♥Comparative Government & Politics Unit-20 Patterns of Political Participation and R

♥Comparative Government & Politics Unit-20 Patterns of Political Participation and R

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UNIT 20 PARTY SYSTEMS Structure 20.0 Objectives 20.1 Introduction 20.2 Origin of Party Systems 20.2.1 The Human Nature Theory 20.2.2 The Environmental Explanation 20.2.3 interest Theory 20.3 Meaning and Nature 20.4 Functions of Political Parties 20.5 Principal Types of Party Systems 20.5.1 One Party Systems 20.5.2 Two Party Systems 20.5.3 Multi-Party Systems 20.5.4 Two Party vs. Multi-Party Systems 20.6 A Critique of the Party System 20.7 Whether Party-less Democracy is Possible? 20.8 Let Us Sum Up 20.9 Key Words 20.10 Some Useful Books 20.1 1 Answers to Check Your I'rogress Exercises 20.0 OBJECTIVES After going through this unit, you should be able to: recall the origin of party system; explain the meaning and nature of political parties; describe the functions of political parties; list out various types of party system; evaluate the merits and demerits of various kinds of party systtems; and explain the drawbacks as well as indispensability of party system in a democracy. 20.1 INTRODUCTION The role of party system in the operation of democratic polity is now generally well recognized by Political Scientists and politicians alike. Democracy, as Finer observes, "rests, in its hopes and doubts, upon the party system." In fact, as democracy postulates free organization of opposing opinions or 'hospitality to a plurality of ideas' and political parties act as a major political vehicle of opinions and ideas, party system is the sine qua non of democracy. Witliout party, the electorate would be highly diffused and atomized, and opinions too variant and dispersed. The existence of party-system is, therefore, necessary to bring public opinion to focus and frame issues for tlie popular verdict. It is, therefore, very useful and interesting for students of Comparative Politics to understand the origin, meaning, various kinds and merits and demerits of the party system.
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Patterns of Polilical Participation and 20.2 ORIGIN OF THE PARTY SYSTEMS Representation Political Scientists have offered several explanations for the origin of the party system. These explailations can be broadly clubbed under three categories as discussed below: 20.2.1 The Human Nature Theory Under this category, three kinds of explanations have been put forward for explaining the origin of the party system. Firstly scholars like Sir Henry Main argue that what causes parties to rise is the characteristic tendency of human nature towards combativeness. In other words, human beings form parties to give organized espression to their combative instinct. The second category of explanation under the human natilre theory identifies the Iiuman temperament as tlie cause of tlie eniergence of political parties. To put it differently, tlie diverse temperaments of individuals lead them to form different parties. For instance, while persons having liking for tlie established order join right of the political divide, others opposing the existing order join left of the political spectrum. In other words, those who do not support change in existing
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This note was uploaded on 03/13/2012 for the course IR 101 taught by Professor Harfancoofers during the Spring '12 term at Sunway University College.

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♥Comparative Government & Politics Unit-20 Patterns of Political Participation and R

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