♥Comparative Government & Politics Unit-18 Institutions and Forms of Government

♥Comparative Government & Politics Unit-18 Institutions and Forms of Government

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UNIT 18 UNITARY AND FEDEML SYSTEMS: PATTERNS AND TRENDS IN FEDERAL SYSTEMS Objectives I~itrod~ction Distinguishing Feati~res of Unitary and Federal Systems 18.2.1 Purposive Deccntralisiltio~i 18.2.2 Centr;rliuotion 18.3.3 Source ot' I'o\ver ;ind its Arrsnpc~ncnt \\.ithi11 thc Systctn Esaniyles of Fcdcral Political Arrarigcnicnts 18.3.1 The Oonccpt of 1:cdcr:ltion 18.3.2 Deccntraliscd Union 18.3.3 Candomi~iiutn 18.3.4 Other Arrangelncnts Changing Nature of Federalis111 18.4.1 Johannes Altht~sii~s on Federalisln 18.4.2 American Fedenllists and the Theor?, of Dual I;cJcn~lis~n 18.4.3 Cooperative Federalism 18.4.4 Ititerdependelit Fcdcralisni Distributioli of Powers in Fedcratio~is 18.5.1 Legislative Distributioli 18.5.2 Distribution ol' I'inclnccs Let us Slllll up sollle USC~UI BOO~S Answers to Clicck Your Progress Escrcise~ 18.0 OBJECTIVES Tlie main objective of this unit is to tell you about the basic features of unitary arid federal systems. After going through this unit, you will be able to: distinguish between unitary and federal systems: discuss different tvpes of fcdcral political arrangements; describe the distribution of powers in fcdcrations; arid cornnient on charlgilig nature of fcdcralism. 6 '18.1 INTRODUCTION Tlie present unit deals with the unitan and fcdcral typcs of political arrangements. The disti~ictiori bct\\cen the two is oftcn not clear even to specialists and so, ar~ effort has bccn made here to clearly explain the contrast bctween the bvo typcs. As you \\fill learn, the distinction between the unitary hd the federal political systeliis essentially rcsts upon the mode of distribution of powers. Then, there are variations within the two systems. More of these are given in the following pages.
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111htituti011s all11 FO~IIIS 111' <;I \C-~I I IL+I ~ 18.2 DISTINGUISHING FEATCJRES OF UNITARY AND FEDERAL SYSTEMS Thcrc is no univcrsaIl\~ accepted definition of the tcrrii 'unitnn.' and 'federal'. This is bccnusc tlicrc lia\lc cmcrgcd \rarictics of political nrrnrigc~iicrits like unions. co~istitt~tionall~~ dccciitrnliscd unions. fcdcrntions. confcdcrntions. fcdcrncics. associated states. condo~iiinru~iis. Icagucs. h!,brids ctc. . \\hich sliarc or coiiibiiic tlic structural tkati~rcs of botli thcsc t\\o. Also in tlicir actual \\orkings ninn! i~nitac mid fcdcral s!.staiis hnvc dc\clopcd or dclibcratcl! included tlic fcnturcs of each ot lie r. 18.2.1 Purposive Decentralisation One tinds 'Purposi\,c Dcccntralisntion' - a process through \\.liich the cciitrnl or the national go\/crnmait trn~isfcrs its authorit! to the locnl/provincinl govcrn~iic~its in a gi\,cii jurisdictio~i - \vitliin an othcnvisc unitan. s!.stc~ii such as tlic U.K. niid Frnncc. Dccc~itrnlisatio~i mn\r be cffcctcd cithcr through for~ual constitutional nmcndmcnts. scckiiig foniinl and irrcvcrsiblc devolution of po\\,crs or through iiicrc csccuti\:c orders pro\,iding for tcmpornn dclcgntioii of cc~itral autliorit!.
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This note was uploaded on 03/13/2012 for the course IR 101 taught by Professor Harfancoofers during the Spring '12 term at Sunway University College.

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&acirc;™&yen;Comparative Government &amp; Politics Unit-18 Institutions and Forms of Government

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