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Unformatted text preview: 54 Political Traditions UNIT 10 WESTERN: LIBERAL AND MARXIST TRADITIONS Structure 10.0 Objectives 10.1 Introduction 10.2 The Characteristics of the Liberal – Marxist Traditions 10.3 The Liberal Tradition Versus the Marxist Tradition 10.4 Versions of the Liberal Tradition 10.4.1 Classical Liberalism 10.4.2 New Liberalism 10.4.3 Libertarianism 10.4.4 Equalitarian Liberalism 10.4.5 Other Liberal Versions 10.4.5.1 Country Specific Liberal Traditions 10.4.5.2 Liberalism in the U.S.A. 10.4.5.3 Liberal Tradition in Continental Europe 10.4.5.4 Liberal Tradition in India 10.4.5.5 Liberal in Conjunction 10.5 Versions of the Marxist Tradition 10.5.1 Marxism 10.5.2 Leninism 10.5.3 Maoism 10.5.4 Other Marxist Versions 10.5.4.1 Western Marxism 10.5.4.2 Latin American Marxism 10.5.4.3 Indian Marxism 10.6 Let Us Sum Up 10.7 Some Useful References 10.8 Answers to Check Four Progress Exercises 10.0 OBJECTIVES This unit deals with the Liberal – Marxist tradition which taken together and spread across the world represented proposing and defending a set of principles, public institutions and practices which were markedly different from other political traditions. Taken apart, they represented the most significant ideological cleavage in the world in the past two centuries. After going through the unit, you will: • Know the characteristics of the Liberal – Marxist traditions as a whole; • Be able to demarcate the liberal tradition from the Marxist tradition; • Be able to identify the significantly different expressions of the Liberal tradition; • Be able to identify the significantly different expressions of the Marxist tradition; and • Be able to suggest the impact that these traditions left on political theory and practice. 10.1 INTRODUCTION A tradition is a broadly shared body of ideas, beliefs and practices handed down and believed to be enjoying continuity across generations. A tradition is something accepted 55 The Confucian Tradition and is common place relative to ideology, which involves partisanship and advocacy. An ideology, however, by finding a wider acceptance could become a tradition and sometimes by singling out certain elements of a tradition for advocacy and ignoring the rest, a tradition could become an ideology. Often we find the liberal political being pitted against the Marxist political tradition. Mainstream expressions of these traditions in many respects are significantly different from each other so as to justify such a stance. However, in relation to other political traditions, there are many issues and concerns which are shared between these two traditions so as to make them look alike vis-a-vis the former. It provides a justification to consider the Liberal-Marxist tradition together. Even with respect to themselves there is a vast space – philosophical, epistemological and even substantial stipulations – shared between them....
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This note was uploaded on 03/13/2012 for the course IR 101 taught by Professor Harfancoofers during the Spring '12 term at Sunway University College.
- Spring '12
- Democracy in America