♥Comparative Government & Politics Unit-27 Social Movements

♥Comparative Government & Politics Unit-27 Social Movements

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UNIT 27 HUMAN RIGHTS MOVEMENTS Structure 27.0 Objectives 27.1 Introductio~i 27.2 Meaning of Human Rights 27.2.1 Difference between Democratic Rights and Human Rights 27.3 Historical Background of Human Rights Movement 27.3.1 Dellland Sor l-luman Rights after World War 11 27.4 UN Declaration of Human Rights 27.5 Human Rights Movement 27.6 United Nations and Human Riglits 27.7 Regional Conventio~is and Covenants 27.7.1 European Convention 27.7.2 Latin America 27.7.3 Africa 27.7.4 South East Asia 27.7.5 Middlc IZnbt 27.8 NGOs and Hunian Rights Movement 27.9 Human Rights Movement in India 27.10 tiurnan Riglits Movement: An Assess~nent 27.1 1 Let Us Sum Up 27.12 Key Words 27.13 Sollie Usefill Books 27.14 Answers to Check Your Progress Exercises 27.0 OBJECTIVES In tlie colitext of social movements, this unit deals with tlie meaning, nature, cliaracteristics and justification of Iii~man rights movement in the twentieth century with special reference to UN Declaration of Human Riglits. After studying this unit, you should be able to: understand the concept of human riglits; differentiate between tlie democratic riglits and the human riglits: ideas behind tlie UN Declaration of Human Rights and various other Covenants on Iiu~iia~i rights; why there is a need for Iii~man rights over and above tlie rights enshrined in the constitutions of die states; develop~nent of Iii~nian riglits as a worldwide movement: and various regional, national, local and non-governmental organisations involved in tlie protection and promotion of liu~na~i riglits. 27.1 INTRODUCTION To emphasise the importance of riglits, adjectives like 'natural', 'fundamental', 'human' have been used in the long history of their development. Twentieth century has been described as tlie centiiry of human rights because the concept of 'I-luman Rights' becatile increasingly important in liberal democratic and socialist
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countries as also in tlie uriderdeveloped world. After two world wars, tliere started various types of movernents for liuman rights, particularly after Nazi and Fascist repressions and curbs on freedoms. Today virtually all states subscribe ofticially to some doctrine of human rights; in every case, tliere is a general political tlieory justifying tlie kind of society and the political institutions. The UN Declaratio~i of Human Riglits and the subseque~it cove~ia~its on lii~nia~i rights (1966) recognised tliat individuals liave rights and obligatio~is over and above those set dow~i in tlieir ow11 judicial and ad~iii~iistrative system. l'he Declaratio~i accepted tlie fact tliat tliere are clear occasio~is when an i~ldividual lias a moral obligation beyond tliat of liis obligatio~is as a citizen of a state, i.e., opening up a gap between tlie riglits and duties bestowed by citizenship and tile creation in inter~iatio~ial law of a new form of liberties and obligations. To understarid these we discuss below tlie meaning and nature of human riglits and various movements for pro~iiotio~i and protection of tliese.
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This note was uploaded on 03/13/2012 for the course IR 101 taught by Professor Harfancoofers during the Spring '12 term at Sunway University College.

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♥Comparative Government & Politics Unit-27 Social Movements

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