unit-27 Social and Political Movements

unit-27 Social and Political Movements - 1 UNIT 27...

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1 UNIT 27 ENVIRONMENT -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Structure 27.0 Objectives 28.0 27.1 Introduction 27.2 Historical Background 27.3.1 Man - Nature Relationship 27.3.2 Emergence of Eco-politics 27.3.3 Debate on Development and Sustainability 27.3 Major Issues 27.3.1 Role of the State 27.3.2 Role of Judiciary 27.3.3 Environment versus Livelihood 27.4 Nature of Environment Movements 27.5 Two Case Studies 27.5.1 Silent Valley Movement 27.5.2 Chipko Movement 27.6 Let Us Sum Up 27.7 Key Words 27.8 Some Useful Books/Articles 27.9 Answers to Check Your Excercies 27.0 OBJECTIVES This unit deals with an important and so far quite neglected theme in political science, namely; environment movements in contemporary India. After reading this unit you should be able to: understand historical relationship between man and the nature, emergence of ecopolitics and debate on development and sustainability; 1
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learn about the major issues addressed by the environment movements in form of the role of the state, judiciary, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), people, political parties, local bodies and legislations; and, outline the sources of conflicts of interest and narrate the processes of mobilization of victims of various environmental destruction by two case studies. 27.1 INTRODUCTION Environment consists of physical, chemical and biological conditions which influence life on earth. Environment is not only a mere existence of natural elements like air, water and forests. It is essentially made up of both nature and man-made conditions. Any imbalance in environment, caused either by nature or man, has positive or negative impact on all forms of life on earth. Man’s limitless ability to alter environment has two major consequences. One of them is on himself and the other is on all non-human components of environment be they air, water, soil, forests or animals. In all societies, be they democratic or authoritarian, a decline in the quality of environment has occurred due to man’s mindless and greedy use of natural resources. A major conflict of interests has developed between those who wish to continue the plunder of nature and those who are opposed to it. A voice is being now raised for saner use of natural resources in a manner that does not destroy the environment but preserves it at the same time. Broadly speaking, all efforts in this direction of protecting environment through legislation or otherwise fall in the ambit of environment movement. It can be seen that this is a vast and complex task. Environment movement is about firstly making the victims of the plunder aware and conscientised and then lead them to preventive and protective collective actions. How this is done and with what degree of success or failure is discussed here. 27.2 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
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This note was uploaded on 03/13/2012 for the course IR 101 taught by Professor Harfancoofers during the Spring '12 term at Sunway University College.

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unit-27 Social and Political Movements - 1 UNIT 27...

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