Han_Ciu-cheol_Ethnic_Composition_of_Parhae_s_Popn - A New...

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A New History of Parhae Kogury ! Research Foundation, Translated by John B. Duncan Global Oriental Press, 2011 Draft: Not for Citation 2. The Ethnic Composition of Parhae’s Population Han Ciu-cheol (Ky ! ngs ! ng University) What kind of people were the residents of Parhae (Ch. Bohai; 698-926)? Were they the people of old Kogury ! (1 st century BCE-668 CE), or were they Malgal (Ch. Mohe), a people without any connection to Kogury ! ? The generally accepted view has been that Parhae’s ruling class was made up of Kogury ! descendents while the lower classes were Malgal. If, however, the vast majority of the population were Malgal who had nothing to do with Kogury ! , then it would be only right to say that Parhae was a Malgal kingdom. It would be hardly appropriate to contend that Parhae was a kingdom of Kogury ! people if they only constituted a minority ruling class. Simply put, the people of Parhae were the old people of Kogury ! who continued to reside in the area during the 30 years between the fall of Kogury ! and the founding of Parhae. There were some people known as Malgal residing in the area, but the Malgal were not a distinct ethnic group but rather Kogury ! subjects who lived in border regions to which Malgal was applied as a pejorative name. When we talk about the ethnic composition of Parhae, it is important to consider whom the people of Parhae thought to be their forebears. The issue is whether the people of Parhae thought of themselves as descendents of Kogury ! or as descents of the Malgal. It is, of course, unlikely that the people of that time had the same kind of consciousness of state or nation was we have today, but there seems to be no reason to doubt that the dynasty itself had some sense of succession from an earlier entity or entities. The key issue to understanding the ethnic composition of Parhae is to shed light on the Malgal. The conventional view among scholars of Korean history, as is reflected in middle- and high-school history textbooks, is that the ruling class of Parhae were persons of Kogury ! origins and that those over whom they ruled were the Malgal, a people whose ethnic origins were different from Kogury ! . Of course, Chinese and Russian scholars argue that the entire population was Malgal and they reject the idea that ruling class was from Kogury ! . But even if we attach some significance to the idea that the ruling class was composed of old Kogury ! people, if the vast majority of the population were Malgal, then we would have to say that the history of Parhae was Malgal or Manchurian history. The reality, however, is that both the ruling class and the general population of Parhae were old Kogury ! people. That the ruling class of Parhae was made up of Kogury ! elements was revealed as early as 1955 by the Japanese scholar Shiratori Kurakichi. Shiratori based his argument on Parhae diplomatic documents contained in the Shoku Nihongi (Chronicles of Japan, continued, from 697-791) which contain such statements as “Parhae has recovered the old lands
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This note was uploaded on 03/14/2012 for the course K K50 taught by Professor Kim during the Winter '12 term at UCLA.

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Han_Ciu-cheol_Ethnic_Composition_of_Parhae_s_Popn - A New...

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