Unit-21 Party System and Elections in India

Unit-21 Party System and Elections in India - UNIT 21...

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UNIT 21 ELECTIONS Structure 2 1.0 Objectives 2 1.1 I~ltroduction 21.2 Election System in lndia 2 1.2.1 Who is Allowed to Vote? 2 1.2.2 Who Can Contest Election? 21.3 History of Indian Elections 2 1.4 Who Conducts Elections? 2 1.5 Election Procedure 21.6 Increasing Number of Candidates 21.7 How Does the Voting Take Place? 21.8 Voter Turnout in lndia Elections 21.9 Who Forms the Government? 21.10 Elections and Social Change 21.1 1 Let Us Sum Up 21.12 Some Useful Books 21.13 Answer to Check Your Progress Exercises 21.0 OBJECTIVES After going through this unit you will be able to understand: The significance of elections in lndia and its relationship with democracy; Election system in India; 'The factors which smootlien and hamper the election processes in India; The role of caste, class, religion, etc., in tlie elections; Tlie issues in tlie elections; and The changing social profiles and elections. 21.1 INTRODUCTION Elections are the most significant means of realising the aspirations of the people in a democracy. Tliese enable every adult citizen of the country to participate in the process of the government formation. In lndia those who have attained the age of 18 are eligible to vote and elect their representatives. This was not possible before the implementation of our Constitution. Earlier only the privileged sections of the qciety had the role in the formation of the government in our country. The grant of &ing rights to all adult citizens belonging to all social groups - castes, sects, tribes, religions and genders has enabled them to elect their representatives, and indirectly participate in the process of governance. All sections of the society have participated in the elections by contesting as the candidates or as the voters. Reservation of the seats to various legislative bodies for the SCs, STs and following the passage of the 73rd and 74th Constitutio~ial amendments for women (33%) and OBCs in the insti- tutions of local governance has further deepened tlie democracy in India. You have already read in unit 10 about the strength of the Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha.
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Party System and Elections in India 21.2 ELECTION SYSTEM IN INDIA Elections to the Lok Sabha and the Vidhan Sabha are carried out using the first-past- the-post electoral system. The country is divided into different geographical areas, known as the constituencies. Different political parties contest the election, though there is no ban on independent candidates for contesting the election. During election different political parties put up their candidates and people can cast one vote each for a candidate of their own choice, to elect their representatives. The candidate, who gets the maximum number of votes, wins the election and gets elected. So election is the means by which the people elect their representatives.
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This note was uploaded on 03/13/2012 for the course IR 101 taught by Professor Harfancoofers during the Spring '12 term at Sunway University College.

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Unit-21 Party System and Elections in India - UNIT 21...

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