Abdominal viscera - Abdominal Viscera I) Scrotum A)...

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Abdominal “Viscera” I) Scrotum A) Arteries: 1) Posterior scrotal arteries – terminal branches of internal pudendal. 2) Anterior scrotal arteries – terminal branches of external pubendal branches of femoral artery. B) Veins: follow arteries C) Lymphatics: drain into the superficial inguinal lymph nodes D) Nerves: 1) Genital branch of the genitofemoral nerve (L1,2) supply the anterolateral surface of the scrotum. 2) Anterior scrotal nerves- branches of the ilioinguinal nerve (L1), supplying the anterior surface of the scrotum. 3)Posterior scrotal nerves – branches of the perineal branch of the pudendal nerve (S2-4) supplying the posterior surface of scrotum. 4) Perineal brances of the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve (S2,3) supplying the lateral surface of the scrotum. II) Testes A) Arteries: The testicular arteries arise from the abdominal aorta just inferior to the renal arteries. B) Veins: the testicular veins emerge from the testis and epididymis and join to form a venous network, the pampiniform plexus. The cooler venous bood within the pampinoform plexus absorbs heat from the arterial blood, providing a thermoregulatory system for the testis. The L testicular vein empties into the L renal vein. The R enters the IVC. C) Lymphatics: drainage is to the lumbar and pre-aortic lymph nodes. D) Nerves: The autonomic nerves of the testis arise as the testicular plexus of nerves on the testicular artery, which contains vagal parasymp fibers and sympathy visceral afferent fibers from T7. III) Hernies A) Indirect: leaves the abdominal cavity lateral to the inferior epigastric vessels and enters the deep inguinal ring. Passes through the inguinal canal. Has a hernial sac formed by the persistent processesus vaginalis. Exits the superficial inguinal ring and commonly enters the scrotum. B) Direct: Leaves the abdominal cavity medial to the inferior epigastric artery, protruding through an area of relative weakness in the posterior wall of the inguinal canal. Has a hernial sac formed by tranversalis fascia. Does not traverse the entire inguinal canal. Emerges through or around the conjoint tendon to reach the superficial inguinal ring, gaining an outer covering of external spermatic fascia, inside or parallel to that on the cord itself. Lies outside the processes vaginalis, which is usually obliterated. Almost never enters the scrotum. IV) Mesentary: a double layer of peritoneum reflecting away from the abdominal wall to enclose part or all of one of the viscera. A mesentery constitutes a continuity of the visceral and parietal peritoneum that provides a means for neurovascular communication between the organ and the body wall.
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V) Oemntum: a broad, double layered sheet of peritoneum passing from the stomach to another abdominal organ. The greater omentum (gastrocolic ligament) hangs down from the greater curvature and proximal part of duod. After descending, it folds back and attaches to the anterior surface of the transverse colon. The lesser omentum
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This note was uploaded on 03/14/2012 for the course TEHRN 122 taught by Professor Siamaksarabi during the Spring '12 term at Adams State University.

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Abdominal viscera - Abdominal Viscera I) Scrotum A)...

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