unit-26 Social and Political Movements

unit-26 Social and Political Movements - 1 _ Unit 26...

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1 ________________________________________________________________________ Unit 26 TRIBALS ________________________________________________________________________ Structure 26.0 Objectives 26.1 Introduction 26.2 Tribal Society and Economy 26.3 Social and Political Movements in India 26.4.1 Pre - colonial period 26.4.2 Post – colonial period 26.5 Characteristics and Consequences of Tribal Movements 26.6 Let Us Sum UP 26.7 Some Useful Books 26.8 Answers to Check Your Progress Exercises ________________________________________________________________________ 26.0 OBJECTIVES ________________________________________________________________________ This unit deals with one of the social and political movements in India, i.e., the movements of the tribals. After going through unit, you will be able to understand: The meaning and main features of tribals in India; Their socio -economic conditions; Their movements in the pre-colonial and post-colonial periods; and The reasons and consequences of the tribals movements in India. ________________________________________________________________________ 26.1 INTRODUCTION ________________________________________________________________________ Tribe is a colonial concept, introduced in the 19th century, by colonial authorities and ethnographers to describe all communities of India. In the latter half of the same century, the concept of tribe was narrowed down to the primitive groups as distinct from castes. It was under the Government of India Act of 1935 and the Constitution of India that the
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2 nomenclature of the Scheduled Tribe fully emerged. The Constitution of India does not define a tribe. The notion of the Scheduled Tribe has two aspects. It is administratively determined inter alia by the criteria of backwardness and remoteness – people living in forests and on hills. They are also called adivasis – the natives. The tribals like many other social groups have launched social and political movements for the reddressal of their grievances. Most of the regions except the Southern pockets, the North –western region and the islands have witnessed several agitations of the tribals during the colonial and post – colonial periods. During the pre-colonial period tribals rose against the regional power of the Marathas or Rajputs. They resisted against the zamindars and non-tribal administrators. During the colonial period they struggled against the British rule for their autonomy. Birsa Munda revolt in Central India is best known example of this. There were also regio-political movements resisting against the non-tribal cultural authority through religious ideas _______________________________________________________________________ 26.2 TRIBAL SOCIETY AND TRIBAL ECONOMY ________________________________________________________________________ However, tribe in India today subsists on a single techno-economy of production. Most of them subsist on a combination of five modes or even more, of subsistence. The
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unit-26 Social and Political Movements - 1 _ Unit 26...

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