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Unit-31 Context of Indian State

Unit-31 Context of Indian State - UNIT 31 DEMOCRACY IN...

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UNIT 31 DEMOCRACY IN SEARCH OF EQUALITY - . . - Structure 3 1.0 Objectives 3 1.1 Introduction 3 1.2 Democracy and Equality 3 1.3 The Idea of Equality in Constitution . 31.3.1 Thepreamble 3 1.3.2 Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles 3 1.3.3 Other Provisions , 3 1.3.4 Minority Rights 3 1.4 Protective Discrimination: Policy of Reservation 3 1.5 Backward Castes' Assertion 3 1.6 Equality for Women 31.6.1 Women's Representation in Decision-Making Bodies 3 1.7 Let Us Sum Up 3 1.8 Some Useful Books 3 1.9 Answers to Check Yours Progress Exercises 31.0 OBJECTIVES Indian society is mkked by the inequalities on bases of caste, creed, sex, economy; etc. India adopted a democratic set up in order to establish society which is based on the principles of justice and equality. After going through this unit, you will be able to understand: / Relationship between democracy and equality; and Provisions in the Constitution regarding establishment of equality among various sections of Indian Society. The establishment of a democratic political order based on the principle of universal adult franchise was a major achievement for the post-colonial state in India as it ensured, at least in principle, equal participation of all individuals irrespective of caste, creed, sex and social origin in socio-economic and political life of the nation. The introduction of political democracy was conceived as a means of social and economic democracy. It aimed at inclusion of all the groups and communities in the mainstream of national life. As a corollary, the constitution of India not only created a democratic republic but also pledged to secure equality, liberty and justice to all its citizens'. The state was seen as an agent of socio-economic transformation in the democratic dispensation. In this regard a number of questions crop up which need to be addressed on the basis of 'the experiences over the I I last five decades of democratic experiment in India. Has the state in India I been able to meet the ideals of founding fathers of the Constitution? Has political democracy been congruent with the given unequal social and economic
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Context of Indian State 3 8 order? Has political democracy been instrumental in advancing and realising the ideals of social and economic demucracy? Can demucracy be contextualised simply in terms of political participation of the majority of.citizens in electoral process? Has the ideal of substantive democracy been advanced along-with the procedural democracy? These are some of the questions which invite our attention in the analysis of the problems of democracy and its functioning vis a vis the state in India. The subsequent sections attempt to analyse the dynamics of democracy in India especially in terms of its quest for establishing an order based on the principle of equality and justice.
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