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5Social Stratification

5Social Stratification - Sociology 201 Social...

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Unformatted text preview: Sociology 201 Social Stratification Reactions to Social Class . According to Nancy Davis of DePauw University. three basic emotional reactions to social class include resistance. paralysis and even rage. - This may not be surprising given the distribution of income and wealth in Canada as well as the existence of child poverty. Income and Wealth . Income refers to the economic gain attained by wages, salaries and income transfers from the government. . By contrast, wealth refers to accumulated assets of goods such as buildings, land, farms. houses, factories etc. . A person’s net worth is the difference between all debts and assets. Income Inequality Average Income $106,083 ' ~ — I Top 2095 of Canadian : Familles $64 354 — — - Second Highest 20% $482" —_- ' Middlezms __ - ' Second Lowest 20% $35,159 | $19,344 . Wealth Inequality . The richest 10% of 1 Canadian families control 45% of the wealth in society. - The bottom half controls 10% of all wealth. The Rising Income Gap ,"m i H .. i: | Child Poverty Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) ranks Canada 17‘" out of 23 rich nations in regards to child poverty. There are roughly 1 million chlldren livlng in poverty. Approximately 1/2 of all First Nations chlldmn and 1/6 of all other children are consmred mlativeiy impoverished. Poverty Christopher Sarto, an economist at Nipissing University says that true poverty is ”stomach stretching poverty“. He argues that we confuse poverty with lacking accea to middle-class amenities. The truly impoverished do not have things such as coffee. ketchup. jam, televisions or DVD players. He believes that we exaggerate the level of poverty in Canada. Poverty 11 Whatis ertyinawealthysoci suchas Canada Does it mean being 1 orie away from starvation? Absolute poverty refers to an inability to attain the basic necessities of life. - Basic Needs Measure. Relative poverty refers to an inability to secure an average standard of living. They are considered deprived relative to others. - LICO. Poverty III 0 The consequences of relative poverty include: — Delayed vocabulary development. - Poor health and hygiene. - Poor nutrition. - Absenteeism and low scholastic achievement - Behavioural and mental problems (crime! deviance). - Low housing standards. - Greater likelihood of being poor in adulthood. Poverty IV . lndividualsor rou s? Whoare the r in Canada? 9 p poo - Family structure. - Persons with disabilities. . In 2003. 74% of single-parent females under age 25 were considered poorl Social Stratification - Social stratification. - Open and closed. . Meritocracy. - Status. -Ascrlbed and achieved. Explanations for Inequality . Structural Functionalism. - Davis and Moore. . Conflict Approaches. - Karl Marx. - Erik Ohlin Wright. - Max Weber. . Feminisms. - Symbolic lnteractionism. Structural Functionalism — Davis and Moore 1. Society is held together by consensus; not based upon conflict. 2. Inequality is functional for society. 3. Eliminating inequality would be harmful. 4. Inequality will continue because it is functional and necessary. They believe we live in a meritocracy. Conflict Theory - Karl Marx . There are usually two groups found in society: 'haves' and 'have- nots". - The social relationships to the means of production refer to people's position in society (i.e. proletariat or bourgeoisie in capitalist societies). Conflict Theory - Karl Marx II . Surplus value is that amount appropriated by the bourgeoisie. . The proletariat is exploited and experiences alienation. . The "law of accumulation” suggests that as the bourgeoisie obtains more wealth, the proletariat will eventually have no money to purchase products - the system collapses. Conflict Theory - Karl Marx III Bourgeoisie if". Conflict Theory - Erik Ohlin Wright . There are more than two classes in contemporary capitalist societies based upon: - Control of the means of production. - Purchase of the labour of others. — Control of the labour of others. - Sale of one's labour. Conflict Theory — Erik Ohlin Wright II Capitalist class 1 1 .—Q 1 1 X Managerial class 1 i 1 t 1 u ’ I1 1 1 1 Small-business class 1 1 Working class Conflict Theory - Max Weber 1. One factor cannot explain social stratification. 2. We should take a multidimensional approach to social stratification including class, status and party. 3. Society will be increasingly controlled by bureaucrats. 4. Inequality will continue. Feminisms . Liberal feminism. o Radical feminism. . Socialist feminism. - Dual systems theory. . Postmodern feminism. Symbolic Interactionism . Focus on micro-level concerns. . How do people experience being impoverished? - Goffman and deference. Conclusion . Relative to other OECD nations, Canada's level of equality is somewhere in the middle. . There are many people regarded as impoverished. - Poverty is more likely for certain groups of people. ...
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