♥Comparative Government & Politics Unit-17 Institutions and Forms of Government

♥Comparative Government & Politics Unit-17 Institutions and Forms of Government

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-- UNIT 17 ORGANS OF GOVERNMENT : EXECUTIVE, LEGISLATURE AND ! JUDICIARY Structure Objectives Introduction Organs of Govcrnmcnt Executive 17.3.1 Me;~tiing alid Types ol' Esccutivc 17.3.2 Co~npsitioti of Esccutivc 17.3.3 Fu~ictior~s ol' Eseculivc 17.3.4 Increasing Role of the Executive Legislature 17.4.1 Representation of People 17.4.2 Or~~~iisutiori of 1,qislature - Unicamcri~l and Bicameral 17.4.3 Functio~is 01' 1,cgislalure 17.4.4 Declitic ol' I,cgi~lt~turc J udiciq 17.5.1 Futielio~is Judlcii~n 17.5.2 Judicial Kcvicw illid Judicial Aclivisln 17.5.3 Itidcpc~ideticc Judiciilry Let Us Sum Up Some Useful Books Answers to Check Your Progress Exercises 17.0 OBJECTIVES In this unit, we will esamine the three main functions of modem governments, viz., legislation, administration and justice. After studying this unit, you should be able to: esplain the thrw principal organs of modcrn governments; describe the co~llposition and types of esccutivc; recall the organisation of a Icgislaturc: I analyze the furictions of the csecutivc. the lgislature and the judiciary; describe the dccline of Icgislaturcs and the increasing role of the executive: and explain how independence of judiciary is ensured. 17.1 INTRODUCTION Effective and efficient governance is the expectation of every civilizcd society. This role is performed by tlie government which is one of the four essential elements of the state. No state is possiblc without a government which not only provides security to tlie people. but also looks after their basic nwds and ensures their socio-economic dcvclopmcnt. Thus. \\.c call sa\. that a govcmmcnt is a set
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Institutiulls auld Forllls of of institutio~is that cscrciscs control through legal devices and imposes penaltits on Covernn~ent tliosc nlio break thc la\\: For this purpose, social acceptance of the po\\Ier of the govcrnmcnt to control pcoplc nii~st be accepted by the pcoplc voluntarily and rcco~nizcd by them. A govcnilnclit normally fi~llctions by dividing its functions bct\vccn its organs. \\it11 each organ perfomling some specific fiinctions. It primarily pcrfornis tlircc main functions i.c. making of laws. enforcing the laws. and ad.judicating dispiitcs. This unit attcnipts to csplain the thrcc main organs of a govcrnmcnt and the filnctions pcrfornicd b\. it as \\ell as tlic various provisions rclated to it. It also explains tlic rclationsliip bct\vccii various organs of a government. The organs of govcrnincnt \\bicli correspond to its tlirce functions, niclltioncd in the previous paragraph. arc: the Icgislnturc. tlic csccutive and tlic judiciaq,. 17.2 ORGANS OF GOVERNMENT As stated carlicr. thcrc are tlircv organs of a govcrnmcnt - tlie Icgislature \vliich lnakcs the laws. the csccuti\c \vIiich iniplcnicnts them. and the judiciary \\liicli 4 interprets lans and dccidcs disputes. Thc organs of the go\ernmcnt arc so 1 structured tlint tiicy call adequately pcrfonii tlic fi~~ict~ons rcquircd of than. This sl.stcm of dividing po\\crs among the thrcc organs of a govcrnmcnt IS called .'separation of po\vcrsU. Tliis political tradition is niost prc\nlent in tlic U S.
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♥Comparative Government & Politics Unit-17 Institutions and Forms of Government

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