Unit-14 Federalism in India

Unit-14 Federalism in India - UNIT 14 NATURE OF INDIAN...

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UNIT 14 NATURE OF INDIAN FEDERALISM Structure 14.0 Objectives 14.1 Introduction 14.2 Nature of a Federation 14.3 Federalism in India 14.3.1 'The Structure of the hidiati Federation 14.3.2 Territories of the States 14.3.3 Structure ot' Government 14.3.4 Division of Powers 14.4 The Union-state Relations 14.4.1 The Financial Powers of the Union and the States 14.4.2 The Finance Coni~nission 14.4.3 The Plannii~g Co~nniission and National Development Council 14.5 The Union Territories 14.6 Let Us Sum Up 14.7 Some Usefbl Books 14.8 Answers to Check Your Progress Exercises 14.0 OBJECTIVES This unit deals with the nature of Indian federalism. It explains the way in which the Indian federalism is different or si~llilar to some major federations in other countries. After reading this unit, you will able to: Explain the meaning of the concept of federalism; Understand federalism in the light of polities in India; Identify the issues which are related to federalism in India; and Understand the relationships among different units of Indian federal system. - - - - 14.1 INTRODUCTION Federalism is a form of government in which the sovereign authority of political power is divided between the various units. This form of government is also called a "federation" or a "federal state" in the common parlance. These units are Centre, state and panchayats or the n~unicipalities. The centre also is called union. The component units of the union are called variously as states (in the United States of America), Cantolls (in Switzerland), Prouinee (in Canada). Republics (in the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republic). Literally, the word 'federal' means contractual. A federal union is a contractual union. A federal state is a state brought into being through a contractual union of sovereign states. The union of states by conquest cannot be called a federal union. 14.2 NATURE OF A FEDERATION A federation is basically hrnled on the basis of principles of a contract. It means that the sovereign units-union. states or local units, form a federation on the basis of mutual and voluntary agreement. This kind of voluntary union1 federation is possible
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only in a democratic framework. It also means that tlie extent of illlion is limitcd. The contracting parties never surrender their coniplete authorit~~lpower. Thusr when two or more sovereign states unite voluntarily, they retain their internal/local autonon~~. and unite only on liiatters of collunoii interest. More than a hundred years ago. therefore, James Bryce declared that 'A federal state is a political contrivance intended to reconcile national unity and power with the ~naintenaiice of state rights.' In actual practice, however, not all-federal states have been born through unio~i of sovereign states. Many of them have been products of devolution of powers by a centralized authority of a union govemiient to the lower units. Indian federation in one such example.
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This note was uploaded on 03/13/2012 for the course IR 101 taught by Professor Harfancoofers during the Spring '12 term at Sunway University College.

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Unit-14 Federalism in India - UNIT 14 NATURE OF INDIAN...

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