anp - Title: Experiment 8- Renal Physiology Objective: To...

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Title: Experiment 8- Renal Physiology Objective: To study the renal physiology with different treatments of subjects on the volume of urine samples, pH value, specific gravity measurement, temperature and sodium concentration. : To investigate the responses of kidney to various solutions. Introduction: The urinary system consists of kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder and urethra. The water and electrolyte homeostasis is one of the roles of urinary system. Urinary system plays a role in excretion of toxic metabolic waste products which are nitrogenous based compounds such as urea and cretinine. Formation of urine in kidneys is conducted by the ureters to the bladder which is stored temporarily to be voided via the urethra. The functional units are the nephrons which consist of about one million in each human kidney. Each nephron is made up of two major components that are the renal corpuscle and the renal tubule. Nephrons perform the function of osmoregulation and excretion through filtration from blood plasma to form a filtrate, selectively reabsorption fro, filtrate and secretion from blood into the filtrate. The kidney involves in homeostatic meachanism which is mediated via hormones. The rennin-angiotensin-aldosterone mechanism contributes to the maintenance of blood pressure and the hormone ertthropoietin which stimulate the erythrocyte formation in bone marrow which maintain the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood. In short, the functions of kidneys include the regulation of blood ionic composition, blood pH, blood volume, blood pressure and blood glucose level, maintenance of blood osmolarity, production of hormone calcitriol and the excretion of waste as well as foreign substances. Materials: 1. Water 2. 300mOsm NaCl solution( isosmotic to ECF) 3. 3% 350mM NAHCO 3 4. 20% potassium chromate solution 5. 2.9% silver nitrate solution 6. Hydrometer (urinometer)
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7. pH meter 8. Thermometer Methods: 1. Four subjects were advised trying not to take unusual amount of caffeine or alcohol in the few hours before lab and try to have a glass of drinks one or two hours before lab. 2. Four subjects with normal kidney function required for the experiment, with each drinks pure water or a solution or as control. The four treatments are: a) Subject 1: drink 700ml of water b) Subject 2: drink 350ml of 300mOsm NaCl solution (isosmotic to ECF) c) Subject 3: drink 350ml of 3% NaHCO 3 d) Subject 4: drink 350ml of water 3. Urine samples were collected every 30 minutes. 4. Each subject had emptied their bladder. The urine is not collected. 5. After 30 minutes, the bladder had emptied again. Urine sample was collected which serve as a pre-treatment control. 6. Subject 1-4, should drink the fluid appropriate to their treatments as quickly as possible. 7.
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This note was uploaded on 03/15/2012 for the course ECON 101 taught by Professor X during the Spring '12 term at University of Tunku Abdul Rahman.

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anp - Title: Experiment 8- Renal Physiology Objective: To...

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