of government are law making (legislation), law implementation (execution) and law interpretation (adjudication) which are performed by its three organs namely legislature, executive and judiciary. A political regime or political system, however, is to be analysed in a mucli broader perspective in the sense tliat they encompass not only tlie organs of tlie government and tlie political institutions of tlie state, but also tlie structures, processes and values through wliicli these interact with tlie civil society. It
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♥Comparative Government & Politics Unit-14 Classification of Political Regimes

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