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Unformatted text preview: I UNIT 23 COALITION POLITICS Structure I 23.0 Objectives 23.1 Introduction 23.2 Forms of Coal itioh Politics b 23.3 Coalition Behavioy \ I 23.4 boalition Governm nt: A Comparative Study 23.5 Coalition Politics in \ ndia (1 947- 1967) b 23.6 Emergence of ~oalit+n Governments in India (1 967- 1977) 23.7 E~nergence of ~oalitihn Government at the Centre (1 977-1 979) 23.8 The Decline of Coalition Politics (1980-1989) 23.9 Coalition Governments and Coalition Politics (from 1989) 23.10 Working of the Coalition Govern~nents in India 23.1 1 Let Us Sum Up 23.12 Some Useful Books , 23.13 Answer to Check Your Progress Exercises ', -23.0 OBJECTIVES After going through this unit, you should be able to: U~lderstand the meaning of coalition; Discuss different forms of coalition politics; and / Discuss the nature and emergence of the coalition governments at the state level after 1967 assembly elections. The term coalition has been derived from the Latin word 'Coalitio' which is the verbal substantive of "Coalescere'-co together, and 'alescere'-to grow up, which means to grow or together. Coalition, thus, means an act of coalescing, or uniting into one body: a union of parties. In the specific political sense the term coalition denotes an alliance or temporary union of political forces for forming a single Government. As such coalitions are direct descendants of the exigencies of a multi-party system in a democratic regime. Coalition governments are co~nmonly contrasted with single party Governments, in which only one party forms government. A coalition is a grouping of rival political actors brbught together either through the perception of a comlnon threat, or the recognition that their goals cannot be achieved by working separately. In general terms a coalition is regarded as parliamentary or political grouping which is less permanent than a party or faction or an interest group. 23.2 FORMS OF COALITION POLITICS Constitutional framework and electoral system of a country determines the forms that coalition politics takes. 'These are three in nature: parliamentary, electoral and governmental. Party System and Elections Parliamentary coalitiori may occur in a situation when no single party erijoys an over i n India all majority. The party which is asked to forill a govern~iierit makes an atteliipt to rule as a mi~iority government, relying upon an arrangemelit with other party or parties for its survival. Tlie Ja~iata Dal government led by V.P. Singli in 1989 was such a gover~imetit. Sucli a gover~iment tilay seek support from tlie oppositio~i political parties for different items o f legislatioil or tlie government may survive merely because tlie oppositio~i niay not like to defeat tlie gover~ilile~it either to gain political advantage or not to be deprived o f their existing political base. The Congress government led by Narasimha Rao in 1991 was sucli a government in its early tenure....
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This note was uploaded on 03/13/2012 for the course IR 101 taught by Professor Harfancoofers during the Spring '12 term at Sunway University College.
- Spring '12