♥Political Ideas and Ideologies Unit-8 Political Traditions

♥Political Ideas and Ideologies Unit-8 Political Traditions

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36 Political Traditions UNIT 8 ARABIC-ISLAMIC POLITICAL TRADITIONS Structure 8.0 Objectives 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Development of Islamic Polity 8.2.1 Historical Background 8.3 Institution of Khilafat 8.3.1 Qualifications of the Caliph 8.4 Mens’ Authority 8.4.1 Procedure for the Election of the Caliph 8.4.2 One Caliph at a Time 8.4.3 Obedience to the Caliph 8.5 Let Us Sum Up 8.6 Some Useful References 8.7 Answers to Check Your Progress Exercises 8.0 OBJECTIVES This Unit introduces you to the concept of Islamic polity. Having gone through this unit, you would be in a position to understand and explain the following: Nature of Islamic polity; Development of Islamic polity; Causes of its failure; and Rise of mulukiyat. 8.1 INTRODUCTION In this unit, we shall be concerned with the questions as to: a) How the Islamic polity came into existence? b) What were the circumstances, which led to its acceptance and popularity? 8.2 DEVELOPMENT OF ISLAMIC POLITY Planning of polity is essential for the state. After the formation of the Islamic state at Madina in 622 A.D., its evaluation had started. It is based on the Quranic verse – “Obey God, and obey the Prophet and those authority among you”. 8.2.1 Historical Background You may be aware, for instance, that there was a tribal polity in pre - Islamic Arabia. In the pre-Islamic polity, the Shaikh or the Saiyid was its head elected by the heads of the different clans. In 622 A.D., with the formation of the Islamic State at Madina, the Islamic polity came into practice. In the Islamic polity, there is a only a thin demarcation between religion and polity. They are so closely linked that it is very difficult to separate the two. However, religion always dominated. In Islam, both these powers were given to Prophet Mohammad. He was declared the head of the
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37 The Confucian Tradition state as well as the leader of the religion. According to the Quran, its rules and regulations had to be followed by the ruler and the ruled. There were no privileges for the ruler. 8.3 INSTITUTION OF KHILAFAT After the death of Prophet Mohammad in 632 A.D., Khilafat came into existence. Khilafat literally means succession to any predecessor individual or group (qaum) or for that matter, to the previous ruler in the general sense as used in the Quran for several prophets. Technically, Khilafat has assumed the connotation of an Islamic institution of governance based on the Quran and the Sunnah , which originated after the death of Prophet Muhammad to serve the objectives of looking after the affairs of the people (ummah) and for establishing the commandments of the Shariat. On the basis of the two injunctions of Shura (council) and the Ijma (consensus), Muslims had elected Abu Bakr as the first Caliph of Prophet Muhammad after his death in 632 A.D. After Abu Bakr’s death in 634 A.D., Umar was chosen as the Caliph. After Umar’s
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This note was uploaded on 03/13/2012 for the course IR 101 taught by Professor Harfancoofers during the Spring '12 term at Sunway University College.

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♥Political Ideas and Ideologies Unit-8 Political Traditions

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