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Unit-18 Federalism in India

Unit-18 Federalism in India - UNIT 18 LOCAL...

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UNIT 18 LOCAL SELF-GOVERNIVIENT INSTITUTIONS: RURAL AND URBAN Structure 18.0 Objectives 18.1 Introduction 18.2 Historical Background of Rural Self - Government in India 18.3 Panchayati Raj in Post-Independence India 18.4 The 73rd Constitutional Amendment Act, 1992 18.4.1 Panchayats (Extension to the Scheduled Areas) Act, 1996 18.5 The Panchayati Raj Institutions in the Post-73rd Amendment Era: The Case of UP 18.5.1 Gram Ptinchayat 18.5.2 Kshctra Panchayat 18.5.3 Zila Panchayat (Zila Parishad) 18.5 4 Relationships Between the PRIs and DRDAs 18 5.5 The PRls: An Assessment 18.6 Llrban Local Self-Government 18.6.1 Historical Background 18.7 The Post- 74th Constitutional Amendment (1992): Urban Local Self- ' Government Bodies 18.8 The Municipal Finance 18.8.1 Tax Revenue 18.8.2 Octroi 18.8.3 Non - Tax Revcnue 18.8 4 Grants-in-Aid' 18.8.5 Borrowings and Loans 18.9 Let Us Sum Up 18.10 Some Useful Books 18.11 Answers to Check Your Progress Exercises 18.0 OBJECTIVES The institutions of local-self governance are indication of the existelm of the grass- root level democracy. After reading this unit, you will be able to understand: The evolution of Local Self-Government (LSG) in India; The structure and working of the LSGs in rural and urban areas of India; Changes in the scope and powers of the LSG; and Relationships of the LSG with the central and state governments. 18.1 INTRODUCTION The political power in India is shared by three vertical units of governance - the central government, the state government and the local government. The local government includes the Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs) in the villages and the Mu~~icipal and Metropolitan Councils in the cities. These are known as the institutions of local ~elf-~-l~ernance (LSG). Local self-government is democracy at the grass- root level. The 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendments have widened the scope of local self-governance.
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1,ornl Srll'-(;o\cr11l11t-l1t 18.2 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND O F RURAL SELF- 111atitutio11s: WU~;II ill111 GOVERNMENT IN INDIA 1.rh;111 Tlie pancIia!-ati raj. albcit in diffcrcnt for~ns. had a considcrabl! long histon going back to the ancient period \vliai the rural con~n~~~nitics organiscd institutions to manage tlicir o\vn affairs. The villagc ai~tononl!. \\.as considcrablc in Muglial era and tliereforc the inipact of tlic Mugllal era on tl~c local conlnlunitics \\?as minimal. But tlie formal stn~cti~rc of tlic rural self- government \\'as introduced in 1882 according to Ripan's Resolution. Its nlain purposc \vas to provide tllc institutional backing of the local l~idian clitcs to the colonial administration. Contemporary local self-government in India can be dcc~ncd be to nlorc a co~itinuation of tlie system introduced under British rather than in prc-British era. Scvcral provincial Acts on local bodies \\.ere passed and they provided framc\vork for man!. otlicr provi~icial and central Icgislations. Tlic local self-govcni~iicnt in tlic rural arcas kno\\~i as tlic villagc pancha!.at. \\-as set up in tlic viI lagcs according to tlic rcconinicndat ions of tlic Ro!.al Coniniission of Dcccntralisation in 1907.
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Unit-18 Federalism in India - UNIT 18 LOCAL...

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