♥Comparative Government & Politics Unit-22 Patterns of Political Participation and R

â™&yen - UNIT 22 ELECTORAL PROCESS S t r u c t u r e 22.0 Objectives 22.1 lritroductio~i 22.2 Majoritaria11 Methods 22.2.1

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Unformatted text preview: UNIT 22 ELECTORAL PROCESS S t r u c t u r e 22.0 Objectives 22.1 lritroductio~i 22.2 Majoritaria11 Methods 22.2.1 First-Past-The-Post System (Simple Majority System) 22.2.2 Second Ballot System 22.2.3 Other Methods 22.2.4 Shortcomings of Majoritarian Systems 22.3 Proportional Representation 22.3.1 Single Transferable Vote System 22.3.2 List System 22.3.3 Semiproportional Method 22.3.4 Slate System 22.3.5 Culnulativc Vote System 22.4 Electoral Process and Parties 22.5.1 I'arty Unity and Cohcsion 22.5 Let U s Suln U p 22.6 K e y Words 22.7 Some Useful Books 22.8 Answers to Check Your Progress Exercises 22.0 OBJECTIVES I n this unit you w i l l learn about comparative electoral processes and various metliods o f electoral representation. A f t e r reading this uriit you w i l l be able to: explaili tlie meaning o f electoral process; recall various methods o f electoral representation; compare various systems o f election; describe the majoritarin plurality system; analyse tlie metliods o f proportional representation; arid describe the relation o f parties and electoral process. -- 22.1 INTRODUCTION Election is the process b y which people choose, b y voting, representatives t o act o n their behalf, to represent them, i n a legislative body. It may be Parliament or even a local body. This process o f choice b y electio~is is n o w almost inseparable from representative democracy. I n the twentieth century, most states granted the right t o vote to all adult resident citizens. Over time, tlie suffrage has been extended from estates t o individuals. I n the twentieth century large categories fornierly excluded o n grounds o f race. sex and property qilalifications were enfranchised. The change lias also led to equality o r 'one mall one vote one value' Elections have several functions. These include designating, direcity or indirectly, the government; providing feedback between voters and government; demonstrating public support for or repudiation o f a regime: providing a means for the recruitment o f political leaders; and making the government answerable to the electorate. Functions may differ in states that liave elections without choice, where a party's hegemonic or monopolistic position makes the outcome a foregone conclusion. I n some countries like Belgium, Italy, Denmark and The Netherlands it is not the ! election but the inter-party bargaining following the electio~i which determines the composition o f government. But it is only where the party system provides a choice between alternative potential niajorities tliat the voters do liave s~rcli a I greater direct choice. Tlie nature o f electoral choice in eacli country i s shaped by tliree sets o f factors....
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This note was uploaded on 03/13/2012 for the course IR 101 taught by Professor Harfancoofers during the Spring '12 term at Sunway University College.

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â™&yen - UNIT 22 ELECTORAL PROCESS S t r u c t u r e 22.0 Objectives 22.1 lritroductio~i 22.2 Majoritaria11 Methods 22.2.1

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