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Unformatted text preview: 5 Justice UNIT 17 RIGHTS AND CITIZENSHIP Structure 17.0 Objectives 17.1 Introduction 17.1.1 Origin of the Idea of Citizenship 17.1.2 Development of the Ideas on Citizenship: Four Historical Periods 17.2 Historical Developments: Citizenship from Classical to Modern Times 17.2.1 Ancient Greece 17.2.2 Ancient Rome 17.2.3 The Late Medieval and Early Modern Periods 17.2.4 Modern Notions of Citizenship: The Nineteenth and the Twentieth Century Developments 17.2.5 Significance and Limitation of the Liberal Framework 17.2.6 New Contexts and Changing Concerns: Multiculturalism 17.3 Citizenship Theory Today: Dividing Lines 17.3.1 Civic Republicanism and the Liberal Tradition 17.3.2 Dividing Lines: Individual Vs the Community 17.3.3 Dividing Lines: Duties Vs Rights 17.4 Critiques and Alternatives: Marxist, Feminist and Gandhian 17.4.1 Redefining Citizenship: Marxist Critique of Liberal Citizenship 17.4.2 Feminists redefine Citizenship 17.4.3 A Gandhian Notion of Citizenship 17.5 Let Us Sum Up 17.6 Key Words 17.7 Some Useful References 17.8 Answers to Check Your Progress Exercises 17.0 OBJECTIVES In the present unit, we shall study the idea(s) of rights and citizenship in terms of (a) their historical development and (b) as a terrain where various contesting views are presented regarding their form and substance. We shall also focus on criticisms of dominant understandings of rights and citizenship and the alternative understandings provided by such criticisms. As the structure of the unit laid out in the beginning shows, each section explains a specific theme and follows it with questions to facilitate understanding. Certain keywords are explained at the end of the unit. 17.1 INTRODUCTION Citizenship is commonly understood as referring to the relationship between the individual/collective and the state. This relationship is understood as being made up of reciprocal rights and responsibilities. The most commonly accepted definition of citizenship comes from the English sociologist T.H. Marshall who describes it as ‘full and equal membership in a political community’. Citizenship, according to this definition, denotes membership in a political community, which in our present context is the nation-state. Citizenship would, thus, signify a specific aspect of the relationship among people who live together in a nation. It emphasises political allegiances and civic loyalties within the community rather than any cultural/emotional identity. 6 Rights, Equality, Liberty and Justice 17.1.1 Origin of the Idea of Citizenship The origins of the idea of citizenship are generally traced to the ancient Greek and Roman republics. The word itself is derived from the Latin word ‘civis’ and its Greek equivalent ‘polities’, which means member of the polis or city. However, the manner in which citizenship is understood today as a system of equal rights as opposed to ascriptive privileges deriving from conditions of birth, took roots in the French Revolution (1789). With the development of capitalism and liberalism, the idea of the citizen as(1789)....
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This note was uploaded on 03/13/2012 for the course IR 101 taught by Professor Harfancoofers during the Spring '12 term at Sunway University College.
- Spring '12