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Unit-16 Federalism in India

Unit-16 Federalism in India - UNIT 16 ISSUES I CONFLICT AND...

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UNIT 16 ISSUES IN CONFLICT AND COOPERATION IN INDIAN FEDERALISM I Structure 16.0 Objectives 16.1 Introduction 16.2 Federalism and Centralisation 16.2.1 Centralisation 16.2.2 Changing Environment 16.3 Role of Governor 16.3.1 Appointment of Governor 16.3.2 Discretionary Powers of Governor 16.3.3 Reservation of Bills for Consideration of President 16.4 Use of Emergency Powers 16.4.1 Emergelicy Under Article 356 16.4.2 Contlict Over President's Rule 16.5 Financial Relations 16.5.1 Tawtion Powers 16.5.2 Issue of Gralits 16.5.3 Ecoliolnic Planning 16.6 Use of Electronic Media 16.7 Demand for Autonomy and Cooperation 16.7.1 Demand for Autonomy 16.7.2 Steps Towards Cooperation 16.7.3 Sarkaria Commission 16.7.4 Inter- Stnte Coulicil 16.8 Let Us Sum Up 16.9 Key Words 16.10 Some Usehl Books 16.11 Answers to Check Your Progress Exercises 16.0 OBJECTIVES This unit deals with the areas of tension and cooperation that have emerged in India due to constitutional provisions and more so working of federal system during last more than fifty years. After studying this unit you will be able to: Understand reasons and environment leading to emergence of conflicts cooperation in union-state relations. Recongnise the areas of tensions between union and states: their nature and implications. Understand various suggestions and recommendations made for improvement or changes in the union-state relations to reduce conflicts and tensions. Appreciate the emerging trends in the working of Indian Federalism. - 16.1 INTRODUCTION You have already read in unit 14 that though Indian Federal system was described as one of "Cooperative Federalism", it was in fact a federation with a strong centre and significant unitary features. It was so structured as to establish supremacy of ,A/ the union government while providing autonomy of the states in certain fields. The scheme of Qistribution of powers in the legislative, administrative and financial fields
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under the seventh scliedule of the Constitution was so effected as to make the lxnuex in Cul~tlirt ;IIIII Cooper;~tios ill 111dio11 Union Government more powerful than the states. In addition the rcsiduaql powers Fcderulivn~ were also conferred on the Union govenunent. In the lialiie of eniergency provisions even sweeping powers were given to the centre to exercise overriding legislative and executive authority to enable it to transform the federal systeni into virtually a / unitary system. At the time of framing of tlie Constitiition (in the interest of national unity and development) centralisation of powers was considered necessary. During the working of the Constitution the central govcninicnt not only used the provisions of the Constitution enoniiousl~~ but also kept on consolidating and increasing its I powers. After some time particularly fro111 mid 1960s thcrc started emerging questions about nature of Indian federalism. We are licrc discussing all these issues in the context of their background, implications and future trends.
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