LS5DNARNAstructure

LS5DNARNAstructure - DNA and RNA Structures 1. Nucleosides,...

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1. Nucleosides, nucleotides, and polynucleotide DNA and RNA Structures 2. DNA double helix 3. Other structural properties of DNA DNA Denature and renature DNA sequence and sequence homology DNA supercoil 5’-3’ polarity Anti-parallel nature of the double strand Complementary nature of the double strand 4. RNA structure tRNA, rRNA, mRNA, hnRNA, miRNA, etc
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Nucleotide Structure Nucleotide Structure The sugar in all The sugar in all nucleotides is a 5 nucleotides is a 5 carbon (pentose) carbon (pentose) sugar. sugar. DNA and RNA each DNA and RNA each contain 4 kinds of contain 4 kinds of bases. bases. Without a phosphate Without a phosphate this would be a this would be a nucleo nucleo side side . .
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Ribose and Deoxyribose Ribose and Deoxyribose The sugar in RNA is ribose. The sugar in RNA is ribose. The sugar in DNA is deoxyribose. The sugar in DNA is deoxyribose. In both DNA and RNA the base is attached to In both DNA and RNA the base is attached to the 1’ carbon. the 1’ carbon. Fig. 2-14
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The Bases in The Bases in DNA and RNA DNA and RNA DNA contains the four DNA contains the four RNA contains the four RNA contains the four In nucleotides the In nucleotides the Nitrogen atom shown Nitrogen atom shown in in RED RED is bonded to is bonded to the 1’ carbon of ribose the 1’ carbon of ribose (in RNA) and to the 1’ (in RNA) and to the 1’ carbon of deoxyribose carbon of deoxyribose (in DNA) (in DNA) PURINES PYRIMIDINES Adenine (A) Uracil (U) Guanine (G) Thymine (T) Cytosine (C)
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Structure of ATP Phosphoanhydride bonds
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Formation of the phosphodiester bond by a condensation reaction, in which one H 2 O is removed C A H H H 2 O enzyme
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A DNA A DNA /RNA /RNA strand is a linear strand is a linear polymer of polymer of mononucleotides mononucleotides joined by joined by phosphodiester phosphodiester bonds between the 3’ carbon bonds between the 3’ carbon of one nucleotide and the 5’ of one nucleotide and the 5’ carbon of the next carbon of the next nucleotide. nucleotide. The bases are all joined to The bases are all joined to the 1’ carbons . the 1’ carbons . DNA/RNA’s polarity: 5’ to 3’ Polarity of a Polarity of a DNA DNA /RNA /RNA Strand Strand
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1. Precipitated in ethanol, soluble in water 2. Negatively charged, stable in alkaline (high pH) or acid (low pH) 3. DNase (deoxyribonuclease) degrade DNA by hydrolysis of phosphodiester bonds. 4. DNA absorb UV light (260 nm) dsDNA (double strand) absorb less at 260 nm than ssDNA (single strand) 1 A 260 = 50 microgram/ml dsDNA, So, a DNA solution that absorbs 0.5 unit of 260 nm UV light (A 260 = 0.5) should contain 25 microgram/ml dsDNA 1 A 260 = 33 microgram/ml ssDNA
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This note was uploaded on 03/14/2012 for the course LS 3 taught by Professor Lin during the Fall '06 term at UCLA.

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LS5DNARNAstructure - DNA and RNA Structures 1. Nucleosides,...

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