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Unformatted text preview: 28 Contemporary Issues UNIT 30 DEVELOPMENT Structure 30.0 Objectives 30.1 Introduction 30.2 Modernity and Development 30.2.1 Rise of Capitalism: Genesis of Development 30.2.2 Enlightenment Tradition 30.2.3 Views of Jorge Larrain on Development 30.2.4 The Age of Competitive Capitalism 30.2.5 The Age of Imperialism 30.2.6 The Stage of Late Capitalism 30.3 Redefining Development 30.3.1 Radical Critique of Development 30.3.2 Rise of the USA and the Issue of Development 30.3.3 Emergence of the Third World and the Concept of Development 30.3.4 United Nations and Development 30.3.5 Basic Needs Approach 30.3.6 Development within the Neo-liberal Framework 30.3.7 Right to Development 30.3.8 World Development Report 1991 30.3.9 Amartya Sen on Development 30.4 Let Us Sum Up 30.5 Some Useful References 30.6 Answers to Check Your Progress Exercises 30.0 OBJECTIVES The purpose of this unit is to familiarise you with different aspects of the idea of development. Like all concepts, development has some meanings attached to it. These meanings manifest the manner in which the concept has been understood historically, as well as the dominant or prevalent ways of understanding it in a specific historical context. In this unit, we shall try to understand the idea of development as it evolved over time, and the diverse ways in which it is understood in the contemporary world. Towards the end of the unit, a brief list of readings is provided to enhance your understanding of the theme. 30.1 INTRODUCTION The idea of development is commonly understood as a process of economic growth and changes or improvements in the lives of people. If one were to ask people what, according to them was development, the most frequently mentioned elements would in all probability pertain to economic institutions and indicators of economic growth, viz., industrialisation, technological advancement, urbanisation, increase in wealth and standards of living, etc. It is quite likely that ‘westernisation’ would also recur in most responses, if not explicitly, then in all probability as a reference point for comparison. The identification of development with characteristics associated with the ‘west’ or the ‘modern’ is, however, not simply a matter of common perception. The association has roots in the history of the idea of development itself. It is this association which has contributed towards shaping the dominant understanding of the term, and has also generated contradictions, conflicts and debates around the idea in the past several 29 Secularism years. We can, therefore, begin our understanding of the concept by recognising that the idea of development took shape in a specific historical context and has evolved over time....
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- Spring '12