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Unformatted text preview: 42 Political Ideologies UNIT 27 GANDHISM (DHARMA, SWARAJ, SARVODAYA AND SATYAGRAHA) Structure 27.0 Objectives 27.1 Introduction: Gandhi’s Writings 27.2 Some Influences which Shaped Gandhi’s Political Thought 27.3 Swaraj: Inward Freedom and Outward Freedom 27.4 Independence and Parliamentary Swaraj 27.4.1 Some Features of Parliamentary Swaraj 27.5 Sarvodaya: Swaraj as Self-Realisation through Social Service 27.6 Satyagraha Versus Passive Resistance 27.6.1 Principles and Methods of Satyagraha 27.6.2 Some Evaluative Comments on Satyagraha 27.7 Let Us Sum Up 27.8 Some Useful References 27.9 Answers to Check Your Progress Exercises 27.0 OBJECTIVES In this unit, our aim is to acquire a contextual understanding of the meaning and significance of the moral-political theory of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (1869- 1948), who is rightly revered as a Mahatma . His main political ideas are swaraj, sarvodaya and satyagraha . Regarding these political ideas, let us raise the following questions, to which we shall seek answers from this unit: What does Gandhian swaraj mean? How is it a richer or better ideal than mere political independence or political freedom? How is it related to parliamentary democracy, self-control, self-realisation, etc.? What, according to Gandhi, does sarvodaya mean? What, according to him, is the connection between sarvodaya and self-realisation? How is sarvodaya different from the political theory of utilitarianism and communism? What are the distinctive principles and methods of the satyagraha way of political resistance and social transformation? How does satyagraha differ from passive resistance? 27.1 INTRODUCTION: GANDHI’S WRITINGS Gandhi’s moral-political ideas can be found in his books as well as in his articles, letters and editorials in the four weekly journals, which he edited or published at different times during his public life in South Africa and India. These weekly journals were: Indian Opinion, Young India, Harijan, and Navajivan . Gandhi’s books, some of which were first serialised in his journals, were: Hind Swaraj, Satyagraha in South Africa, The Story of My Experiments with Truth, Ashram Observances in Action, A Guide to Health, Discourses on the Gita and Constructive Programme. Gandhi also wrote and published paraphrases and/or translations (in Gujarati) of Plato’s Apology , W. Salter’s Ethical Religion, John Ruskin’s Unto this Last, Henry David Thoreau’s Principles of Civil Disobedience and Leo Tolstoy’s Letter to a Hindoo. Almost all of Gandhi’s writings, including his numerous speeches, interviews 43 Gandhism (Dharma, Swaraj, Sarvodaya and Satyagraha) and correspondence, can be found in the 100 volumes of the Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi (Publications Division, Government of India)....
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- Spring '12