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lecture 7 - Philosophy262 Intelligence An argument for...

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Philosophy 262 Searle’s Critique of Artificial  Intelligence
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An argument for artificial intelligence (i) It's possible (in principle) to construct a machine that can pass the Turing Test. (ii) The ability to pass the Turing Test is sufficient for the ability to use and understand language. (iii) The ability to use and understand language is sufficient for being a thinking intelligent being. Therefore, it’s possible (in principle) to construct a machine that is a thinking intelligent being.
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Objections to Premise (i) We could distinguish machine from human because : (a) Machines cannot produce (credible) art. (b) Machines cannot edit their own productions. (c) Machines do not have self-awareness (they do not know what they’re doing) (d) Computers arrive at their conclusions by using algorithms. (e) Machines cannot truly create, but merely imitate the works of others.
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George Orwell, Politics and the English Language (1946) When one watches some tired hack on the platform mechanically repeating the familiar phrases: BESTIAL ATROCITIES, IRON HEEL, BLOODSTAINED TYRANNY, FREE PEOPLES OF THE WORLD, STAND SHOULDER TO SHOULDER, one often has a curious feeling that one is not watching a live human being but some kind of dummy: a feeling which suddenly becomes stronger at moments when the light catches the speaker's spectacles and turns them into blank discs which seem to have no eyes behind them. And this is not altogether fanciful. A speaker who uses that kind of phraseology has gone some distance towards turning himself into a machine. The appropriate noises are coming out of his larynx, but his brain is not involved as it would be if he were choosing his words for himself. If the speech he is making is one that he is accustomed to make over and over again, he may be almost unconscious of what he is saying, as one is when one utters the responses in church. And this reduced state of consciousness, if not indispensable, is at any rate favorable to political conformity.
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Human responses determined by: (a)
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